Ulrich Kentsch

Head Implanter
Phone: +49 351 260 3345

Publications - Ion implantation and modification of materials

Here you are finding current publications that have emerged from user experiments and collaborations with the "Ion implantation and modification of materials" group.

Publikations FWIZ-I

Year incl. Online First >= 2021
"Online First" included
First HDZR Author OU: Implanter (FWIZ-I)

Experimental and theoretical study on the production of carbide-rich composite nano-coatings

Fogarassy, Z.; Kentsch, U.; Panjan, P.; Racz, A. S.

Carbides are known for high hardness and corrosion resistance and therefore applicable as protective coatings. C/Si and C/W multilayers (the individual layer thicknesses were between 10 and 20 nm) have been irradiated at room temperature by argon and xenon ions. The energies varied between 40 and 120 keV while the fluences were in the range of 0.07 - 6 × 10¹⁶ ions/cm². The SRIM simulation was applied to have the proper ion energy. The irradiation induced intermixing and carbide (SiC and WC) formation at the interfaces already for the lowest irradiation fluence. The component in-depth distribution has been determined by AES depth profiling which showed that it varied greatly as a function of the irradiation conditions and layer structure. In both material pair the thickness of the produced carbide increased with square root of fluence but the mixing mechanism were different: local spike for C/W and ballistic for C/Si. The mixing efficiency was lower for the C/Si than for the C/ W.

Keywords: WC; SiC; Carbide; Irradiation; Multilayer; Mixing

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Combined Au/Ag nanoparticle creation in ZnO nanopillars by ion implantation for optical response modulation and photocatalysis

Macková, A.; Jagerová, A.; Lalik, O.; Mikšová, R.; Poustka, D.; Mistrík, J.; Holý, V.; Schutter, J. D.; Kentsch, U.; Marvan, P.; Azarov, A.; Galeckas, A.

ZnO nanopillars were implanted with Au-400 keV and Ag-252 keV ions with ion fluences from 1 × 10¹⁵ cm⁻² to 1 × 10¹⁶ cm⁻². We compared ZnO nanopillars solely implanted with Au-ions and dually-implanted with Au and Ag-ions. Rutherford Back-Scattering spectrometry (RBS) confirmed Ag and Au embedded in ZnO nanopillar layers in a reasonable agreement with theoretical calculations. A decreasing thickness of the ZnO nanopillar layer was evidenced with the increasing ion implantation fluences. Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE) showed a decrease of refractive index in the nanopillar parts with embedded Au, Ag-ions. XRD discovered vertical domain size decreasing with the proceeding radiation damage accumulated in ZnO nanopillars which effect was preferably ascribed to Au-ions. SE and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) showed optical activity of the created nanoparticles at wavelength range 500 – 600 nm and 430 – 700 nm for the Au-implanted and Au, Ag-implanted ZnO nanopillars, respectively. Photoluminescence (PL) features linked to ZnO deep level emission appear substantially enhanced due to plasmonic interaction with metal nanoparticles created by Ag, Au-implantation. Photocatalytic activity seems to be more influenced by the nanoparticles presented in the layer rather than the surface morphology. Dual implantation with Ag, Au-ions enhanced optical activity to a larger extent without significant morphology deterioration as compared to the solely Au-ion implanted nanopillars.

Keywords: ZnO nanopillars; Au/Ag nanoparticles; ion implantation; SPR; doped ZnO nanostructures

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The recovery effects of electron-beam pulse treatment in Sn implanted Ge

Werner, Z.; Barlak, M.; Ratajaczak, R.; Kentsch, U.; Heller, R.; Munnik, F.; Konarski, P.; Dłużewski, P.; Pisarek, M.; Kozłowski, M.; Ażgin, J.; Zagórski, J.; Staszkiewicz, B.

The paper describes the recovery effects of pulsed electron beam treatment in Ge single crystals implanted with various doses of Sn ions at room and low temperatures. A protective coat of 100 nm Sn was applied as a sacrificial layer. The implanted layers were studied by RBS/cRBS (Rutherford BackScattering/channeled Rutherford BackScattering) method, SIMS (Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) and TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy). Defects revealed in channelled RBS spectra were analysed by McChasy code. The results show that the Sn concentration attains 1% and more with very good substitutionality. They also reveal excellent lattice recovery after e-beam melting. Suggestions are derived as regards further improvement of pulsed e-beam technique.

Keywords: Germanium; Sn implantation; pulsed e-beam treatments; RBS/cRBS study; TEM and DLTS measurements

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Energetic Au ion beam implantation of ZnO nanopillars for optical response modulation

Macková, A.; Malinský, P.; Jagerová, A.; Mikšová, R.; Lalik, O.; Nekvindová, P.; Mistrík, J.; Marvan, P.; Sofer, Z.; Holý, V.; Schutter, J. D.; Kentsch, U.; Azarov, A.; Galeckas, A.

Nanopillars of ZnO were implanted with Au-400 keV ions at various ion fluences from 1 × 10¹⁵ cm⁻² to 1 × 10¹⁶ cm⁻² and subsequently annealed at 750 °C for 15 min in order to reduce the implantation damage and to support Au nanoparticle (NP) aggregation. It was found that implantation-induced effects and thermal effects influence the Au NP coalescence as well as the quality of the ZnO nanopillars. Rutherford Back-Scattering spectrometry (RBS) showed the broader Au-depth profiles than it was theoretically predicted, but the Au-concentration maximum agrees well with prediction taking into account the effective ZnO layer density. The implantation at the higher fluences induced the morphology modification of the nanopillar layer evidenced by RBS and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). An indirect evidence of this effect was given by optical ellipsometry due to gradual refractive index changes in the ZnO nanopillars with the increased Au-ion fluence. Optical characterization of the Au-implanted and annealed nanopillars performed by means of photoluminescence (PL) and diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) evidenced the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) activity of the embedded Au NPs. The SPR-enhanced scattering and PL emission observed in the spectral range 500–650 nm are ascribed to Au NPs or more complex Au-clusters. In addition, the ellipsometry measurements of extinction coefficient are found to corroborate well results from DRS, both indicating increase of SPR effect with the increase of Au-ion fluence and after the post-annealing.

Keywords: ZnO nanopillars; Au nanoparticles; ion implantation; SPR; doped ZnO nanostructures

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Direct visualization of highly resistive areas in GaN by means of low-voltage scanning electron microscopy

Jóźwik, I.; Jagielski, J.; Caban, P.; Kamiński, M.; Kentsch, U.

The damage-induced voltage alteration (DIVA) contrast mechanism in scanning
electron microscope (SEM) at low electron energy has been presented as a fast and
convenient method of direct visualization of increased resistivity induced by energetic
ions irradiation in gallium nitride (GaN). Epitaxially grown GaN layers on sapphire
covered with a metallic masks with etched windows were subjected to He 2+
irradiations at 600 keV energy. The resulting two-dimensional damage profiles at the
samples cross-sections were imaged at SEM at different e-beam energies and scan
speeds. The gradual development of image contrast was observed with the increase of
cumulative charge deposited by electron beam irradiation, to finally reach the
saturation level of the contrast related to the local resistivity of the ion-irradiated part of
The presented method allows one to directly visualize the ion-irradiated zone even for
the lowest resistivity changes resulting from ion damage, i.e. all levels of insulation
build-up in GaN upon irradiation with ions. Taking into account that it is not possible to
apply the etch-stop technique by wet chemistry to GaN, it makes the presented
technique the only available method of visualization of highly resistant and insulating
regions in GaN-based electronic devices.
Main aim of the presented work is to get a deeper insight into a DIVA contrast in GaN
with the special emphasize to discuss the role of rastering speed and electron beam
current, i.e. details of charge build-up ion the sample surface.

Keywords: GaN; Ion damage; Ion implantation; Low-kV SEM

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Resistivity contrast imaging in semiconductor structures using ultra-low energy scanning electron microscopy

Jozwik, I.; Jagielski, J.; Dumiszewska, E.; Kaminski, M.; Kentsch, U.

The damage-induced voltage alteration (DIVA) contrast mechanism in scanning electron microscope (SEM) has been studied in broad range of the primary electron beam energies, with a special emphasis on the ultra-low energy range. The SEM imaging contrast related to resistivity changes in the In(0.55)Al(0.45)P irradiated with He2+ ions of 600 keV was subjected to an analysis in a range of 10 keV down to 10 eV of primary electron energies. The problem of specimen charging in ultra-low energy range and its effect on the contrast in SEM images has been tackled for the first time. Contrary to expectations based on the classical total emission yield approach, the potentials formed at the highly resistive part of irradiated area led to dramatic increase in the intensity of registered signal for primary electron energies below E1, which can be explained as signal saturation due to potential on the specimen surface acting as repeller for primary electrons. Nevertheless, the experimental data presenting the influence of the beam energy on the potential formation on the surface of an insulating material under electron irradiation have been presented for the first time in ultra-low energy regime.

Keywords: Ion damage; Ion irradiation; Low-kV SEM; Semiconductors

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Multi-direction channelling study of the Ag:YSZ nanocomposites prepared by ion implantation

Mikšová, R.; Jagerová, A.; Malinský, P.; Harcuba, P.; Veselý, J.; Holý, V.; Kentsch, U.; Macková, A.

The paper reports on implantation damage accumulation, Ag distribution and the interior morphology in different crystallographic orientations of implanted samples of cubic yttria-stabilised zirconia (YSZ). (100)-, (110)- and (111)-oriented YSZ was implanted with 400-keV Ag⁺ ions at ion fluences from 5 × 10¹⁴ to 5 × 10¹⁶ cm⁻². Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) in the channelling mode (RBS-C), as well as X-ray diffraction (XRD), were used for the quantitative measurement of the lattice disorder and Ag distribution. The defect propagation and Ag accumulation were observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Although similar damage evolution trends were observed along with all channelling directions, the disorder accumulation is lower along the <110> direction than along the <100> and <111> direction. The damage extends much deeper than the theoretically predicted depths. It is attributed to long-range defect migration effects, confirmed by TEM. At the ion fluence of 5 × 10¹⁶ cm⁻², nanometre-sized Ag precipitates were identified in the depth of 30–130 nm based on the Ag concentration–depth profiles determined by RBS.

Keywords: Ag ion-implantation; Yttria-stabilized zirconia; Damage accumulation; Strain relaxation; Nanoparticles

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