Publications Repository - Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf

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32228 Publications
The helical magnetorotational instability in cylindrical Taylor--Couette flow
Hollerbach, R.; Stefani, F.; Gerbeth, G.; Gundrum, T.; Rüdiger, G.;
We present new results from the PROMISE experiment, consisting of a GaInSn alloy confined between differentially rotating cylinders, in the presence of a combined axial and azimuthal (helical) magnetic field. The apparatus has been upgraded to incorporate split-ring end-plates, thereby reducing end-effects. The resulting traveling-wave disturbances are in good agreement with theoretical predictions for the onset of the helical magnetorotational instability.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    XXII International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 24.-29.08.2008, Adelaide, Australia
  • Contribution to proceedings
    XXII International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 24.-29.08.2008, Adelaide, Australia
    Proceedings of the XXII International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Adelaide: IUTAM, 978-0-9805142-1-6, 11858

Publ.-Id: 11671 - Permalink


(Multi-)ferroic domain walls - a combined ab-initio and microscopical investigation
Rother, A.; Gemming, S.; Geiger, D.; Spaldin, N.;
Interest in magnetoelectric multiferroic materials has increased exponentially over the last ten years, with considerable effort devoted both to combining magnetism and ferroelectricity in a single phase material and in obtaining magnetoelectric coupling between the two phenomena. Progress has been made on both front and a rich array of fundamental phenomena have been revealed in prototypical multiferroics such as bismuth ferrite, BiFeO3. Here we describe a new and previously unanticipated functionality: the observation – using conductive atomic force microscopy – of room temperature electronic conductivity at ferroelectric domain walls in BiFeO3. We explore the origin of the observed conductivity using high resolution transmission electron microscopy and first-principles density functional computations. Our results suggest the possibility of exploiting domain walls as a functional component in novel applications.
Keywords: multiferroic, ferroelectric, bismuth ferrate, domain, domain wall, functional material
  • Poster
    14th European Microscopy Conference (EMC 2008), 31.08.-05.09.2008, Aachen, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11670 - Permalink


Spin Manipulation in Co-Doped ZnO
Xu, Q.; Hartmann, L.; Zhou, S.; Mcklich, A.; Helm, M.; Biehne, G.; Hochmuth, H.; Lorenz, M.; Grundmann, M.; Schmidt, H.;
We report the clearly observed tunneling magnetoresistance at 5 K in magnetic tunnel junctions with Co-doped ZnO as a bottom ferromagnetic electrode and Co as a top ferromagnetic electrode prepared by pulsed laser deposition. Spin-polarized electrons were injected from Co-doped ZnO to the crystallized Al2O3 and tunnelled through the amorphous Al2O3 barrier. Our studies demonstrate the spin polarization in Co-doped ZnO and its possible application in future ZnO-based spintronics devices.
Keywords: ZnO, Diluted magnetic semiconductor, Tunneling magnetoresistance

Publ.-Id: 11669 - Permalink


57Fe and 119Sn CEMS Study of SnO2 Films Implanted with 57Fe
Nomura, K.; Rykov, A.; Iio, S.; Hirose, Y.; Hasegawa, I.; Reuther, H.;
The origin of magnetic interactions in Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors (DMS) is attracting a great attention as a basic problem on magnetism[1-2]. This subject is still an issue of controversy. In all of these works, the observed ferromagnetism has been attributed to interactions between the magnetic impurities, but the main source has never been associated to magnetically ordered defects. We have reported the different types of magnetic source in case of Fe doped SnO2 powder [3], and the phonon density of states of rutile type structures [4]. Defects in DMS can also contribute to saturation magnetization. Here we have made the thin films of SnO2 implanted with 57Fe and characterized them by 57Fe and 119Sn conversion electron Mössbauer spectrometry (CEMS).
  • Poster
    International Symposium on the Industrial Applications of the Mössbauer Effect (ISIAME'08), 17.-22.08.2008, Budapest, Ungarn

Publ.-Id: 11668 - Permalink


Mössbauer Spectroscopy as a Tool to Explore Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors
Reuther, H.;
Worldwide, semiconductor spin transfer electronics (spintronics) is of strongly increasing interest. To realize such materials polarized carriers can be injected from a ferromagnetic metal into a diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS). DMS are “conventional” semiconductors doped with transition metal or rare-earth ions which are diluted within the host matrix and ferromagnetically aligned via an indirect magnetic coupling.

Wide band gap semiconductors like GaN, ZnO, or TiO2 are promising candidates. Doping could be performed by Mn, V, Fe, Co or Ni with concentrations in the range of some %. In the case of 57Fe as doping ion, Mössbauer spectroscopy can be used to investigate how it is built in the host matrix. The 57Fe ion acts both as doping and probe.

In the present study, a survey about Mössbauer spectroscopy as a tool to explore such materials is given. It is very useful however it is insufficient for a full characterization. Other techniques like transmission electron microscopy, Zero-field-cooled/field-cooled SQUID measurements or X-ray diffraction are necessary as complementary methods.
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    International Symposium on the Industrial Applications of the Mössbauer Effect (ISIAME'08), 17.-22.08.2008, Budapest, Ungarn

Publ.-Id: 11667 - Permalink


Swift-heavy-ion-induced shaping of spherical Ge nanoparticles into disks and rods
Schmidt, B.; Heinig, K.-H.; Mücklich, A.; Akhmadaliev, C.;
The work reports on experimental features and theoretical studies of swift-heavy-ion-induced shaping of Ge nanospheres into disks. A stack of alternating Ge and SiO2 layers was sputtered on an oxidized Si wafer. The Ge layer thicknesses varied from 2.5 to 7.5 nm. Thermal treatment above the melting temperature of Ge transformed each Ge layer into a layer of Ge nanospheres. With growing Ge layer thickness the mean diameter increases from 8 to 37 nm. Irradiation with low fluences (~1014cm-2) of 38 MeV I7+ shaped medium-sized Ge nanospheres into disks, whereas smaller ones became rod-like and larger ones remained unchanged. At higher fluences, the larger Ge nanospheres shrink due to Ge loss and shape into disks too. A new model is presented and atomistic Monte-Carlo simulations are shown which describe the shaping evolution and the size thresholds for shaping quantitatively. The volume change of Ge upon melting has been identified as driving force.
Keywords: heavy ion irradiation, ion beam shaping, nanoparticles
  • Lecture (Conference)
    16th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials (IBMM 2008), 31.08.-05.09.2008, Dresden, Germany
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 267(2009), 1345-1348
    DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2009.01.062

Publ.-Id: 11666 - Permalink


Photodisintegration studies on 92Mo and 144Sm
Nair, C.; Junghans, A. R.; Erhard, M.; Bemmerer, D.; Beyer, R.; Grosse, E.; Klug, J.; Kosev, K.; Rusev, G.; Schilling, K. D.; Schwengner, R.; Wagner, A.;
In burning stellar environments like supernova explosions, the temperatures are high enough for the production of heavy neutron deficient nuclei, the so-called p-nuclei. These are thought to be produced in such explosive scenarios either through chains of photodisintegration reactions on heavy seed nuclei. The modelling of the nucleosynthesis for the p-nuclei is mainly based on statistical model calculations. In this context, the knowledge of the experimental cross sections for the prediction of the p-nuclei abundances is of crucial importance and to forward in this direction we have started and experimental program at the bremsstrahlung facility of the superconducting electron accelerator ELBE of FZ Dresden-Rossendorf . Photodisintegration measurements on the astrophysically relevant p-nuclei 92Mo and 144Sm have been performed via photoactivation technique with bremsstrahlung end-point energies from 10.0 to 16.5 MeV. In particular the (gamma,alpha) reactions of the mentioned nuclei were studied for the first time at different endpoint energies above and close to the threshold. The bremsstrahlung facility and the experimental area are deigned so as to facilitate the studies under optimized background conditions. To probe the fascinating investigations on short-lived nuclei a new pneumatic delivery system has been built recently. First experiments on the short-lived decays following the reaction 144Sm(gamma,n) is discussed. The activation yields from all measurements are compared with calculations using cross sections from recent Hauser-Feshbach models .
Keywords: photodisintegration, bremsstrahlung
  • Lecture (Conference)
    10th Symposium on the Nuclei in Cosmos, 27.07.-01.08.2008, Mackinac Island, Michigan, USA

Publ.-Id: 11665 - Permalink


Ion-irradiation-induced damage of steels characterized by means of nanoindentation
Heintze, C.; Recknagel, C.; Bergner, F.; Hernández-Mayoral, M.; Kolitsch, A.;
Self-ion irradiation was used to simulate the damage caused by fast neutrons in the austenitic stainless steel SS 304 SA, the ferritic/martensitic steel Eurofer’97 and a Fe-9at%Cr model alloy. The irradiation-induced hardness change in the damage layer was evaluated by means of nanoindentation. Three-step irradiations were performed at room temperature and 300°C up to 1 and 10dpa. An irradiation-induced hardness change was shown for all materials. No influence of irradiation temperature could be resolved. Irradiation-induced hardening exhibits different fluence dependencies in Eurofer’97 and Fe-9at%Cr. While the data indicate a saturation-like behaviour for Fe-9at%Cr, a monotonous increase of hardness with fluence up to 10dpa was found for Eurofer’97.
Keywords: self-ion irradiation, nanoindentation, irradiation hardening, iron base alloys
  • Poster
    IBMM 08 - 16th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials, 31.08.-05.09.2008, Dresden, Deutschland
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 267(2009), 1505-1508

Publ.-Id: 11664 - Permalink


Terahertz emission from a large-area GaInAsN emitter
Peter, F.; Winnerl, S.; Schneider, H.; Helm, M.; Köhler, K.;
A large-area interdigitated terahertz (THz) emitter based on molecular-beam epitaxy grown GaInAsN with an additional AlGaAs heterostructure is investigated as THz source for excitation wavelengths between 1.1 and 1.5 µm. The optical and electrical properties of the emitter material exhibit absorption up to a wavelength of 1.5 µm and have a resistivity of 550 kΩ cm. Terahertz waves were detected by electro-optical sampling with a bandwidth exceeding 2 THz. Best performance is found for excitation wavelengths below 1.35 µm. Furthermore the emission properties for several excitation powers are investigated showing a linear increase of THz emission.
Keywords: TERAHERTZ, SPECTROSCOPY, ANTENNAS, BEAMS

Publ.-Id: 11663 - Permalink


RTA and FLA of ultra-shallow implanted layers in Ge
Wündisch, C.; Posselt, M.; Anwand, W.; Schmidt, B.; Mücklich, A.; Skorupa, W.; Clarysse, T.; Simoen, E.;
The formation of ultra-shallow n+ layers by P or As implantation and subsequent rapid thermal annealing (RTA) or flash-lamp annealing (FLA) is investigated. The focus is on diffusion and activation of dopants. RTA leads to considerable broadening of the shallow as-implanted profiles by concentration-dependent diffusion. In contrast, FLA does not cause any diffusion and is therefore a promising method for producing ultra-shallow n+p junctions in Ge. Under present annealing conditions RTA yields maximum activation levels of about 1.1E19 and 6.5E18 for P and As, respectively. The maximum activation achieved by FLA is about 4.0E19 and 2.1E19 for P and As, respectively. Possible mechanisms for diffusion and deactivation of dopants are discussed.
Keywords: Germanium, ion implantation, annealing, electrical doping, diffusion, activation
  • Contribution to proceedings
    16th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Thermal Processing of Semiconductors (IEEE RTP 2008), 30.09.-03.10.2008, Las Vegas, NV, USA
    Proceedings of the 16th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Thermal Processing of Semiconductors, RTP 2008, September 30- October 3, 2008, Las Vegas, NV, USA, Piscataway, NJ: IEEE, 978-1-4244-1950-0, 245-249
  • Lecture (Conference)
    16th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Thermal Processing of Semiconductors (IEEE RTP 2008), 30.09.-03.10.2008, Las Vegas, NV, USA

Publ.-Id: 11662 - Permalink


Precision study of ground state capture in the 14N(p,gamma)15O reaction
Marta, M.; Formicola, A.; Gyurky, G.; Bemmerer, D.; Broggini, C.; Caciolli, A.; Corvisiero, P.; Costantini, H.; Elekes, Z.; Fulop, Z.; Gervino, G.; Guglielmetti, A.; Gustavino, C.; Imbriani, G.; Junker, M.; Kunz, R.; Lemut, A.; Limata, B.; Mazzocchi, C.; Menegazzo, R.; Prati, P.; Roca, V.; Rolfs, C.; Romano, M.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Somorjai, E.; Straniero, O.; Strieder, F.; Terrasi, F.; Trautvetter, H. P.; Vomiero, A.;
The rate of the hydrogen-burning carbon-nitrogen-oxygen (CNO) cycle is controlled by the slowest process, 14N(p,gamma)15O, which proceeds by capture to the ground and several excited states in 15O. Previous extrapolations for the ground state contribution disagreed by a factor 2, corresponding to 15% uncertainty in the total astrophysical S-factor. At the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA) 400 kV accelerator placed deep underground in the Gran Sasso facility in Italy, a new experiment on ground state capture has been carried out at 317.8, 334.4, and 353.3 keV center-of-mass energy. Systematic corrections have been reduced considerably with respect to previous studies by using a Clover detector and by adopting a relative analysis. The previous discrepancy has been resolved, and ground state capture no longer dominates the uncertainty of the total S-factor.
Keywords: Nuclear astrophysics, solar neutrinos, CNO cycle, radiative capture, in-beam gamma-spectrometry, underground, Gran Sasso, R-matrix, Clover detector

Publ.-Id: 11661 - Permalink


Nano-Biotechnologie für den Umweltschutz: Entwicklung neuer fotokatalytisch aktiver Verbundmaterialien
Pollmann, K.; Raff, J.;
wird nachgereicht
  • Lecture (Conference)
    DECHEMA-Workshop zur Fördermaßnahme NanoNature des BMBF, 26.08.2008, Frankfurt, Deutschland
  • Poster
    DECHEMA-Workshop zur Fördermaßnahme NanoNature des BMBF, 26.08.2008, Frankfurt, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11660 - Permalink


Metal removal and recovery by bacteria-based biocomposites
Raff, J.;
Bacteria are simply organized, but apart from that and their small size they are an unbelievable complex and a highly efficient group of creatures. Some are able to thrive at the most forbidding, uninviting places on Earth, for example in hot springs, in the perpetual ice, in the deep sea or in deserts. For production of energy they can use different kinds of organic and inorganic matter or sun light. Furthermore, they successfully conquer also any other habitats, even so an environment is highly contaminated with toxic substances, like organic solvents, heavy metals and radionuclides. Adaptation and detoxification mechanisms allow them to resist high concentrations of toxic elements without getting sustainably affected. These mechanisms are very prospective for the development of innovative remediation strategies and for other biotechnical applications [1-6].
Within the radio-ecological research on the interaction of bacteria with actinides many reference strains and isolates were investigated for their interaction with heavy metals and radionuclides [7-11]. The studied bacteria possess different strategies to handle high metal concentrations in their environment. Namely, via an immobilization of the metals by biosorption, bioaccumulation inside the cell, biomineralization and biotransformation. In principle, all mentioned strategies are suitable for the development of new materials for bioremediation techniques and the removal of metals. In respect of the development of metal selective and reusable filter materials, several Bacillus and Lysinibacillus isolates from a uranium mining waste pile were preferentially investigated. The cells bind selectively and reversibly uranium on their surface. Furthermore the analyses results in the identification of new so called surface layer (S-layer) proteins, forming the outermost structure on many bacteria. This S-layers are able to bind and detain toxic heavy metals while essential ones may pass. To take advantage of this intelligence intact cells, spores and the S-layer proteins of the bacteria were immobilized in sol-gel ceramics [11, 12] and used for metal binding experiments. Ongoing experiments include also the production of biofilm based materials and the protein immobilization on conventional carriers. Especially the S-layer proteins not only bind heavy metals very selectively but also some precious metals. The superior aim is the development of metal selective filter materials for the removal of heavy metals and in future for the recovery of precious metals from aqueous solutions.

Ackowledgements
We gratefully acknowledge support by the DFG (Biocere, SE 671/1-2) and the BMWi/PTJ (BIOREM, 03EGSSN014).

References
[1] L. Hendrickx and M Mergeay (2007), Curr Opin Microbiol 10(3), 231-237
[2] R. Margesin and F. Schinner F. (2001), Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 56(5-6) 650-663
[3] G. Antranikian (2005), Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol, 96, 219-262
[4] M. Kalin et al. (2005), J Environ Radioact. 78(2),151-177
[5] B. Volesky and Z.R. Holan (1995), Biotechnol. Prog. 11, 235-250
[6] J. Raff and S. Selenska-Pobell (2006), Nuclear Engineering International 51(619) 34-36
[7] M. Merroun et al. (2005) Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71(9): 5532-5543
[8] M. Merroun et al. (2006) Radiochimica Acta 94, 723-729
[9] H. Moll et al. (2008) BioMetals 21, 219-228
[10] H. Moll et al. (2006) Radiochimica Acta 94(2006), 815-824
[11] J. Raff et al. (2003), Chem. Mater. 15, 240-244
[12] K. Pollmann et al. (2006), Biotechn. Adv. 24 (1), 58-68
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Max Bergmann Symposium 08 on Molecular Designed Biological coatings, 04.-06.11.2008, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11659 - Permalink


Polyhedral Approximation and Practical Convex Hull Algorithm for Certain Classes of Voxel Sets
Schulz, H.;
In this paper we introduce an algorithm for the creation of polyhedral approximations for certain kinds of digital objects in a three-dimensional space. The objects are sets of voxels represented as strongly connected subsets of an abstract cell complex. The proposed algorithm generates the convex hull of a given object and modifies the hull afterwards by recursive repetitions of generating convex hulls of subsets of the given voxel set or subsets of the background voxels. The result of this method is a polyhedron which separates object voxels from background voxels. The objects processed by this algorithm and also the background voxel components inside the convex hull of the objects are restricted to have genus 0. The second aim of this paper is to present some practical improvements to the discussed convex hull algorithm to reduce computation time.
Keywords: digital geometry, convex hull, abstract cell complex, abstract polyhedron, surface approximation

Publ.-Id: 11658 - Permalink


Bacterial surface layers proteins: self-organizing biomolecules as building blocks for nanostructured materials
Pollmann, K.; Raff, J.; Günther, T.; Fahmy, K.;
Surface layer proteins (S-layers) form the outer sheet around the cells of many primitive microorganisms. They form two-dimensional paracrystalline arrays with repeating units on the scale of a few nanometers (10-9 m). We have established their utilization as a technology platform for innovative materials. The S-layer of Lysinibacillus sphaericus JG-A12 isolated from a uranium waste pile has been shown to exhibit highly ordered binding sites for various metals such as Pt, Pd, Au, suitable for the formation of regularly distributed nanoclusters of defined sizes. Such bioinorganic materials possess a great potential for the development of novel catalysts, new biomedical and bio¬analytical applications, the assembly of nanometer-scaled electronic devices, optical industry, and storage media. At the Institutes of Radiation Physics, Ion-beam Physics and Materials Research, and the Dresden High Magnetic Field Laboratory, the structure of such nanoparticles and their physical properties are currently analyzed in an interdisciplinary approach.
Keywords: S-layer, bioremidiation, spectroscopy, metal binding
  • Contribution to proceedings
    11th Vietnamese-German Seminar on Physics and Engineering, 31.03.-05.04.2008, Nha Trang, Vietnam
    Proceedings of the Eleventh Vietnamese-German Seminar on Physics and Engineering, Hanoi: Hanoi University

Publ.-Id: 11657 - Permalink


Measurement of the electrical conductivity of Pb-Bi alloys in the melting-solidification region
Plevachuk, Y.; Sklyarchuk, V.; Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.;
The electrical conductivity of Pb-Bi alloys of eutectic and near eutectic compositions was investigated in the melting-solidification temperature region. The revealed discrepancies between the heating and cooling curves as well as a hysteresis observed in course of heating-cooling cycles suggest a metastable microheteregenous structure of the Pb-Bi melts.
Keywords: Pb-Bi alloys, electrical conductivity, eutectic transformation
  • Journal of Nuclear Materials 376(2008), 363-365

Publ.-Id: 11656 - Permalink


Gold nanoparticle tips for optical field confinement in infrared scattering near-field optical microscopy
Wenzel, M. T.; Härtling, T.; Olk, P.; Kehr, S. C.; Grafström, S.; Winnerl, S.; Helm, M.; Eng, L. M.;
We report on the implementation of metal nanoparticles as probes for scattering and apertureless near-field optical investigations in the mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectral regime. At these wavelengths, an efficient electric-field confinement is necessary and achieved here through a gold metal nanoparticle of 80 nm in diameter (Au80-MNP) acting as the optical antenna. The Au80-MNP is attached to a standard AFM cantilever used as the spatial manipulator. When approached to a sample surface while being illuminated with an infrared beam, the Au80-MNP produces a considerably improved spatial confinement of the electric field compared to an ordinary scattering AFM tip. We demonstrate here the confinement normal to the sample surface by making use of a sample-induced phonon polariton resonance in a ferroelectric lithium niobate sample. Our experimental findings are in very good agreement with the quasistatic dipole model and show improved optical resolution via well-selected antenna particles.
  • Open Access LogoOptics Express 16(2008), 12302-12312

Publ.-Id: 11655 - Permalink


Correlated electron systems at high magnetic fields
Wosnitza, J.;
High magnetic fields are one of the most powerful tools available to scientists for the study, modification, and control of the state of matter. The application of magnetic fields, therefore, has become a commonly used instrument for condensed-matter physics. For the observation of many phenomena very high magnetic fields are essential. Consequently, the demand for the highest possible magnetic-field strengths is increasing. At the Dresden High Magnetic Field Laboratory (HLD), that has just opened its doors for external users, pulsed magnetic fields up to 70 T are available and the ambitious goal of reaching 100 T has been set. Here, I will present the current status of the HLD and discuss some scientific results recently obtained at high magnetic fields. This covers e.g. the clear thermodynamic evidence for the existence of the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) state in a layered organic superconductor, the magnetic-field-induced change of the electronic band structure in the metal CeBiPt, and finally the determination of the band- and angle-resolved superconducting coupling strength in a borocarbide superconductor.
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    1st Bilateral Estonian-German Workshop Strong Nonlinear Vibronic and Electronic Interactions in Solids, 30.04.-02.05.2008, Tartu, Estonia

Publ.-Id: 11654 - Permalink


An insight into what superconducts in polycrystalline boron-doped diamonds based on investigations of microstructure
Dubrovinskaia, N.; Wirth, R.; Wosnitza, J.; Papageorgiou, T.; Braun, H. F.; Miyajima, N.; Dubrovinsky, L.;
The discovery of superconductivity in polycrystalline boron-doped diamond (BDD) synthesized under high pressure and high temperatures [Ekimov, et al. (2004) Nature 428:542–545] has raised a number of questions on the origin of the superconducting state. It was suggested that the heavy boron doping of diamond eventually leads to superconductivity. To justify such statements more detailed information on the microstructure of the composite materials and on the exact boron content in the diamond grains is needed. For that we used high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy. For the studied superconducting BDD samples synthesized at high pressures and high temperatures the diamond grain sizes are ≈1–2 µm with a boron content between 0.2 (2) and 0.5 (1) at %. The grains are separated by 10- to 20-nm-thick layers and triangular-shaped pockets of predominantly (at least 95 at %) amorphous boron. These results render superconductivity caused by the heavy boron doping in diamond highly unlikely.
  • Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105(2008)33, 11619-11622

Publ.-Id: 11653 - Permalink


Characterization of ZnO Nanostructures: A Challenge to Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy and other Methods
Brauer, G.; Anwand, W.; Grambole, D.; Egger, W.; Sperr, P.; Beynik, I.; Hofer, C.; Teichert, C.; Kuriplach, J.; Lang, J.; Zviagin, S.; Cizmar, E.; Ling, C. C.; Hsu, Y. F.; Xi, Y. Y.; Djurisic, A. B.; Skorupa, W.;
ZnO is of considerable interest for optoelectronic device applications due to its wide band gap and high exciton binding energy. In spite of decades of study and recent progress in research on ZnO properties, there remained unresolved controversies which are mainly related to native defects formed during crystal growth. Positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) is among the methods to tackle this structural issue [1, 2].
ZnO nanostructures, like e.g. nanorods [3] and tetrapods [4], are of special interest for device applications [5, 6]. However, their characterization remains an ongoing challenge.
This talk intends to review our recent efforts and latest achievements in this direction. Results obtained will comprise PAS in the form of Slow Positron Implantation Spectroscopy (SPIS) and Pulsed Low Energy Positron Lifetime Spectroscopy (PLEPS), Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), conductive AFM (C-AFM), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Electron Spin Resonance (ESR), Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and latest theoretical investigations of structure-related and positron properties of selected defects.
The fundamental importance of a relationship between fabrication conditions, native defect formation, and resulting optical and electronic properties is demonstrated by getting either inferior (nanorods) or significantly improved (tetrapods) optical properties compared to single crystal samples, depending on the nanostructure fabrication method.
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    XVth International Conference on Positron Annihilation (ICPA-15), 18.-23.01.2009, Kolkata, India

Publ.-Id: 11652 - Permalink


Activities towards p-Type Doping of ZnO
Brauer, G.; Kuriplach, J.; Djurisic, C. C.; Ling, A. B.;
Zinc oxide (ZnO) is an interesting and promising semiconductor material for many potential applications, e.g. in opto-electronics and for sensor devices. However, its p-type doping represents a challenging problem, and the physical reasons of its mostly n-type conductivity are not perfectly clear at present.
Firstly, efforts to achieve p-type conductivity by ion implantation are reviewed, and the creation of a p-n junction by N+ ion implantation with post-implantation annealing is discussed.
Secondly, ways to achieve p-type ZnO nanorods by various growth conditions are presented. Their characterization by electrical, optical and positron annihilation spectroscopy methods will also be included.
Third, the preparation of Schottky contacts on ZnO with the surface pre-treatments of hydrogen peroxide is mentioned in some detail as this is a demand of the device formation process.
Finally, the possible incorporation of hydrogen and nitrogen into structural defects, which can act as trapping sites for positrons, is discussed. This will be discussed in the context of positron experimental and theoretical results and estimated H and N contents in a selected variety of ZnO materials.
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    8th International Conference on Position Sensitive Detectors (PSD 2008), 01.-05.09.2008, Prague, Czech Republic
  • Open Access LogoJournal of Physics: Conference Series 265(2011), 012002
    DOI: 10.1088/1742-6596/265/1/012002

Publ.-Id: 11651 - Permalink


Secondary Structure and Compliance of a Predicted Flexible Domain in Kinesin-1 Necessary for Co-operation of Motors
Crevenna, A. H.; Madathil, S.; Cohen, D. N.; Wagenbach, M.; Fahmy, K.; Howard, J.;
While the mechanism by which a kinesin-1 molecule moves individually along a microtubule is quite well understood, the way that many kinesin-1 motor proteins bound to the same cargo move together along a microtubule is not. We have identified a 60-aa-long domain, termed Hinge 1, in kinesin-1 from Drosophila melanogaster that is located between the coiled coils of the neck and stalk domains. Its deletion reduces microtubule gliding speed in multiple–motor assays but not single-motor assays. Hinge 1 thus facilitates the co-operation of motors by preventing them from impeding each other. We have addressed the structural basis for this phenomenon. Video-microscopy of single microtubule-bound full-length motors reveals the sporadic occurrence of high compliance states alternating with longer-lived low compliance states. Deletion of Hinge 1 abolishes transitions to the high compliance state. Based on FTIR, CD, and fluorescence spectroscopy of Hinge 1 peptides, we propose that the low compliance states correspond to an unexpected structured organization of the central Hinge 1 region, whereas the high-compliance state corresponds to the loss of that structure. We hypothesize that strain accumulated during multiple-kinesin motility populates the high compliance state by unfolding helical secondary structure in the central Hinge 1 domain flanked by unordered regions, thereby preventing the motors from interfering with each other in multiple-motor situations.
Keywords: Gliding assay, single-molecule assay, torsional elasticity, protein flexibility, microtubule, spectroscopy

Publ.-Id: 11650 - Permalink


Interplay between Kondo-like behavior and short-range antiferromagnetism in EuCu2Si2 single crystals
Cao, C. D.; Klingeler, R.; Leps, N.; Vinzelberg, H.; Kataev, V.; Muranyi, F.; Tristan, N.; Teresiak, A.; Zhou, S.; Löser, W.; Behr, G.; Büchner, B.;
The static and dynamic magnetic properties, electrical resistivity, specific heat, and magnetoresistance have been studied in EuCu2Si2 single crystals grown by a floating zone method. The magnetic susceptibility exhibits a considerable anisotropy and a steep rise below 10 K for external fields parallel to the c axis but with no evident magnetic ordering in the temperature range of 2–350 K. The data imply a gradual change in the Eu valence as a function of temperature. Electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements reveal a sizeable fraction of stable Eu2+ magnetic moments that interact with conduction electrons and develop quasistatic antiferromagnetic correlations on the ESR timescale. The electrical resistivity and specific heat demonstrate the presence of spin fluctuations and Kondo-like behavior, which apparently competes with the antiferromagnetic order. The analysis of experimental data enables to conclude that the remarkable diversity of the physical properties of EuCu2Si2 results from the variation of lattice parameters as well as of local crystal chemistry as a consequence of the particular preparation route employed for the growth of single crystals and polycrystals.

Publ.-Id: 11649 - Permalink


Arsenic doped zinc oxide
Volbers, N.; Lautenschläger, S.; Leichtweiss, T.; Laufer, A.; Graubner, S.; Meyer, B. K.; Potzger, K.; Zhou, S.;
As-doping of zinc oxide has been approached by ion implantation and chemical vapor deposition. The effect of thermal annealing on the implanted samples has been investigated by using secondary ion mass spectrometry and Rutherford backscattering/channeling geometry. The crystal damage, the distribution of the arsenic, the diffusion of impurities, and the formation of secondary phases is discussed. For the thin films grown by vapor deposition, the composition has been determined with regard to the growth parameters. The bonding state of arsenic was investigated for both series of samples using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.
Keywords: ZnO, Doping

Publ.-Id: 11648 - Permalink


Electron beam CT – a potential tool for small animal imaging ?
Hampel, U.; Fischer, F.; Bergmann, R.;
Electron beam CT has until today been exclusively used in cardiac imaging of human beings. As a high cost diagnostic tool with frame rates in the range of 20 Hz it has so far not been considered for small animal imaging. With recent progress in technology an application in this field becomes feasible. Especially perfusion imaging for heart and other organs using iodine based contrast agents may be a target of interest for electron beam CT. We present a small volume ultra fast electron beam CT scanner which was originally developed for process tomography applications and with it preliminary results of a small animal study showing visualization of heart motion and perfusion in a rat. We further discuss the potential of this new technology and novel technological principles which allow fast 3D electron beam imaging of small animals. Included in the discussion is an assessment of radiation effects.
Keywords: electron beam tomography, small animal imaging
  • Lecture (Conference)
    2008 Nuclear Science Symposium, Medical Imaging Conference and 16th Room Temperature Semiconductor Detector Workshop, 19.-25.10.2008, Dresden, Germany
  • Contribution to proceedings
    2008 Nuclear Science Symposium, Medical Imaging Conference and 16th Room Temperature Semiconductor Detector Workshop, 19.-25.10.2008, Dresden, Germany
    IEEE NSS/MIC/RTSD Conference Record

Publ.-Id: 11647 - Permalink


Application of CdTe and CZT detectors in ultra fast electron beam X-ray tomography
Hampel, U.; Fischer, F.;
Ultra fast electron beam tomography has been developed as a novel tool for visualisation of fast processes. As in medical electron beam CT this technique is based on the generation of images from radiographs produced with a rapidly scanned electron beam. Thereby an electron beam of sufficiently high power (typically UB=150kV, power up to 10 kW) is scanned across a circular metal target producing X-rays in a small focal spot. With the rotation of the spot around an object radiographs from different viewing angles are produced and subsequently reconstructed to slice images. A fast electron beam scanner at FZD operates with beam sweeping of up to 7 kHz, producing up to 7000 images per second. The X-ray detector used in this device consists of 240 room temperature semiconductor elements operated in current mode. Photon flux at the detector is rather high, being >10^11 ph/s. The detector is sampled with 1 MHz frequency. It is known, that high flux current mode operation poses problems for semiconductor detectors made of CZT and CdTe due to polarization effects and decay time in the few hundred ns range. We have compared both types of detectors regarding their suitability in such an application. The presentation will give an overview on these results and furthermore give an introduction of this new fast imaging technique.
Keywords: electron beam tomography, CdTe detector, CZT detector
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    2008 Nuclear Science Symposium, Medical Imaging Conference and 16th Room Temperature Semiconductor Detector Workshop, 19.-25.10.2008, Dresden, Germany
  • Contribution to proceedings
    IEEE - Workshop on X-Ray Micro Imaging of Materials, Devices, and Organisms, 22.-24.10.2008, Dresden, Germany
    IEEE NSS/MIC/RTSD Conference Record

Publ.-Id: 11646 - Permalink


Ultra fast electron beam X-ray tomography at FZD
Hampel, U.;
The presentation gives an overview on recent developments in ultra fast electron beam X-ray tomography for process applications. Principles of this new tomographic imaging modality are discussed along with applications in flow measurement. A focus is given on potential extension of the technology towards high power electron beam CT using DC electron LINAC.
Keywords: electron beam tomography
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Electron Beam Tomography Meeting at BUDKERS Institute Novosibirsk, 02.09.2008, Novosibirsk, Russia

Publ.-Id: 11644 - Permalink


Computed tomography methods in flow measurement
Hampel, U.;
The lecture introduces computerized tomography as applied in process and flow diagnostics. In many indutrial fields multiphase flows play a key role in efficiency and safety aspects of indiustrial plants and processes. In the lecture principles of tomographic imaging modalities, such as electrical tomography, gamma and X-ray tomography, electron beam tomography, PET and PEPT are discussed along with exemplary applications in oil industry, chemical industry, nuclear engineering and other industrial and scientific fields.
Keywords: computed tomography, process tomography, multi-phase flow
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    FZD Lectures, 07.07.2008, Dresden, Germany

Publ.-Id: 11643 - Permalink


Self-organized metallic nanoparticle and nanowire arrays from ion-sputtered silicon templates
Oates, T. W. H.; Keller, A.; Noda, S.; Facsko, S.;
We demonstrate a production method for self-organized arrays of metal nanoparticles and aligned nanowires. Ion beam-sputtered Si/SiO2 substrates are used as templates for metallic vapor deposition, forming aligned arrays of 5–20 nm silver and cobalt nanoparticles with a period of 35 nm. The 20 nm diameter cobalt nanowires with lengths in excess of a micrometer are produced under appropriate conditions. All processing steps can be integrated into a single vacuum chamber and performed in a matter of minutes at mild temperatures. This inherently scalable technique can be extended to a range of substrate materials, array patterns, and nanoparticle materials.

Publ.-Id: 11642 - Permalink


Electromagnetic excitation of separated flows: Coherent structures and mean flow features
Weier, T.; Cierpka, C.; Gerbeth, G.;
Flow separation and its control is a persistent topic of fluid dynamic research with large technological importance. Since the early 1990s, separation control by periodic addition of momentum, now commonly termed “active flow control”, has been a subject of intense research. Its main advantage compared to steady actuation is that a control goal, e.g. a specific lift increase, can typically be attained by orders of magnitude smaller momentum input . The significant actuation parameters are mainly the time averaged momentum input and the normalized excitation frequency.
The present lectures discusses the applicability of electromagnetic forces to control separated flows. Simultaneous time resolved force measurements and flow fields obtained by Particle Image Velocimetry on a NACA 0015 are presented. The effects of momentum coefficient, exciatation frequency and -wave-form on the coherent structures and the resulting mean flow are discussed.
Keywords: active flow control, Lorentz force, coherent structures
  • Lecture (Conference)
    European Drag Reduction and Flow Control Meeting (EDRFCM 2008), 08.-11.09.2008, Ostritz - St. Marienthal, Germany

Publ.-Id: 11641 - Permalink


Efficient oxygen gettering in Si by co-implantation of hydrogen and helium
Ou, X.; Koegler, R.; Mücklich, A.; Skorupa, W.; Möller, W.; Wang, X.; Gerlach, J. W.; Rauschenbach, B.;
Hydrogen pre-implantation performed in addition to helium implantation efficiently shrinks the width of the gettering layer in Si and increases the empty volume fraction as well as the internal surface area per unit volume. The gettering efficiency for oxygen is significantly enhanced compared to the single helium implantation, and the helium implantation dose can be strongly reduced. The gas-filled bubble layer induced by the co-implantation of hydrogen and helium has the highest gettering efficiency for the oxygen accumulation. Direct evidence for oxygen gettering at the internal wall of the cavity is demonstrated by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM).
Keywords: ion implantation, gettering, oxygen, helium, hydrogen, silicon, SIMOX

Publ.-Id: 11640 - Permalink


Time-resolved semiconductor spectroscopy in the mid-infrared and Terahertz regimes
Schneider, H.;
This talk will focus on several research topics exploiting our free-electron (FEL) and modelocked Ti:Sapphire lasers to investigate semiconductor nanostructures. Pump-probe spectroscopy and two-photon detection is used for time-resolved investigations of intersubband transitions in semiconductor quantum wells and for FEL pulse diagnostics, respectively. Terahertz emitters based on interdigitated metal stripe arrays will also be discussed.
  • Lecture (others)
    Seminar, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India, 07.08.2008, Mumbai, India

Publ.-Id: 11639 - Permalink


Tutorial on Intersubband Devices: Quantum Cascade Laser
Schneider, H.;
There is no abstract.
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Optoschool 2008, 27.07.-02.08.2008, Mumbai, India

Publ.-Id: 11638 - Permalink


Tutorial on Intersubband Devices: Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors
Schneider, H.;
There is no abstract.
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Optoschool 2008, 27.07.-02.08.2008, Mumbai, India

Publ.-Id: 11637 - Permalink


Room-temperature mid-infrared two-photon photodetector
Schneider, H.; Liu, H. C.; Winnerl, S.; Drachenko, O.; Helm, M.; Faist, J.;
We report on a two-photon detector based on resonantly enhanced nonlinear absorption between subbands in InGaAs/InAlAs quantum wells and demonstrate its use as a quadratic autocorrelator for mid-infrared pulses. Modified device design allows for device operation at room temperature, which is crucial for applications in practical systems.
Keywords: Quantum well intersubband photodetector, two-photon transition, quadratic autocorrelation, InGaAs/AlGaAs

Publ.-Id: 11636 - Permalink


Experimental observation of swirl accumulation in a magnetically driven flow
Grants, I.; Zhang, C.; Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.;
Independent poloidal and azimuthal body forces are induced in a liquid metal cylinder by traveling and rotating magnetic fields of different frequencies, respectively. The bulk axial and azimuthal velocities are measured by the ultrasound Doppler method. Particle image velocimetry is used to observe the upper free surface velocity distribution. The transition from the poloidal to the azimuthal body force governed regime occurs at a fixed ratio of the respective force magnitude of around 100. This transition is marked by a formation of a concentrated vortex revealing several similarities to intense atmospheric vortices. The vortex structure is controlled by a relatively weak azimuthal force while the poloidal one holds the main control over the top speed of the top speed of the swirl is mainly governed by the poloidal one. Under a certain force ratio the average axial velocity changes its direction in the vortex core resembling the subsidence in an eye of a tropical cyclone or a large tornado. Multiple moving vortices encircle the vortex core in this regime.
  • Journal of Fluid Mechanics 616(2008), 135-152

Publ.-Id: 11635 - Permalink


Two phase flow 1D turbulence model for poly disperse upward flow in a vertical pipe
Al Issa, S.; Lucas, D.;
A 1D test solver was developed in recent years for the modeling of two phase bubbly flow in pipe geometry. The solver considers number of bubble classes and calculates bubble-size resolved void fraction profiles in radial direction. A successful implementation was achieved regarding bubble forces models (non-drag forces). Discrepancies appeared when coalescence and breakup rates are significant. These rates depend upon local turbulent values, which are possible reason for shortcomings in calculating coalescence and breakup rates. Originally the test solver is equipped by Sato model (Sato et al. 1981) which accounts for turbulence via shear- and bubble-induced viscosities calculated out of empirical correlations. One-equation for the turbulent kinetic energy was considered. In order to improve the local values of turbulence parameters the existing turbulence model was replaced by two-equation turbulence model. The new model accounts for the bubble-induced turbulence via source term taken from literature. Comparisons between new and old turbulence modeling against experimental data showed better agreement of the new model. The experiments covered wide range of water and air superficial velocities for upward bubbly flow in two pipe’s diameters: 50 mm and 200 mm. Main feature of new calculations is providing values of turbulence parameters for application in coalescence and breakup models. A comparison with CFX 5.7 calculations in 50 mm pipe showed better calculation results when applying the source term. An implementation of the source term into CFX calculations is planned.
Keywords: Poly-disperse, bubbly Flow, bubble-induced turbulence, CFD
  • Nuclear Engineering and Design 239(2009)10, 1933-1943

Publ.-Id: 11634 - Permalink


Effect of melt convection on microstructure evolution of Nd-Fe-B and Ti-Al peritectic alloys
Hermann, R.; Gerbeth, G.; Biswas, K.; Filip, O.; Shatrov, V.; Priede, J.;
The influence of melt convection on the microstructure during solidification of peritectic Nd-Fe-B and Ti-Al alloys has been investigated. Since the magnetic and mechanical properties of these technical relevant materials depend strongly on the microstructure and especially on the volume fraction of the properitectic phase, such investigation is of growing scientific interest. On the basis of numerical simulation of melt convection modes in an inductively heated metallic melt, novel techniques for the modification of the melt convection were developed. This is the forced rotation technique and a modified floating-zone facility equipped with a special designed double coil system enabling the application of additional magnetic fields. The forced rotation technique where the crucible rotates with well defined frequencies leads in accordance to numerical simulation to a strong reduction of the melt convection in dependence on the frequency. The volume fraction of the soft magnetic α-Fe phase could be drastically reduced in comparison to a common induction melting accompanied by a simultaneous reduction of the secondary dendritic arm spacing. The floating-zone facility with the patented double coil system allows the tailoring of the melt convection in a wide range from motion at rest to strong stirring. The microstructure of the investigated Ti-Al alloy changed from dendritic to globulitic morphology under strong stirring whereas the volume fraction of the properitectic phase increases with increasing stirring. The mechanical properties show a significant increased plastic deformation of the samples solidified under strong stirring. The possible reason of the change in morphology is explained as a result of spherical growth under forced convection. The study of the influence of melt convection on the microstructure formation of peritectic alloys showed the feasibility of tailoring the microstructure and the resulting alloy properties by customized melt convection using magnetic fields.
Keywords: Melt convection, Peritectic solidification, Nd-Fe-B alloys, Ti-Al alloys
  • Contribution to external collection
    D.Herlach: Phase transformations in multicomponent melts, Weinheim: Wiley-VCH, 2008, 245-261

Publ.-Id: 11633 - Permalink


Noble gas retention in the target during rotating cylindrical magnetron sputtering
Mahieu, S.; Leroy, W. P.; Depla, D.; Schreiber, S.; Moeller, W.;
A rotating cylindrical magnetron with a Ti target was sputtered in pure Xe or in a mixture of Xe and N2. The atomic composition of the target surface during sputtering has been investigated by in situ Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The noble gas atomic ratio at the target surface is around 3.4% or 9.8% for sputtering in pure Xe and with 10% N2 addition, respectively. Energy resolved mass spectrometry reveals that some of the implanted Xe atoms are sputtered from the target. A radiation enhanced diffusion/detrapping/sputtering mechanism is proposed to model the flux of noble gas leaving the target during sputtering
  • Applied Physics Letters 93(2008), 061501-1-061501-3

Publ.-Id: 11632 - Permalink


Boundary layer in the MRI experiment PROMISE
Szklarski, J.; Gerbeth, G.;
One of the most convenient approaches to observe experimentally the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is to use a magnetized Taylor-Couette setup. The flow of liquid metal between two rotating, concentric cylinders can become unstable in the presence of an external magnetic field. One of the issues which should be addressed when designing such an experiment is the influence of plates enclosing the cylinders from the top and the bottom. In this paper we discuss properties of the boundary layer which arises near these plates. Our primary concern is the importance of this layer in the MRI experiment PROMISE.
  • Astronomische Nachrichten 329(2008)7, 667-674

Publ.-Id: 11631 - Permalink


Hexadentate bispidine radiocopper complexes: emerging opportunities for the application in nuclear medicine
Stephan, H.; Juran, S.; Walther, M.; Bergmann, R.; Steinbach, J.; Comba, P.;
The advantageous properties of numerous 3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane (bispidine) derivatives have attracted much attention and caused intensive research efforts in different directions. An attractive goal represents the development of target-specific radiopharmaceuticals. For this purpose, bifunctional chelating agents are needed which have to show fast metal complexation kinetics, form complexes with high in vitro and in vivo stability and contain a group that can be linked to biomolecules. In this regard, hexadentate bispidines 1 – 3 containing pyridine units in C2, C4, N3, and N7 position have been shown to rapidly form stable radiocopper (such as 64Cu and 67Cu) complexes. Furthermore, the carboxylic groups of ligand 3 provide the possibility for coupling bio-molecules.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    2nd EuCheMS Chemistry Congress, 16.-20.09.2008, Torino, Italy

Publ.-Id: 11630 - Permalink


Radioaktive Substanzen helfen beim Suchen und Zerstören von Tumoren
Stephan, H.;
Beim Aufspüren von Tumoren und deren Metastasen hat die Positronen-Emissions-Tomographie (PET) entscheidende Fortschritte gebracht. Mit speziellen radioaktiven Substanzen lassen sich Tumore viel früher finden als mit anderen bildgebenden Verfahren. Die PET-Bilder geben – oft in Kombination mit anderen Verfahren wie Computertomographie (CT) oder Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) – die notwendigen Informationen für eine chirurgische oder externe strahlentherapeutische Behandlung von Tumorerkrankungen. Ihre Grenzen findet die externe Bestrahlung häufig bei der metastasierenden Erkrankung, wobei Tumorzellen über Blut oder Körperflüssigkeit abgeschwemmt werden und an neuen Orten weiter wachsen. In diesen Fällen muss die Behandlungsmethode systemisch sein, d.h. die Tumortherapeutika müssen über die Blutbahnen zu den (zum Teil nicht sichtbaren) Metastasen gelangen. Dies ist bisher der Chemotherapie vorbehalten. Mit Mitteln der internen Radionuklidtherapie sollen künftig die Heilungserfolge insbesondere bei der Bekämpfung solcher Metastasen verbessert werden.
  • Lecture (others)
    Lange Nacht der Wissenschaften, 04.07.2008, Dresden, Deutschland
  • Lecture (others)
    Jobbörse FH Zittau/Görlitz, 24.11.2010, Zittau, D

Publ.-Id: 11629 - Permalink


New versatile bifunctional chelating agents for developing copper radiopharmaceuticals
Stephan, H.;
Radiopharmaceuticals based on metallic radionuclides, such as 64/67Cu, 99mTc, 186/188Re and 86/90Y, are often used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. These nuclides are usually enveloped in organic ligands, such as heteromacrocyclic systems. To be effective, the ligands have to show fast metal complexation kinetics, form complexes with high in vitro and in vivo stability and contain a group that can be linked to biomolecules. In this regard, we are developing new ligand scaffolds for copper radionuclides which satisfy these requirements. Ligands – based on hexadentate 3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane I (bispidine) and bis(2-pyridylmethyl) triazacyclononane (DMPTACN) II – are discussed. These derivatives allow the introduction of linker groups, such as carboxylic acids, maleinimide or isothiocyanate, thereby facilitating coupling of targeting molecules.
  • Lecture (others)
    COST BM0607 Action WG Meeting, 24.-25.06.2008, Krakow, Polen

Publ.-Id: 11628 - Permalink


Fracture mechanics characterisation of the WWER-440 reactor pressure vessel beltline welding seam of Greifswald Unit 8
Viehrig, H.-W.; Schuhknecht, J.;
WWER-440 second generation (V-213) reactor pressure vessels (RPV) were produced by IZHORA in Russia and by SKODA in the former Czechoslovakia. The surveillance Charpy-V and fracture mechanics SE(B) specimens of both producers have different orientations. The main difference is the crack extension direction which is through the RPV thickness and circumferential for ISHORA and SKODA RPV, respectively. In particular for the investigation of weld metal from multilayer submerged welding seams the crack extension direction is of importance. Depending on the crack extension direction in the specimen there are different welding beads or a uniform structure along the crack front. The specimen orientation becomes more important when the fracture toughness of the weld metal is directly determined on surveillance specimens according to the Master Curve (MC) approach as standardised in the ASTM Standard Test Method E1921. This approach was applied on weld metal of the RPV beltline welding seam of Greifswald Unit 8 RPV. Charpy size SE(B) specimens from 13 locations equally spaced over the thickness of the welding seam were tested. The specimens are in TL and TS orientation.
The fracture toughness values measured on the SE(B) specimens with both orientations follow the course of the MC. Nearly all values lie within the fracture toughness curves for 5% and 95% fracture probability. There is a strong variation of the reference temperature T0 though the thickness of the welding seam, which can be explained with structural differences. The scatter is more pronounced for the TS SE(B) specimens. It can be shown that specimens with TS and TL orientation in the welding seam have a differentiating and integrating behaviour, respectively. The statistical assumptions behind the MC approach are valid for both specimen orientations even if the structure is not uniform along the crack front. By comparison crack extension, JR, curves measured on SE(B) specimens with TL and TS orientation show only minor differences within the mean variation.
Keywords: reactor pressure vessel steel, welding seam, surveillance programme, specimen orientation, fracture toughness, Master Curve concept
  • Lecture (Conference)
    34th MPA-Seminar and VGB-Symposium "Materials and Components Behaviour in Energy & Plant Technology", 09.-10.10.2008, Stuttgart, Deutschland
  • Contribution to proceedings
    34th MPA-Seminar and VGB-Symposium "Materials and Components Behaviour in Energy & Plant Technology", 09.-10.10.2008, Stuttgart, Deutschland
    Proceedings 34th MPA-Seminar and VGB-Symposium "Materials and Components Behaviour in Energy & Plant Technology", Stuttgart: MPA Stuttgart

Publ.-Id: 11627 - Permalink


Effects of Neutron Irradiation on Positron and Micro-Vickers Hardness of Fe-Cu Model Alloys and Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel
Hempel, A.; Hasegawa, M.; Brauer, G.; Plazaola, F.; Saneyasu, M.; Tang, Z.;
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Ninth International Symposium on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems - Water Reactors, 01.-05.08.1999, Newport Beach, United States
    Proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium on Environmental Degradation of Materials in Nuclear Power Systems - Water Reactors, 0-87339-475-5, 835-843

Publ.-Id: 11626 - Permalink


3-(4-(6-Fluoroalkoxy-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-2(1H)-yl)cyclohexyl)-1H-indole-5-carbonitriles for SERT imaging: chemical synthesis, evaluation in vitro and radiofluorination
Funke, U.; Fischer, S.; Hiller, A.; Scheunemann, M.; Deuther-Conrad, W.; Brust, P.; Steinbach, J.;
Aminocyclohexyl indoles bind with high affinity and specificity toward the serotonin transporter (SERT). Based on this structural lead, we designed fluoroalkoxydihydroisoquinoline-cyclohexyl indole carbonitriles for future application as 18F-labeled tracers for SERT imaging by PET. Six compounds, three pairs of cis- and trans-isomer derivatives, respectively, were synthesized and evaluated in vitro. The chemistry of the new compounds, their affinity and specificity data, the general route to the phenolic precursor for labeling, and the successful 18F-fluoroalkylation of one pair of compounds are described herein.
Keywords: Serotonin transporter; PET; Indole carbonitriles; Affinity; Radiolabeling; Fluorine-18

Publ.-Id: 11625 - Permalink


Synthesis and radioiodination of two Cdk4 inhibitors.
Köhler, L.; Graf, F.; Pietzsch, J.; Steinbach, J.; Wüst, F.;
Aim:
Accurate cell proliferation is depending on the correct execution of the cell cycle. The cell cycle is controlled and coordinated by various enzymes and proteins like cyclins, cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdk) and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (Cki). Many tumors show dysregulated Cdk activity and/or Cdk expression, and in 80 % of tumors the cell cycle relevant Cdk4-D1/INK4/pRb/E2F signal cascade is altered. Hence, appropriately radiolabeled Cdk4 inhibitors may be promising molecular probes for imaging cell proliferation processes and tumor visualization by PET. This work describes the design and synthesis of two 124I-labeled Cdk4 inhibitors 8-cyclopentyl-6-[124I]iodo-5-methyl-2-(4-piperazin-1-yl-phenylamino)-8H-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-one ([124I]CKIA) and 8-cyclopentyl-6-[124I]iodo-5-methyl-2-(5-(piperazin-1-yl)pyridin-2-ylamino)-8H-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-one ([124I]CKIB) (figure) as potential radiotracers for imaging Cdk4 expression in vivo.

Results:
Reference substances and labeling precursors were prepared with minor modifications according to the chemistry described by Barvian et al.1 and VanderWel et al.2. The trimethylstannane compounds CKIAP and CKIBP as labeling precursors for the radioiodination reaction with I-124 were prepared in a multi-step synthesis sequence. Radioiodination was achieved by regioselective destannylation reaction under mild conditions using [124I]NaI and Chloramine-T or Iodogen as oxidizing agents. Treatment of a solution (50 µl) containing CKIAP (5 mg/ml) with [124I]NaI (36 MBq) in Iodogen precoated tubes afforded 12 MBq (34 %, decay-corrected) of [124I]CKIA, including HPLC purification. The optimal reaction conditions for the [124I]CKIA synthesis were applied to the synthesis of [124I]CKIB. Starting from a 50 µl solution of CKIBP (5 mg/ml) and [124I]NaI (29 MBq), compound [124I]CKIB was obtained in a 34 % decay-corrected radiochemical yield, including HPLC purification. Both compounds were isolated in radiochemical purity exceeding 95 % and high chemical purity. The specific activities were determined to be 20 GBq/µmol and 4 GBq/µmol, respectively. The lipophilicity (logP) was experimentally measured. The logP value was 2.77 ± 0.13 for [124I]CKIA and 1.99 ± 0.03 for [124I]CKIB.

Conclusion:
The radiosynthesis of two 124I-labeled Cdk4 inhibitors has been developed. Both radiotracers were obtained in reproducible radiochemical yields and purity enabling further radiopharmacological characterization aimed at imaging Cdk4 expression by means of PET.

References:
1 : Barvian, M.; Boschelli, D. H.; Cossrow, J.; Dobrusin, E.; Fattaey, A.; Fritsch, A.; Fry, D.; Harvey, P.; Keller, P.; Garrett, M.; La, F.; Leopold, W.; McNamara, D.; Quin, M.; Trumpp-Kallmeyer, S.; Toogood, P.; Wu, Z. P.; Zhang, E. L. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2000, 43, 4606-4616.
2 : VanderWel, S. N.; Harvey, P. J.; McNamara, D. J.; Repine, J. T.; Keller, P. R.; Quin, J.; Booth, R. J.; Elliott, W. L.; Dobrusin, E. M.; Fry, D. W.; Toogood, P. L. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2005, 48, 2371-2387.
  • Lecture (others)
    16. Arbeitstagung der AG Radiochemie/Radiopharmazie, 25.-27.09.2008, Münster, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11624 - Permalink


Biological, biochemical and radiopharmacological properties of two Cdk4 inhibitors.
Graf, F.; Köhler, L.; Wüst, F.; Mosch, B.; Pietzsch, J.;
Ziel/Aim:
The aim of our study was the biological, biochemical and radiopharmacological characterization of a known Cdk4 inhibitor CKIA, a derivative compound CKIB and their corresponding iodine-124 radiolabeled compounds in different tumor cell lines. Further we wanted to prove the hypothesis that potent Cdk4 inhibitors, which are interesting for cancer therapy are also suitable as radiotracers for imaging of cell proliferation processes in vivo and tumor visualization by positron emission tomography (PET).

Methodik/Methods:
Cell growth and cell cycle studies were performed in human tumor cell lines HT-29 (colon carcinoma), FaDu (head- and neck squamous cell carcinoma), and THP-1 (acute monocytic leukemia). Cdk4 specific pRb phosphorylation at Ser780 was analyzed in cell lysates by western blotting. mRNA expression of the pRb affected genes E2F-1 and PCNA was measured with quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Radiotracer uptake studies were performed using iodine-124 radiolabeled CKIA ([124I]CKIA) or CKIB ([124I]CKIB).

Ergebnisse/Results:
Tumor cell growth studies indicate a significantly reduced cell proliferation in all cell lines after 48 h of treatment with 0.1 (< 50%) and 1 µM (< 25%) CKIA. This effect is confirmed by cell cycle studies. Already 24 h after incubation with CKIA the percentage of tumor cells in G1 phase showed a concentration dependent increment up to 90%. pRb phosphorylation is decreased three- to tenfold after 24 h of treatment with 0.1 and 1 µM CKIA in all cell lines. Furthermore, a substantial downregulation of E2F-1 and PCNA mRNA expression could be demonstrated. In vitro radiotracer uptake studies in adherent tumor cells using [124I]CKIA (As = 20 GBq/µmol) showed a substantial uptake in HT-29 (1,649±117 %ID/mg protein) and FaDu cells (1,033±84 %ID/mg protein) after 2 h at 37°C. At 4°C an obvious lower uptake was detectable in both cell lines (258±30 %ID/mg protein in HT-29, 169±14 %ID/mg protein in FaDu).
Further, a new compound derived from CKIA was studied. CKIB shows similar effects on cell growth and cell cycle distribution. After 48 h of treatment with CKIB cell proliferation was reduced by 36% (0.1 µM) or 62% (1 µM) in HT-29 cells. Over 90% of HT-29 cells in G1 phase were obtained after 24 h of incubation with 1 µM CKIB. Results of pRb phosphorylation and both E2F-1 and PCNA mRNA expression analyses suggest a downregulation after 24 h of incubation with 1 µM CKIB in the tumor cells. In vitro studies with [124I]CKIB (As = 3.5 GBq/µmol) demonstrate a radiotracer uptake of 904±43 %ID/mg protein in HT-29 and 856±45 %ID/mg protein in FaDu cells after 2 h at 37°C. Radiotracer uptake at 4°C is substantially lower.

Schlussfolgerungen/Conclusions:
In conclusion, our data demonstrate a definite and specific inhibition of tumor cell proliferation after incubation with CKIA and CKIB due to an arrest of tumor cells in G1 phase as a result of Cdk4-cyclin D/ pRb/ E2F pathway inhibition. The radiotracer uptake of [124I]CKIA and [124I]CKIB observed in human tumor cells are a promising prerequisite for in vivo biodistribution and imaging studies by PET to further support our hypothesis that radiolabeled CKIA and corresponding compounds are suitable tracers for visualization of tumors using PET.


  • Lecture (others)
    16. Arbeitstagung der AG Radiochemie/Radiopharmazie, 25.-27.09.2008, Münster, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11623 - Permalink


Pyridinhaltige Liganden des 1,4,7-Triazacyclononans (TACN): Neue bifunktionelle Kupferchelatoren
Ruffani, A.; Stephan, H.; Fähnemann, S.; Steinbach, J.;
Ziel/Aim:
Ziel der Arbeit ist die Entwicklung von bifunktionellen Markierungsbausteinen für eine milde und selektive radioaktive Markierung von Proteinen mit dem Positronenstrahler Kupfer-64. In diesem Zusammenhang sind pyridinhaltige Derivate des 1,4,7-Triazacyclononans 1 besonders geeignet, weil sie sehr stabile Kupfer(II)-Komplexe bilden sowie eine schnelle Komplexbildungskinetik aufweisen. Erste Untersuchungen zeigen, dass Komplexe von Kupfer-64 mit Verbindung 2 sowie einem entsprechenden Peptidkonjugat auf der Basis eines stabilisierten Bombesinfragments BBN(7-14) eine hohe in vitro und in vivo Stabilität besitzen.[1]

Methodik/Methods:
Das maleinimidhaltige Derivat 3 wurde durch Peptidkupplung mittels HBTU in Anwesenheit der Hünigbase DIPEA aus der Carbonsäure 2 und Aminoethylmaleinimid synthetisiert. Ein weiterer vielseitig einsetzbarer Synthesebaustein wurde durch Umsetzung von 1 mit einem Boc-geschützden Phenylendiamin-Derivat erhalten. Durch Abspaltung der Schutzgruppe wird das freie Amin 4 gebildet, das durch Behandlung mit Thiophosgen in das Isothiocyanat 5 überführt werden kann. Maleinimid-Derivate 6 mit unterschiedlicher aliphatischer Spacerlänge sind durch Amidkupplung von 4 mit Aktivester-Maleinimid-Derivaten zugänglich.

Ergebnisse/Results:
Markierungsstudien des Maleinimids 3 mit Kupfer-64 weisen auf eine sehr schnelle Komplexbildungskinetik unter physiologischen Bedingungen hin. Wie Untersuchungen mit dem Modellpeptid Glutathion zeigen, bindet dieser Markierungsbaustein sehr effektiv an Thiolgruppen.

Schlussfolgerungen/Conclusions:
Bifunktionelle Liganden auf der Basis von pyridinhaltigen TACN-Derivaten können unter milden Bedingungen effektiv mit Kupfer-64 markiert werden. Sie sind vielfältig modifizierbar. Damit eignen sie sich zur schonenden Konjugation an Biomoleküle mit unterschiedlichen funktionellen Gruppen.

Referenzen/Refrences:
[1] G. Gasser et al., Bioconjugate Chem. 2008, 19, 719-730.
  • Lecture (others)
    16. Arbeitstagung der AG Radiochemie/Radiopharmazie, 25.-27.09.2008, Münster, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11622 - Permalink


Entwicklung eines Pretargeting-Ansatzes unter Nutzung radioaktiv markierter L Oligonukleotide
Förster, C.; Schlesinger, J.; Közle, I.; Bergmann, R.; Walther, M.; Pietzsch, H.-J.; Steinbach, J.;
Ziel:
Gegenstand der Forschungsarbeiten ist die systematische Entwicklung eines geeigneten Pretargeting-Modells für die Endoradionuklidtherapie unter Verwendung komplementärer L konfigurierter Oligonukleotide (L ON). Ziel dabei ist die Bewertung der in vivo Hybridisierungseigenschaften hinsichtlich ihrer Eignung zur radiodiagnostischen und -therapeutischen Verwendung bei Tumorerkrankungen.

Methodik:
Modifizierte 12- und 17-basige L-RNAs wurden mit DOTA-Derivaten funktionalisiert und im Anschluss mit den PET-Nukliden 68Ga und 86Y markiert. Die Hybridisierung wurde u. a. in Rattenvollblut in Abhängigkeit von der Konzentration untersucht. Weiterhin wurden die Bioverteilung sowie Metabolitenuntersuchungen in männlichen Wistar Ratten durchgeführt (1).
Als Modellsystem dienen DOTA-modifizierte Human Serum Albumin Mikrosphären (HSAM, Durchmesser 20 30 μm). Nach intravenöser Applikation dieser Partikel kommt es auf Grund ihrer Größe zum vollständigen Trapping der Mikrosphären in der Lunge (2, siehe Abb. 1). Analog zu diesen Untersuchungen ist geplant, diese Partikel mit L-ON zu modifizieren und somit eine in vivo Hybridisierung in der Lunge zu ermöglichen. Mit Hilfe dieses Ansatzes wäre man in der Lage, quantitative Beurteilungen des in vivo Hybridisierungsverhaltens komplementärer L-ON vorzunehmen. Zunächst erfolgen in vitro Tests, um das Hybridisierungspotenzial der auf der HSAM-Oberfläche präsentierten L ON zu verifizieren. Zudem wurde eine erste in vivo Untersuchung mittels Kleintier-PET und Urinanalyse durch aufeinander folgende intravenöse Verabreichung von L ON-HSAM-Konjugaten und der komplementären, radioaktiv markierten RNA Stränge vorgenommen.

Ergebnisse:
Die in Abbildung 2 dargestellten Ergebnisse unter Verwendung eines [86Y]Y-DOTA-17mers sind exemplarisch für die Bioverteilung der 86Y markierten L-ON. Bereits 5 min p. i. wurden 16 ± 5 % der injizierten Dosis renal ausgeschieden sowie 20 ± 2 % in der Niere akkumuliert (zum Vergleich zeigte ein 12mer eine renale Ausscheidung nach 5 min von nahezu 82 % ID). Nach 60 min sank die im Tier verbleibende Aktivitätsmenge auf 26 ± 2 %. Es lagen keine signifikanten Akkumulationen in anderen Organen vor (1). Die hohe in vivo Stabilität konnte anhand der Metabolitenanalyse nachgewiesen werden. 60 Minuten p. i. konnten im Urin 80 % und im Nierenhomogenat 81 % der vorliegenden markierten Substanz dem intakten 17mer zugeordnet werden. Konzentrationsabhängige Untersuchungen in Rattenvollblut ergaben eine maximale Hybridisierung bei einem Stoffmengenverhältnis von 1:1.
Aufgrund der vorteilhafteren Ergebnisse in Bezug auf biologische Verfügbarkeit und Hybridstabilität werden die nachfolgende Modellansätze mit 17-basigen L ON durchgeführt. Die kovalente Verknüpfung der RNA über eine Amid- oder Thioharnstoffbindung mit unbehandelten sowie DOTA-modifizierten HSAM ist auf Grund der Vielzahl an Amino- und Carboxylgruppen auf der Oberfläche der Partikel (elektrostatische Wechselwirkungen und starke Wasserstoffbrückenbindungen zwischen den Oligonukleotiden und HSAM) unter den bisher getesteten Bedingungen nur in geringen Ausbeuten möglich. Erste in vitro Hybridisierungstests ergaben positive Ergebnisse, wobei die entstandenen Hybride an der HSAM-Oberfläche lokalisiert sind. Bei einer in vivo Untersuchung wurde jedoch im Urin 45 % der vorhandenen Aktivitätsmenge den entstandenen Hybriden zugeordnet. Um das Problem der Adsorption von L ON auf der Partikeloberfläche zu lösen, werden die HSAM in weiteren Untersuchungen zuerst mit hydrophoben Reagenzien modifiziert, um eine kovalente Bindung zu gewährleisten. Als alternativer Ansatz werden zurzeit carboxylfunktionalisierte Polystyren-Mikrosphären analog modifiziert und untersucht. Zudem wird daran gearbeitet, die rasche renale Ausscheidung sowie die hohe Nierenakkumulation zu verringern. .....
  • Lecture (others)
    16. Arbeitstagung der AG Radiochemie/Radiopharmazie, 25.-27.09.2008, Münster, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11621 - Permalink


4-[18F]Fluoro-N-methyl-N-(prop-2-ynyl)benzenesulfonamide: A novel prosthetic group for click chemistry with peptides and proteins
Ramenda, T.; Knieß, T.; Steinbach, J.; Wüst, F.;
Ziel/Aim:
The radiolabeling of peptides or proteins with the short-lived positron emitter 18F requires rapid and mild reaction conditions to maintain the structural and functional integrity of these bioactive compounds. Over the last two years several approaches have been published focused on the application of copper(I)-mediated 1,3-dipolar [3+2]cycloaddition of azides and alkynes for labeling peptides with 18F.1-4 The peptides were functionalized with an azide- or alkyne group to be reacted with an appropriately 18F-labeled azide or alkyne, respectively. In this work we report on the radiosynthesis and application of a novel 18F-labeled prosthetic group based upon a sulfonamide backbone suitable for click chemistry applications using azide-functionalized phosphopeptide and human serum albumin (HSA).

Methodik/Methods:
Two labeling precursors containing different leaving groups (nitro- and trimethylammoniumtriflate) and the reference substance were prepared by the reaction of N-methylpropargylamine with the corresponding sulfonic acid chlorides. Radiofluorination was performed in a single step. Different purification procedures have been developed including solid phase extraction and semi-preparative HPLC. The peptide and the protein were modified with an azide linker. Cycloaddition reactions were carried out in the presence of copper(I) salts in combination with different copper-chelating ligand systems.

Ergebnisse/Results:
The radiolabeled sulfonamide can be obtained in radiochemical yields of 23 % (decay corrected) in high radiochemical purity of >99 % after HPLC purification within 89 min. First promising results in labeling a phosphopeptide and a protein (HSA) could be achieved.

Schlussfolgerungen/Conclusions:
The novel prosthetic group for peptide and protein labeling with 18F via click chemistry can be prepared in reasonable radiochemical yields and high radiochemical purity. Moreover, for the first time click chemistry was successfully applied to the 18F labeling of a a phosphopeptide and a protein.

Figuren/Figures:

4-[18F]Fluoro-N-methyl-N-(prop-2-ynyl)benzenesulfonamide

Referenzen/Refrences:
1 Marik, J.; Sutcliffe, J.L. Tetrahedron Lett., 2006, 47, 6681.
2 Ramenda, T.; Bergmann, R.; Wuest, F. Lett. Drug Des. Discovery, 2007, 4, 279.
3 Glaser, M.; Arstad, E. Bioconjugate Chem., 2007, 18, 989.
4 Li, Z.-B.; Wu, Z.; Chen, K.; Chin, F.T.; Chen, X. Bioconjugate Chem., 2007, 18, 1987.
  • Lecture (others)
    16. Arbeitstagung der AG Radiochemie/Radiopharmazie, 25.-27.09.2008, Münster, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11620 - Permalink


3-D magnetic field effects during metal electrodeposition In cuboid cells
Mutschke, G.; Cierpka, C.; Weier, T.; Eckert, K.; Mühlenhoff, S.; Bund, A.;
In electrochemical reactions, Lorentz forces due to external homogeneous magnetic fields may lead to increased mass transfer as additional convection is caused (MHD effect). A careful analysis shows that often a three-dimensional modeling of this effect is necessary. We will present numerical simulations of copper electrolysis in cuboid cells under the influence of homogeneous magnetic fields of different directions in the limiting current regime. The found complex interplay of natural and magnetically driven convection is compared with recent experimental results.
Keywords: Electrodeposition, Magnetic Field, Magneto-Electrolysis, Numerical Simulations, PIV
  • Lecture (Conference)
    7th PAMIR International Conference on Fundamental and Applied MHD, 08.-12.09.2008, Presqu'ile de Giens, Frankreich
  • Contribution to proceedings
    7th International PAMIR Conference on Fundamental and Applied MHD, 08.-12.09.2008, Presqu'ile de Giens, Frankreich, 273-277

Publ.-Id: 11619 - Permalink


X-ray absorption and X-ray scattering - two complementary techniques to determine the coordination of solution species
Hennig, C.;
The intention of the presentation is to compare the experimental observations with X-ray absorption and X-ray scattering to determine the coordination of solution species. EXAFS is an element selective technique and allows to identify the direct coordinated ligands. Distances above 4 Ae are often difficult to detect, even if it concerns heavy atoms. X-ray scattering detects all scattering pairs in a solution. The difference technique allows to select specific ions and makes X-ray scattering is especially sensitive to heavy scatterers in distances above 4 Ae.
Keywords: X-ray scattering, X-ray absorption
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Invited lecture, 5.8.2008, Leuven, Belgium

Publ.-Id: 11618 - Permalink


RPV weld material investigations of a VVER-440 NPP
Rindelhardt, U.; Viehrig, H.-W.; Schuhknecht, J.; Konheiser, J.;
The Greifswald NPP was operated between 1973 and 1990. The units are of Russian WWER-440-230 type. In autumn 2005 the first trepans (diameter 120 mm) were taken from the unit 1 of this NPP. The RPV of this unit was annealed after 14 years of operation, followed by two additional years of operation.
The paper describes the results of weld metal investigations. The trepan originates from the RPV core weld exposed with the highest neutron flux. The neutron dosimetry was based on Monte Carlo fluence calculations as well as retrospective Nb dosimetry. The maximum fluence for E>0.5 MeV was determined to be 4*1019 neutron/cm2, and the maximum gamma fluence was found to be 1.7*1020 gamma/cm2 for E>1 MeV. A decrease of 60% through the thickness of the RPV was found.
The key part of the material testing was aimed on the determination of the reference temperature T0 following the ASTM Test Standard E1921-05 to determine the fracture toughness of the RPV steel in different thickness locations. It could be shown that the Master Curve approach as adopted in E1921 is applicable to the investigated original RPV weld metal. The weld metal located in a distance of about 22 mm from the inner surface of the RPV wall yielded a T0 of 50°C which is about 40K higher than T0 close to the inner surface. This outcome is important for the assessment of results retrieved from so called boat samples taken directly from the RPV surface after the recovery annealing. It shows that boat samples do not mandatory represent the material with the lowest toughness.
Keywords: Neutron dosimetry, neutron embrittlement, VVER-440, reactor pressure vessel
  • Lecture (Conference)
    10th International Conference "Material Issues in Design, Manufacturing and Operation of Nuclear Power Plants Equipment", 06.-10.10.2008, St. Petersburg, Russia
  • Contribution to proceedings
    10th International Conference "Material Issues in Design, Manufacturing and Operation of Nuclear Power Plants Equipment", 06.-10.10.2008, St. Petersburg, Russia
    The 10th Interntional Conference (Conference CD), St. Petersburg: PROMETEY

Publ.-Id: 11616 - Permalink


Probing nanoscale inhomogeneities in transition metal oxides with ultrafast mid-infrared spectroscopy
Prasankumar, R. P.; Lee, H. J.; Okamura, H.; Imai, H.; Shimakawa, Y.; Kubo, Y.; Zvyagin, S.; Kamenev, K.; Balakrishnan, G.; Paulf, D. M.; Trugman, S. A.; Taylor, A. J.; Averitt, R. D.;
Transition metal oxides are a rich area of investigation for experimentalists and theorists alike due to their coupling of multiple degrees of freedom with similar interaction strengths. This complexity leads to intrinsic phase inhomogeneities that are believed to play a significant role in the fascinating phenomena observed in these systems. We use ultrafast mid-infrared spectroscopy to probe quasiparticle dynamics in the colossal magnetoresistive oxides, Nd0.5Sr0.5MnO3 and Tl2Mn2O7. Our results demonstrate for the first time that ultrafast spectroscopy is sensitive to the presence of nanoscale phase inhomogeneities, strongly indicating the universality of phase coexistence in complex transition metal oxides.
  • Physica B 403(2008)5-9, 1401-1403

Publ.-Id: 11615 - Permalink


ESR excitations in the BEC candidate DTN: what can we learn from that?
Zvyagin, S.;
NiCl2-4SC(NH2)2 (known as DTN) is a quantum S = 1 chain system with strong easy-plane anisotropy that is regarded as a new candidate for the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of magnons, with critical fields Bc1 = 2.1 T, Bc2 = 12.6 T (defined at T = 0). Tuneable-frequency Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) studies of magnetic excitations in DTN in fields up to 25 T are presented. Based on analysis of the single-magnon excitation mode observed in the high-field spin-polarized phase at temperatures above Tc (Tc ≤ 1.2 K) and previous experimental results [Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 077204 (2006)], a revised set of spin-Hamiltonian parameters is obtained. Our results yield D = 8.9 K, Jc = 2.2 K, and Ja,b = 0.18 K for the anisotropy, intrachain, and interchain exchange interactions, respectively. These values are used to calculate the antiferromagnetic phase boundary, magnetization and the frequency-field dependence of two-magnon bound-state excitations predicted by theory and observed in DTN for the first time. Furthermore, we present a systematic study of the low-energy excitation spectrum of DTN in the field-induced magnetically ordered phase (which has been regarded as the magnon BEC phase) at temperatures down to 0.45 K. We argue that two gapped modes observed in the experiment can be consistently interpreted within a four-sublattice antiferromagnet model with a finite interaction between two tetragonal subsystems and unbroken axial symmetry. The physically simplest scenario would correspond to the isotropic “corner-center” exchange. Since the exchange interaction within each sublattice is antiferromagnetic, the system in the BEC phase is supposed to be highly frustrated, and then its mean-field ground state at B > Bc1 should be infinitely degenerate. Our observations are of crucial importance for the interpretation of the field-induced ordering in DTN in terms of the BEC of magnons.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Workshop Highly Frustrated Magnets, 02.-05.03.2008, Grenoble, France

Publ.-Id: 11614 - Permalink


Excitation spectrum and magnetic properties of the Haldane-gap material NENB
Zvyagin, S.; Cizmar, E.; Ozerov, M.; Ignatchik, O.; Papageorgiou, T.; Wosnitza, J.; Krzystek, J.; Zhou, Z.; Wikaira, J. L.; Landee, C. P.; Thurnbull, M.;
Results of high-field ESR and magnetization studies of the new
spin-1 Haldane-chain material [Ni(C2H8N2)2NO2](BF4) (NENB) are reported. A definite signature of the Haldane state in NENB was obtained. From the analysis of the frequency-field dependence of magnetic excitations in NENB, the spin-Hamiltonian parameters were calculated, yielding \Delta/k_{B} = 17.4~K, g_{\parallel}=2.14, D/k_{B}=7.5~K, and |E/k_{B}|=0.7~K for the Haldane gap, g factor and the crystal-field anisotropy constants, respectively. The presence of fractional S=1/2 chain-end states, revealed by ESR and magnetization measurements, is found to be responsible for spin-glass freezing effects. In addition, extra states in the excitation spectrum of NENB have been observed in the vicinity of the Haldane gap, which origin is discussed.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    2008 APS March Meeting, 10.-14.03.2008, New Orleans, USA

Publ.-Id: 11613 - Permalink


QCD Sum Rules for D Mesons at Finite Density
Hilger, T.;
QCD Sum Rules for D Mesons at Finite Density
  • Lecture (others)
    Helmholtz International Summer School - Dense Matter in Heavy Ion Collisions and Astrophysics, 21.07.2008, Dubna, Russia

Publ.-Id: 11612 - Permalink


Simulation of defects and composition after Ga+ irradiation of ultrathin Pt/Co/Pt film
Liedke, B.; Facsko, S.; Fassbender, J.ORC; Heinig, K.-H.; Möller, W.; Jaworowicz, J.; Ferre, J.; Maziewski, A.; Vernier, N.
Theoretical studies of the collision intermixing and defects creation processes of irradiated ultrathin Pt/Co/Pt films by 30 keV Ga+ are presented. First, in order to investigate the influence of the Ga ions, with ion fluence ranging between 1014 and 5·1016 ions/cm, on the composition of the film and the sputtering yield TRIDYN simulation is employed. Second, the relaxation of defects created during irradiation is estimated by means of the Lattice Kinetic Monte Carlo Ising model, which is subsequently applied after each collision cascade. According to our theoretical results ion fluence has a strong impact on the erosion velocity and intermixing processes that take place at the interface. Due to the nuclear energy losses of the implanted ions, changes in the material composition at the interface and the spin reorientation transition from the in-plane to out-of-plane magnetization state is observed. Moreover, the so-called swelling effect, which originates from the strain relaxation of the irradiated films, gives rise to an increase of the magnetic anisotropy. However, the strain relaxation can be strongly non-uniform in the implanted square area providing a mixture of patches with in-plane or out-of-plane anisotropy. Experimentally observed irradiation induced phenomena is fairly well described in the frame of our simulations.
Keywords: magnetism, ion irradiation, simulations, Monte Carlo
  • Poster
    16th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials, 31.08.-05.09.2008, Dresden, Germany

Publ.-Id: 11611 - Permalink


Fe nanoparticles embedded in MgO crystals
Shalimov, A.; Potzger, K.; Talut, G.; Geiger, D.; Reuther, H.; Zhou, S.; Baetz, C.; Misiuk, A.; Fassbender, J.ORC
Iron nanoparticles embedded in MgO single crystals were synthesized by high temperature Fe+ implantation with energy of 100 keV and fluences varying from 3×10E16 to 3×10E17 ions/cm-2. Complex investigations of structural and magnetic properties of Fe nanoparticles have been performed using magnetometry, x-ray diffraction, electron microscopy and Moessbauer spectroscopy, as well as theoretical modeling of magnetization of bistable magnetic systems.
It has been found that at the low implantation fluences superparamagnetic Fe nanoparticles were created that finally were attributed to alpha-Fe coexisting with non-magnetic gamma-Fe, while implantation with high fluences causes formation of ferromagnetic alpha-Fe particles. Post implantation annealing at 800 ºC in high vacuum results in size increase of the gamma-Fe particle’s simultaneously reducing internal lattice strain. Annealing at 800 ºC under 1 GPa hydrostatic pressure limits dimension of superparamagnetic nanoparticles significantly increasing their concentration.
Theoretical simulations of irreversible magnetization processes, performed within the framework of generalized Preisach model, show a strong correlation between the spontaneous magnetization, coercive field and dimension of nanoparticles. The model allows us to define the anisotropy effects and thermal fluctuation effects, which provides the detailed description of temperature behavior of magnetization.
Keywords: magnetism, ion implantation, nanoparticle, Fe
  • Poster
    16th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials, 31.08.-05.09.2008, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11610 - Permalink


Untwinning of alloyed nanoparticles via intermediate amorphization
Järvi, T. T.; Pohl, D.; Albe, K.; Rellinghaus, B.; Schultz, L.; Fassbender, J.ORC; Kuronen, A.; Nordlund, K.
Recent experimental evidence shows that multiply twinned CuAu and FePt nanoparticles transform to single crystalline morphology under helium irradiation with keV energies [1,2]. The untwinning is rather unexpected, since it is widely accepted that under the given conditions only Frenkel pairs are formed, which do not affect the stability of twin boundaries.
We present molecular dynamics simulations revealing that the mechanism behind the transformation is based on intermediate amorphization of the particles. By comparing with irradiation simulations of elemental nanoparticles, published previously [3], as well as alloyed bulk samples and surface cascades, we show that this transformation route is only present in alloyed particles. Moreover, the observed amorphization is more efficient for twinned than single- crystalline particles, explaining, together with fast recrystallization kinetics, the observed untwinning.

[1] Dmitrieva et al., J. Appl. Phys. 97 (2005) 10N112
[2] Järvi T. T., Pohl D., et al., unpublished
[3] T. T. Järvi et al., J. Appl. Phys. 102 (2007) 124304
Keywords: magnetism, ion irradiation, binary alloys, nanoparticle, FePt
  • Poster
    16th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials, 31.08.-05.09.2008, Dresden, Germany

Publ.-Id: 11609 - Permalink


The influence of ion irradiation on the structure of binary nanoparticles
Pohl, D.; Järvi, T. T.; Mohn, E.; Fassbender, J.ORC; Albe, K.; Schultz, L.; Rellinghaus, B.
FePt and CuAu nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution and a diameter of about 5 nm are prepared through inert gas condensation. Since as-deposited particles usually exhibit the metastable disordered A1 phase we have investigated, how ion irradiation influences the phase stability of various crystal motifs such as icosahedral or decahedral multiply twinned structures.
Ion irradiation leads to the creation of vacancies within the particles and thereby enhances the bulk diffusion of their constituents. In the present study, gas-phase prepared single crystalline and multiply twinned FePt and CuAu nanoparticles are irradiated with ions of different noble gases and different energy. It is shown that the He+ ion irradiation promotes the de-twinning of the binary nanoparticles and the formation of single crystalline A1 phase particles. A comparison of the experiments on CuAu nanoparticles with the results of molecular dynamic simulations will be presented. The effect of the energy difference between the different morphologies for both the ordered and disordered structures is discussed.
Keywords: magnetism, ion irradiation, binary alloys, FePt, nanoparticle
  • Poster
    16th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials, 31.08.-05.09.2008, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11608 - Permalink


Precision study of ground state capture in the 14N(p,gamma )15O reaction
Marta, M.; Bemmerer, D.; Bonetti, R.; Broggini, C.; Caciolli, A.; Corvisiero, P.; Confortola, F.; Conti, E.; Costantini, H.; Elekes, Z.; Formicola, A.; Fülöp, Z.; Gervino, G.; Guglielmetti, A.; Gyürky, G.; Gustavino, C.; Imbriani, G.; Junker, M.; Lemut, A.; Limata, B.; Mazzocchi, C.; Menegazzo, R.; Prati, P.; Roca, V.; Rolfs, C.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Somorjai, E.; Straniero, O.; Strieder, F.; Terrasi, F.; Trautvetter, H. P.;
The rate of the hydrogen-burning carbon-nitrogen-oxygen (CNO) cycle is controlled by the slowest process, 14N(p,gamma)15O, which proceeds by capture to the ground and several excited states in 15O. Previous extrapolations for the ground state contribution disagreed by a factor of 2, corresponding to 15% uncertainty in the total astrophysical S-factor. A new experiment on ground state capture has been carried out at the Laboratory for Underground Nuclear Astrophysics (LUNA) 400 kV accelerator deep underground in the Gran Sasso facility in Italy. Systematic corrections have been reduced considerably with respect to previous work by using a Clover detector and by adopting a relative analysis. The previous discrepancy has been resolved, and ground state capture no longer dominates the uncertainty of the total S-factor. The present data make it possible to use solar CNO neutrinos to measure the metallicity at the center of the Sun.
Keywords: nuclear astrophysics, LUNA, CNO cycle, solar neutrinos, Clover segmented detector
  • Poster
    10th International Symposium on Nuclei in the Cosmos, 27.07.-01.08.2008, Mackinac Island, Michigan, USA

Publ.-Id: 11607 - Permalink


Precision study of the 14N(p, gamma)15O reaction at LUNA
Marta, M.; Bemmerer, D.; Kunz, R.; Rolfs, C.; Strieder, F.; Trautvetter, H.-P.;
The rate of the hydrogen-burning CNO cycle is controlled by the slowest reaction, 14N(p,gamma)15O. 15-30% of the total cross section are contributed by radiative capture to the ground state in 15O. Previous extrapolated S-factors for this ground state contribution disagree by a factor 2. The precision of those previous studies had been limited by a sizable true coincidence summing correction. In a new experiment using a segmented Clover detector deep underground at LUNA, the summing correction has been reduced by a factor 30, so existing R-matrix fits can now be precisely tested. The present data enable a direct measurement of the metallicity at the center of the Sun by detecting solar CNO neutrinos, for example at Borexino.
Keywords: nuclear astrophysics, CNO cycle, solar neutrinos, Clover segmented detector
  • Lecture (Conference)
    DPG Frühjahrstagung des AMOP und der Fachverbände Hadronen und Kerne, Umweltphysik, 10.-14.03.2008, Darmstadt, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11606 - Permalink


Instantaneous-shape sampling for calculation of the electromagnetic dipole strength in transitional nuclei
Zhang, S.; Bentley, I.; Brant, S.; Dönau, F.; Frauendorf, S.; Kämpfer, B.; Schwengner, R.; Wagner, A.;
Electromagnetic dipole absorption cross sections of transitional nuclei with large-amplitude shape fluctuations are calculated in a microscopic way by introducing the concept of instantaneous-shape sampling, which is based on slow shape dynamics as compared with fast dipole vibrations. The dipole strength is calculated by means of the quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA) for the instantaneous shapes, the probability of which is obtained by means of the interacting boson approximation. The calculations agree well with the experimental photoabsorption cross sections near the nucleon emission threshold, but they underestimate it at low energies. The cumulative cross sections for the region below the threshold are a factor of 2 too low.
Keywords: nuclear models, deformation, electromagnetic strength

Publ.-Id: 11605 - Permalink


Direct nanoscale magnetic patterning in FeAl alloys by means of ion irradiation
Menendez, E.; Sort, J.; Liedke, M. O.; Strache, T.; Fassbender, J.ORC; Möller, W.; Gemming, T.; Weber, A.; Heydermann, L. J.; Surinach, S.; Deevi, S. C.; Rao, K. V.; Sommerlatte, J.; Nielsch, K.; Baro, M. D.; Nogues, J.
Fe60Al40 (at. %) alloys show an interesting combination of magnetic and structural properties, where atomically ordered Fe60Al40 (B2-structure) is paramagnetic at room temperature, whereas disorder Fe60Al40 (i.e., atomically intermixed, A2-structure) becomes ferromagnetic [1]. The transformation from paramagnetic B2-phase to the ferromagnetic A2-phase can be accomplished by means of homogeneous ion irradiation procedures. The irradiation induced transformation depends on the irradiation dose and the type of ions [2]. Furthermore, local ion irradiation procedures (i.e., focused ion beam or ion irradiation through masks) have been also used in order to fabricate periodic arrays of ferromagnetic structures embedded in a paramagnetic matrix [3]. Patterned polymer layers defined by electron beam lithography and porous alumina templates were used as masks. While the e-beam lithography allows for a careful design of the patterns, alumina templates lead to fast processing of very large areas. Importantly, due to the low fluences used, this method does not induce any roughening of the surface, leading to topographically featureless magnetic dots. The fabricated entities exhibit a range of magnetic properties depending on the size and shape, which were investigated by means of magneto-optical Kerr effect magnetometry, while the local character of the induced ferromagnetism was examined by magnetic force microscopy. The smallest dots (sub-50 nm in size) exhibit coercivities in the range of HC  500 Oe and a large squareness, MR/MS  1 (see Fig. 1). Interestingly, when the patterned sheets are annealed at sufficiently high temperatures, the ferromagnetic properties are removed due to the annealing-induced atomic reordering. Hence, these methods may lead to a novel type of patterned recording media free from tribological and exchange coupling effects. Moreover, these approaches can be easily extrapolated to a variety of other systems exhibiting disorder-induced magnetism.

[1] J. Nogués et al., Phys. Rev. B 74, 024407 (2006)
[2] J. Fassbender et al., Phys. Rev. B 77, 174430 (2008)
[3] E. Menéndez, (2008) submitted
Keywords: magnetism, ion irradiation, focused ion beam, modification, intermetallics, binary alloys
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Trends in Nanotechnology, TNT 2008, 01.-05.09.2008, Oviedo, Spanien

Publ.-Id: 11604 - Permalink


Beispielhafte Wasserkraftnutzung an der Saale: Entwicklung, Stand und Perspektiven
Rindelhardt, U.;
Nach 1990 erlebte die Wasserkraftnutzung in Thüringen und Sachsen-Anhalt eine Renaissance. 20 neue WKA mit einer Leistung von mehr als 20 MW entstanden bisher an den vorhandenen Wehren mit teilweise interessanten technischen Lösungen. Die mögliche jährliche Stromerzeugung dieser Anlagen liegt bei 70 GWh. Die Kaplan-Turbine dominiert bei den Neubauten eindeutig, wobei sowohl Schacht- als auch Rohrturbinen zum Einsatz kommen. Technisch bemerkenswert sind die überströmten WKA in Jena sowie die PIT-Turbine in der mit 2 MW größten neu errichteten Anlage in Calbe. Nur an wenigen Anlagen ist noch Bedienungspersonal erforderlich, an einigen Standorten ist die Zukunft teils denkmalgeschützter, heute nicht mehr genutzte Gebäude offen.

Mit dem erreichten beachtlichen Stand ist das technische Wasserkraftpotenzial der Saale noch nicht erschöpft. Unterhalb der Saalekaskade hat die Saale in Thüringen insgesamt ein Gefälle von 110 m, und in Sachsen-Anhalt zwischen Bad Kösen und Calbe beträgt das Gefälle etwa 63 m. Die bisher genutzten Fallhöhen in den genannten Bereichen liegen bei 33 m in Thüringen und bei knapp 29 m in Sachsen-Anhalt. In Sachsen-Anhalt laufen derzeit Vorbereitungen zum Bau von weiteren WKA (etwa 4-5 MW) an bisher nicht bzw. nur zum Teil genutzten Wehren, wodurch sich die genutzte Fallhöhe um etwa 10 m erhöhen kann. Im Zusammenhang mit dem geplanten Bau des Tornitz-Kanals an der Saalemündung ist keine weitere Wasserkraftnutzung vorgesehen. In Thüringen ist die Perspektive wegen des erfolgten Rückbaus von 2 Wehren (Saalfeld und Kunitz) weniger günstig. Nur an 2 noch bestehenden Wehren ist eine Wasserkraftnutzung denkbar (etwa 0,5 MW).

Insgesamt sind die Rahmenbedingungen für den Wasserkraftausbau in Deutschland in den letzen Jahren deutlich ungünstiger geworden. Die EU-WRRL und ihre Untersetzung in nationalen Gesetzen bzw. Vorschriften führten praktisch zu einem Baustopp für neue Wehre sowie zu hohen Anforderungen an die Restwassermenge bei Ausleitungskraftwerken. Unter diesen Bedingungen ist ein weiterer Ausbau der Wasserkraftnutzung trotz ihrer unbestreitbaren Vorteile und der jüngsten Modifizierungen im EEG kaum realisierbar.
Keywords: renewable energy, small hydro power
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Dresdner Wasserbaukolloquium 2009, 12.-13.03.2009, Dresden, Deutschland
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Dresdner Wasserbaukolloquium 2009, 12.-13.03.2009, Dresden, Deutschland
    Dresdner Wasserbauliche Mitteilungen Heft 39: Wasserkraftnutzung im Zeichen des Klimawandels, Dresden: Selbstverlag TU Dresden, 978-3-86780-101-0, 163-172

Publ.-Id: 11603 - Permalink


Weld material investigations of a VVER-440 reactor pressure vessel: Results from the first trepan taken from the former Greifswald NPP
Rindelhardt, U.; Viehrig, H.-W.; Konheiser, J.; Schuhknecht, J.;
Between 1973 and 1990 4 units of the Russian NPP type WWER-440/230 were operated in Greifswald (former East Germany). Material probes from the pressure vessels were gained in the frame of the ongoing decommissioning procedure. The investigations of this material started with material from the circumferential core weld of unit 1.
Firstly this paper presents results of the RPV fluence calculations depending on different loading schemes and on the axial weld position based on the Monte Carlo code TRAMO. The results show, that the use of the dummy assemblies reduces the flux by a factor of 2 – 5 depending on the azimuthal position. The circumferential core weld (SN0.1.4) received a fluence of 2.4•1019 neutrons/cm² at the inner surface, it decreases to 0.8•1019 neutrons/cm² at the outer surface.
The material investigations were done using a trepan from the circumferential core weld. The reference temperature T0 was calculated with the measured fracture toughness values, KJc, at brittle failure of the specimen. The KJc values show a remarkable scatter The highest T0 was about 50°C at a distance of 22 mm from the inner surface of the weld The Charpy transition temperature TT41J estimated with results of sub size specimens after the recovery annealing was confirmed by the testing of standard Charpy V-notch specimens.
The VERLIFE procedure prepared for the integrity assessment of WWER RPV was applied on the measured results. The VERLIFE lower bound curve indexed with the SINTAP reference temperature RTT0SINTAP envelops the KJc values. Therefore for a conservative integrity assessment the fracture toughness curve indexed with a RT representing the brittle fraction of a dataset of measured KJc values has to be applied.
Keywords: neutron dosimetry, neutron embrittlement, reactor pressure vessel
  • Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power - Transactions of the ASME 131(2009), 22904
    DOI: 10.1115/1.3032461

Publ.-Id: 11602 - Permalink


Combined xenolith and receiver function study, western Bohemian Massif, central Europe
Kämpf, H.; Heuer, B.; Mrlina, J.; Reuther, H.;
The occurrence of strong negative phases at 7,5s Ps delay, may indicate body of partial melt at ca. 65km depth beneath
western Bohemian Massif (see Figure below). To test the hypothesis, we studied 2 suites of lithospheric
mantle xenoliths, different in age (P-T-fO2, petrophysical, geochemical and isotope [Sr, Nd, Pb] constraints). The
xenoliths from 25 Ma old volcanics are spinel lherzolithes. The suite from 0.3 Ma old volcanics represent cumulates,
porous fragments of magmatic veins or porous wehrlites. These samples are strongly altered by mantle metasomatism
(changes of fO2, geochemical constraints, density/porosity).
  • Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 72(2008)12, A447
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Goldschmidt Conference 2008, 13.-18.07.2008, Vancouver, Kanada

Publ.-Id: 11601 - Permalink


On the effectiveness of ion range determination from in-beam PET data
Fiedler, F.; Shakirin, G.; Crespo, P.; Braess, H.; Skowron, J.; Kunath, D.; Pönisch, F.; Pawelke, J.; Enghardt, W.;
At present, in-beam positron emission tomography (PET) is the only method for in vivo and in situ range verification in ion therapy. At the GSI Helmholtzzentrum f¨ur Schwerionenforschung GmbH (GSI) Darmstadt, Germany, a unique in-beam PET installation has been operated from 1997 until the shut down of the carbon ion therapy facility in 2008. Therapeutic irradiation by means of 12C ion beams of more than 400 patients have been monitored. In this paper a first quantitative study on the accuracy of the inbeam PET method to detect range deviations between planned and applied treatment in clinically relevant situations using simulations based on clinical data is presented. Patient treatment plans were used for performing simulations of positron emitter distributions. For each patient a range difference of ±6mm in water was applied and compared to simulations without any changes. The comparisons were performed manually by six experienced evaluators for data of 81 patients. The number of patients required for the study was calculated using the outcome of a pilot study. The results indicate a sensitivity of (91±3)% and a specificity of (96 ± 2)% for detecting an overrange, a reduced range is recognized with a sensitivity of (92±3)% and a specificity of (96±2)%. The positive and the negative predictive value of this method are 94% and 87%, respectively. The interobserver coefficient of variation is between 3 and 8%. The in-beam PET method demonstrated a high sensitivity and specificity forthe detection of range deviations. As the range is a most indicative factor of deviations in the dose delivery, the promising results shown in this paper confirm the in-beam PET method as an appropriate tool for monitoring ion therapy.
Keywords: in-beam PET, ion therapy

Publ.-Id: 11600 - Permalink


Simulation of postulated accidents in pressurized water reactors using coupled 3D neutron kinetic/thermal hydraulic code systems
Kliem, S.; Rohde, U.; Weiss, F.-P.;
Coupled code systems consisting of 3D neutron kinetics in combination with advanced thermal hydraulic plant models have been developed for an improved analysis of the whole reactor system. At Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, the 3D neutron kinetic core model DYN3D, developed in house, was coupled with the advanced thermal hydraulic system code ATHLET of the German Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit.
Analyses of a hypothetical boron dilution event were carried out using that coupled code system. For that purpose a validated coolant mixing model was implemented into the code. Transient calculations for the bounding scenario of the start-up of one main coolant pump with the maximum size of a deborated slug showed a significant reactivity insertion and over-criticality. However, according to the calculations, even an over-criticality of about 2 $ did not lead to safety-relevant consequences. The power excursion is mitigated and stopped by fuel temperature feedback.
Anticipated transients without SCRAM are a second application area of the coupled code systems. In such transients with a postulated failure of the control rod insertion, the core power behavior is determined exclusively by the neutron kinetic feedback of the fuel and the moderator. The DYN3D/ATHLET code was used to investigate the influence of the core loading on the safety parameters during the transient: “Loss of main feedwater at running main coolant pumps”. It was shown that the variation of the number of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel elements in the reactor core has a remarkable influence on the fuel temperature and the moderator density feedback, which influences through the core power the primary coolant pressure. Increasing the number of MOX fuel elements decreases the calculated pressure maximum.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    IEEE Dresden 2008, 19.-25.10.2008, Dresden, Germany

Publ.-Id: 11598 - Permalink


Nature of defects formed in neutron-irradiated Fe-Cr model alloys
Ulbricht, A.; Heintze, C.; Bergner, F.; Eckerlebe, H.;
Reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) Cr-steels are candidate materials for future applications in fusion and generation IV fission research and technology. Previous SANS experiments for this class of materials indicated defects on the nanometer size scale to be formed as a result of neutron irradiation. The experiment was devoted to the investigation of Eurofer97, which is in the focus of current coordinated European research activities, and related Fe-Cr model alloys. The investigation of binary Fe-Cr alloys will significantly contribute to the understanding of the behaviour of more complex alloys.
Keywords: SANS, Fe-Cr alloy, Eurofer97, radiation defects
  • Other report
    Geesthacht: GeNF-Experimental Report 2007, Eds. P. K. Pranzas, A. Schreyer, R. Willumeit, GKSS Forschungszentrum, 2008
    2 Seiten

Publ.-Id: 11597 - Permalink


Application of Positron Emission Tomography for Radiotherapy Monitoring
Shakirin, G.; Fiedler, F.; Laube, K.; Möckel, D.; Parodi, K.; Pawelke, J.; Priegnitz, M.; Enghardt, W.;
Positron emission tomography (PET) is used for independent monitoring of dose delivery in ion therapy. An in-beam PET scanner registers the annihilation γ-rays following the decay of minor amounts of β+ radioactive nuclei, which are produced via nuclear reactions between the ions of the therapeutic beam and the atomic nuclei of the irradiated tissue. From a comparison of the reconstructed activity distributions with those predicted from the treatment plan, deviations between the prescribed and the applied dose distributions can be detected. In-beam PET, therefore, allows to verify the physical beam model used in the treatment planning, to detect patient dislocations and density changes in the irradiated tissue. Treatment of more than 400 patients has been monitored by means of in-beam PET at Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Darmstadt, Germany. The in-beam PET method demonstrated a positive clinical impact as in vivo, in situ, non-invasive technique for independent monitoring of dose application.
Keywords: in-beam PET, radiotherapy monitoring
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    20th International Conference on the Application of Accelerators in Research and Industry, 09.-15.08.2008, Fort Worth, TX, USA

Publ.-Id: 11596 - Permalink


Development of the high-field ESR facility at the Dresden High Magnetic Field Laboratory (HLD)
Zvyagin, S. A.; Cismar, E.; Ozerov, M.; Pronin, A.; Wosnitza, J.;
In this presentation I will talk about recent developments of the high-field Electron Spin Resonance facility at the Dresden High Magnetic Field Laboratory (HLD), Forschungszentrum Dresden–Rossendorf. A unique feature of the facility is a combination of an extraordinary broad frequency range, 9 GHz – 100 THz (achieved by use of a number of tunable-frequency radiation sources, including MVNA, BWOs and FEL) and high magnetic fields (70 T and 16 T, produced by pulsed and superconducting magnets, respectively). The talk will be illustrated by recent results obtained in-house (including the study of the excitation spectrum in the spin-1/2 chain system (6MAP)CuCl3, the spin-ladder material BPCB, and others), as well as by results of international collaborations (including the collaboration with the National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Tallinn, Estonia)
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    1st Bilateral Estonian-German Workshop, Strong Nonlinear Vibronic and Electronic Interactions in Solids, 30.04.-02.05.2008, Tartu, Estonia

Publ.-Id: 11595 - Permalink


High-field ESR in low-dimensional spin systems
Zvyagin, S. A.;
Here, I present results of our recent tunable-frequency high-field Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) studies of two low-dimensional quantum spin systems. The first one, copper pyrimidine dinitrate, is an S=1/2 antiferromagnetic chain material with alternating g-tensor and the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, which exhibits a field-induced gap Δ. Employing ESR technique, the gap was observed directly.1 Experimental data are sufficiently detailed to make an accurate comparison with predictions based on the sine-Gordon quantum-field theory. Signatures of three breather branches and a soliton are identified. In addition, the temperature and field dependences of ESR parameters in the perturbative spinon regime (T > Δ/kB) are studied.2 Excellent agreement with theory is found. The second material, NiCl2-4SC(NH2)2 (known as DTN) is a quantum S = 1 chain system with strong easy-plane anisotropy that is regarded as a new candidate for the field-induced Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of spin degrees of freedom. Employing ESR, we were able to accurately estimate parameters of the spin-Hamiltonian, to study the frequency-field dependence of two-magnon bound-state excitations 3 (predicted by theory and observed in DTN for the first time), and to investigate the magnetic excitation spectrum in DTN in the field-induced ordered phase.4 Supported in part by NHFMF (through NSF and DOE) and DFG.
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    50th Annual Rocky Mountain Conference on Analytical Chemistry, 27.-31.07.2008, Breckenridge, Colorado, USA

Publ.-Id: 11594 - Permalink


Anisotropic many-body effects in nonmagnetic borocarbides
Bergk, B.; Petzold, V.; Rosner, H.; Drechsler, S.-L.; Bartkowiak, M.; Ignatchik, O.; Canfield, P. C.; Wosnitza, J.;
We present de Haas{van Alphen measurements of the nonmagnetic borocarbide superconductors LuNi2B2C and YNi2B2C. The measurements have been performed by use of the torque method in high magnetic fields up to 32 T and at temperatures down to 50 mK. The Fermi-surface cross sections are extracted from the magnetic quantum oscillations in the normal state. In accordance with previous investigations we find a complex band structure with dfferent open and closed Fermi-surface sheets. From the temperature dependence of the oscillations amplitude the effective mass of the single bands can be determined. We observe sizeable and anisotropic enhancements of the effective masses compared to full-potential-localorbital calculations which is due to anisotropic many-body interactions.
  • Poster
    25th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics (LT25), 06.-13.08.2008, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Publ.-Id: 11593 - Permalink


Superconductivity of p-Type Doped Ge
Herrmannsdörfer, T.; Ignatchik, O.; Wosnitza, J.; Heera, V.; Mücklich, A.; Posselt, M.; Reuther, H.; Schmidt, B.; Skorupa, W.; Voelskow, M.;
We report the first observation of superconductivity in heavily p-type doped Germanium at ambient-pressure conditions. Using Ga as dopant, we have produced a series of GeGax samples by ion-beam implantation and subsequent short-term (msec) flash-lamp annealing. The combination of these techniques allows for Ga concentrations up to 14%, i.e. a doping level which is clearly larger than the solubility limit and not accessible to any other method so far. Transport measurements reveal superconducting transitions with Tc up to 0.39 K. In more detail, we observe a strong dependence of the superconducting critical parameters on the annealing conditions. Further, we find a strong anisotropy of the superconducting critical field re ecting the two-dimensional character of the superconducting state in the thin GeGax layer having an effective depth of only 20 nm. We find critical magnetic in-plane fields even larger than the Pauli-Clogston limit. After its finding in Si and diamond, our work adds another unexpected observation of superconductivity in doped elemental semiconductors.
  • Poster
    LT25 (25th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics), 06.-13.08.2008, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Publ.-Id: 11592 - Permalink


Low-temperature excitation spectrum in the BEC candidate DTN: an ESR study
Zvyagin, S. A.; Wosnitza, J.; Kolezhuk, A. K.; Zapf, V. S.; Jaime, M.; Paduan-Filho, A.; Glazkov, V. N.; Sosin, S. S.; Smirnov, A. I.;
NiCl2-4SC(NH2)2 (known as DTN) is a quantum S = 1 system with an easy-plane anisotropy dominating over the exchange interaction and exhibiting a field-induced low-temperature ordering with critical fields Bc1=2.1 T and Bc2=12.6 T. A systematic study of the low-energy excitation spectrum of DTN in the field-induced magnetically ordered phase at temperatures down to 0.45 K and frequencies down to 25 GHz is presented. It is argued that two gapped modes observed in the experiment can be consistently interpreted within a four-sublattice antiferromagnet model with a weak isotropic corner-center interaction of magnetic ions in the body-centered tetragonal lattice with unbroken axial symmetry.1 The latter is of particular importance, being a necessary prerequisite for the interpretion of the antiferromagnetic ordering in DTN in terms of the Bose-Einstein condensation of the spin degrees of freedom
  • Poster
    25th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics (LT25), 06.-13.08.2008, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Publ.-Id: 11591 - Permalink


Magnetic properties of Zn-doped Haldane-gap material NENB
Cizmar, E.; Ozerov, M.; Ignatchik, O.; Papageorgiou, T. P.; Wosnitza, J.; Zvyagina, S. A.; Krzystek, J.; Zhou, Z.; Landee, C. P.; Landry, B. R.; Turnbull, M. M.; Wikaira, J. L.;
Experimental studies of magnetic susceptibility and electron-spin resonance (ESR) properties of the spin-1 Haldane-chain material [Ni(C2H8N2)2NO2](BF4) (NENB) doped with non-magnetic Zn-ions in a range up to 5% are reported. The presence of fractional S = 1/2 chain-end states, revealed by ESR and susceptibility measurements in nominally pure single crystals of NENB, is found to be responsible for spin-glass freezing effects. Higher doping ratio of Zn-ions suppresses the spin-glass behaviour by creating shorter and isolated chain fragments. The effect of non-magnetic doping on the lineshape of ESR spectra of fractional S = 1/2 chain-end states is discussed.
  • Poster
    25th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics (LT25), 06.-13.08.2008, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Publ.-Id: 11590 - Permalink


Ultrasonic Investigation of NiCl2-4SC(NH2)2
Chiatti, O.; Zherlitsyn, S.; Sytcheva, A.; Wosnitza, J.; Zvyagin, A. A.; Zapf, V. S.; Jaime, M.; Paduan-Filho, A.;
We report results of ultrasonic investigations of the quantum S = 1 spin-chain magnet NiCl2-4SC(NH2)2 (DTN), in magnetic fields up to 18 T and temperatures down to 0.3 K. A field H along the c axis induces a transition into an antiferromagnetic phase with Tmax N ≈ 1:2 K. Accordingly, at T = 0 there are two quantum critical points at ~ 2:1 T and at ~ 12:6 T. The acoustic c33 mode, propagating along the spin chains, shows a pronounced softening close to the phase transition, accompanied by energy dissipation of the sound-wave. The H - T phase diagram obtained from our measurements is compared with results from other experimental investigations, and the low temperature acoustic anomalies are traced up to T > TN. We suggest a model where the main contribution to the spin-lattice interactions arises from the exchange- striction coupling within one-dimensional spin chains, and find a good qualitative agreement with the experimental data from the disordered phase.
  • Poster
    25th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics (LT25), 06.-13.08.2008, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Publ.-Id: 11589 - Permalink


Magnetic properties of the S = 1/2 Heisenberg spin-chain material (6MAP)CuCl3
Ozerov, M.; Cizmar, E.; Zvyagin, S. A.; Wosnitza, J.; Xiao, F.; Landee, C.; Turnbull, M.;
We report on the magnetic properties of the S = 1/2 Heisenberg spin-chain material (6MAP)CuCl3. The magnetic susceptibility exhibits a pronounced maximum at T ≈ 70 K, which is a signature of low-dimensional magnetic interactions in (6MAP)CuCl3, following by a pronounced Curie-like behavior at low temperatures. In order to understand the nature of low-temperature magnetic interactions, the excitation spectrum of (6MAP)CuCl3 is probed using the electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. The angular dependence of the g-factor clearly indicates the existence of two magnetically non-equivalent sites of Cu-ions in neighboring chains. The ESR signal exhibits a significant linebroadening with decreasing temperature (starting at approximately 30 K), accompanied by a pronounced shift of the g-factor. The observed features can be explained by enhanced short-range-order spin correlations when approaching the long-range ordering at low temperature. Our suggestion is confirmed by the observation of a lowtemperature (T ~ 2.3 K) anomaly in the specific heat. The anomaly measured in field up to 14 T does not exhibit any significant dependence on the applied magnetic field.
  • Poster
    25th international conference on Low Temperature Physics (LT25), 06.-13.08.2008, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Publ.-Id: 11587 - Permalink


Observation of the antiferromagnetic resonance in the Ho-subsystem in multiferroic HoMnO3
Zvyagin, S. A.; Ozerov, M.; Cizmar, E.; Wosnitza, J.; Zhou, H. D.; Wiebe, C. R.;
Multiferroic rare-earth manganites have attracted much attention because of the coexistence of ferroelectric and magnetic orders. Among hexagonal magnanites, the largest magnetoelectric effect was found in HoMnO3, which is ferroelectric below Tc = 875 K and antiferromagnetically ordered below TMn N = 75 K (Mn-subsystem). In addition, at THo N ~ 5 K the Ho-subsystem undergoes a transition into antiferromagnetically ordered state. The coupling between ferroelectric and antiferromagnetic order parameters in HoMnO3 has not been yet unambiguously explained, revealing the importance of geometrical frustrations and a complex interplay between Ho and Mn magnetic subsystems. Here, the magnetic excitation spectrum in high-quality single-crystalline samples of HoMnO3 was probed by means of X-band (9.3 GHz) electron spin resonance spectroscopy. A relatively strong absorption was found below 5 K, which corresponds to the temperature of the magnetic ordering of the Ho-subsystem. The observed mode exhibits very pronounced anisotropic behavior and can be interpreted as excitations within the antiferromagnetically ordered Ho-subsystem.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Highly Frustrated Magnetism 2008, 07.-12.09.2008, Braunschweig, Germany

Publ.-Id: 11586 - Permalink


CFD modelling of polydispersed bubbly two phase flow around an obstacle
Krepper, E.; Beyer, M.; Frank, T.; Lucas, D.; Prasser, H.-M.;
A population balance model (the Inhomogeneous MUSIG model) has recently been developed in close cooperation between ANSYS-CFX and Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and implemented into the CFD-Code CFX (Krepper et al. 2005, Frank et al. 2005, Krepper et al. 2007). The current paper presents a brief description of the model principles. The capabilities of this model are discussed via the example of a bubbly flow around a half-moon shaped obstacle arranged in a 200 mm pipe. In applying the Inhomogeneous MUSIG approach, a deeper understanding of the flow structures is possible and the model allows effects of poly-dispersion to be investigated. For the complex flow around the obstacle, the general structure of the flow was well reproduced in the simulations. This test case demonstrates the complicated interplay between size dependent bubble migration and the effects of bubble coalescence and break-up on real flows. The closure models that characterize the bubble forces responsible for the simulation of bubble migration show agreement with the experimental observations. However, clear deviations occur for bubble coalescence and fragmentation. The models applied here, which describe bubble fragmentation and coalescence could be proved as a weakness in the validity of numerous CFD analyses of vertical upward two-phase pipe flow. Further work on this topic is under way.
Keywords: bubbly flow, CFD, non-drag forces, bubble breakup, bubble coalescence, population balance, code validation

Publ.-Id: 11585 - Permalink


Magnet technology and experimental technique at the Dresden High Magnetic Field Laboratory
Scurschii, J.;
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Seminar am "International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures", 23.06.2008, Wroclaw, Poland

Publ.-Id: 11584 - Permalink


Coil design for magnetic pulse applications
Herrmannsdörfer, T.;
The generation of high magnetic fields for scientific and industrial applications, in particular those techniques which meet critical limits of field strength, coil heating, and mechanical stress as well, require a careful design and modelling. In order to describe the mutual dependences of the electrical, thermodynamical, and mechanical processes in such systems in a reasonable way, the use of multi-physics modules of finite-element software packages becomes more and more relevant. Here, the designs based on finite-element simulations of pulsed magnetic-field coils for industrial applications as well as of their pulsed-power supplies for the generation of electrical-current pulses are presented.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Join Forces - The 1st Technical Conference on MP Welding and Forming, 03.07.2008, München, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11583 - Permalink


Terahertz and infrared spectroscopy of superconductors
Pronin, A.;
In the talk, results of experimental investigations of terahertz and infrared electrodynamics of different families of superconductors will be reviewed. In the conventional BCS-superconductors, a pronounced gap feature dominates the terahertz response below Tc. In the cuprates, entering into the superconducting state is accompanied by developing of a narrow zero-frequency centered mode in the real part of the in-plane complex conductivity. In the multi-gap superconductors (such as MgB2), opening of the gap on each sheet of the Fermi surface contributes to the changes of dynamic complex conductivity.
A particular stress will be given on electron-doped cuprates, the electrodynamical response of which was found to have a remarkable dependence on the doping level. Significant changes in the gap anisotropy or even in the gap symmetry may account for this dependence.
The majority of the experiments have been performed on a home-made spectrometer, which utilizes backward-wave oscillators as sources of coherent and frequency-tunable terahertz radiation. An interferometer arrangement of the spectrometer has allowed both, amplitude and phase shift measurements, thus permitting direct (without using the Kramers-Kronig relations) determination of the optical constants.
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Seminar bei BESSY, 30.06.2008, Berlin, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11582 - Permalink


Simultaneous measurement of magnetization and magnetostriciton in 50 T pulsed high magnetic fields
Doerr, M.; Lorenz, W.; Neupert, T.; Loewenhaupt, M.; Kozlova, N. V.; Freudenberger, J.; Bartkowiak, M.; Kampert, E.; Rotter, M.;
To simultaneously perform magnetization and magnetostriction measurements in high magnetic fields, a miniaturized device was developed that combines an inductive magnetometer with a capacitive dilatometer and, therefore, it is called “dilamagmeter.” This combination of magnetic and magnetoelastic investigations is a new step to a complex understanding of solid state properties. The whole system can be mounted in a 12 mm clear bore of any cryostat usually used in nondestructive pulsed high field magnets. The sensitivity of both methods is about 10−5 Am2 for magnetization and 10−5 relative changes in length for striction measurements. Measurements on a GdSi single crystal, which are corrected by the background signal of the experimental setup, agree well with the results of steady field experiments. All test measurements, which are up until now performed in the temperature range of 4–100 K, confirm the perfect usability and high stability in pulsed fields up to 50 T with a pulse duration of 10 ms. © 2008 American Institute of Physics.
  • Review of Scientific Instruments 79(2008), 063902

Publ.-Id: 11581 - Permalink


Excitation hierarchy of the spin-1 large-D system NiCl2-4SC(NH2)2
Zvyagin, S. A.; Wosnitza, J.; Batista, C. D.; Krzystek, J.; Zapf, V. S.; Jaime, M.; Paduan-Filho, A.; Tsukamoto, M.; Kawashima, N.;
NiCl2-4SC(NH2)2 (known as DTN) is an S = 1 chain system with the easy-plane anisotropy dominating over the exchange interaction (so-called large-D system) and a new candidate for studying the fieldinduced Bose-Einstein condensation of magnons. The excitation spectrum of DTN has been investigated by means of tunable-frequency ESR technique in fields up to 25 T. Based on analysis of the magnon excitation spectrum, a revised set of spin-Hamiltonian parameters was obtained. These values were used to calculate the AFM phase boundary, low-temperature magnetization and the frequency-field dependence of two-magnon bound-state excitations, predicted by theory and observed in DTN for the first time. Excellent quantitative agreement with experimental data was obtained. Published in Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 047205 (2007).
  • Lecture (Conference)
    72. Jahrestagung der DPG und DPG Frühjahrstagung des Arbeitskreises Festkörperphysik mit anderen Fachverbänden und den Arbeitskreisen der DPG, 25.-29.02.2008, Berlin, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11580 - Permalink


CeRu2Si2 and Quantum Critical Metamagnetism?
Weickert, F.; Gegenwart, P.; Garst, M.; Steglich, F.;
CeRu2Si2 is a well-known prototypical heavy fermion system and shows a sudden strong increase in the magnetization M and the sample length ΔL for magnetic fields parallel to the crystallographic c-direction at around 7.8 T. These anomalies occur below 4K and sharpen with decreasing temperatures, but no features for a first order phase transition are observed down to 15mK. We report new thermal expansion α, magnetostriction λ and specific heat C/T measurements, which have been made in mT magnetic field steps around the metamagnetic crossover down to 15mK on very pure single crystals. The results show hints for the existence of a quantum critical endpoint in CeRu2Si2 and were compared with an extended model of metamagnetic quantum criticality, which was first introduced by Millis et al. in 2002.
  • Poster
    72. Jahrestagung der DPG und DPG Frühjahrstagung des Arbeitskreises Festkörperphysik mit anderen Fachverbänden und den Arbeitskreisen der DPG, 25.-29.02.2008, Berlin, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11579 - Permalink


Experimental and numerical investigation of temperature stratification phenomena during heating-up processes of fluids in passive cooling systems
Krepper, E.; Beyer, M.;
In modern designs of nuclear reactors often natural circulation is used as a passive mechanism for heat removal. In the concepts the heat is removed from the reactor and transported into a large pool. Examples are the pressure suppression pool (wet-well) of the ESBWR, the in-containment refuelling water storage tank of the AP-1000, the pool of the emergency condenser of the SWR-1000 and the gravity driven water pool of the AHWR.
In large pools temperature stratification can compromise the heat transfer process. Generation of steam might lead to an increase of the flow velocities, to a mixing of liquids having different temperatures and to a disappearance of temperature stratification. At the corresponding temperatures steam is released from the pool into the containment and influences the increase of the containment pressure. Under conditions of strong temperature stratification compared to a homogeneous temperature distribution, the fluid at the top of the pool much earlier reaches the saturation temperature. The evaporation starts much earlier resulting in an earlier the pressure increase in the containment.
In the presentation both experiments and numerical CFD simulations are reported to investigate the capability of actual CFD modeling this task.
Keywords: passive safety systems, large pools, natural circulation, experiments, CFD
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Multiphase Flow: Simulation, Experiment and Application, 24.-26.06.08, Dresden, Germany

Publ.-Id: 11578 - Permalink


Calorimetric evidence for a Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov superconducting state in the layered organic superconductor κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu(NCS)2
Wosnitza, J.;
es hat kein Abstract vorgelegen
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    The 63rd Calorimetry Conference (CALCON 2008), 02.-06.07.2008, Jersey City, New Jersey, USA

Publ.-Id: 11577 - Permalink


Experimental investigation and CFD simulation of insulation debris transport phenomena in water flow
Krepper, E.; Cartland-Glover, G.; Grahn, A.; Alt, S.; Hampel, R.; Kästner, W.; Seeliger, A.;
The investigation of insulation debris generation, transport and sedimentation becomes important with regard to reactor safety research for PWR and BWR, when considering the long-term behavior of emergency core cooling systems during all types of loss of coolant accidents (LOCA). The insulation debris released near the break during a LOCA incident consists of a mixture of disparate particle population that varies with size, shape, consistency and other properties. Some fractions of the released insulation debris can be transported into the reactor sump, where it may perturb/impinge on the emergency core cooling systems.
Open questions of generic interest are the sedimentation of the insulation debris in a water pool, its possible re-suspension and transport in the sump water flow and the particle load on strainers and corresponding pressure drop. A joint research project on such questions is being performed in cooperation between the University of Applied Sciences Zittau/Görlitz and the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. The project deals with the experimental investigation of particle transport phenomena in coolant flow and the development of CFD models for its description. While the experiments are performed at the University at Zittau/Görlitz, the theoretical modeling efforts are concentrated at Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf.
In the presentation the basic concepts for CFD modeling are described and feasibility studies including the conceptual design of the experiments are presented.
Keywords: CFD, two-fluid approach, fiber flows, experiments
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Multiphase Flow: Simulation, Experiment and Application, 24.-26.06.08, Dresden, Germany

Publ.-Id: 11576 - Permalink


Stretching the limits - Research at High Magnetic Fields
Bartkowiak, M.;
es hat kein Abstrakt vorgelegen
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Seminar des Max-Planck-Instituts für Festkörperforschung, 11.07.2008, Stuttgart, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11575 - Permalink


Numerical and experimental investigation of temperature stratification phenomena during heating up processes of fluids in large pools
Krepper, E.;
In modern designs of nuclear reactors often natural circulation is used as a passive mechanism for heat removal. In the concepts the heat is removed from the reactor and transported into a large pool. Examples are the pressure suppression pool (wet-well) of the ESBWR, the in-containment refuelling water storage tank of the AP-1000, the pool of the emergency condenser of the SWR-1000 and the gravity driven water pool of the AHWR.

In large pools temperature stratification can compromise the heat transfer process. Generation of steam might lead to an increase of the flow velocities, to a mixing of liquids having different temperatures and to a disappearance of temperature stratification. At the corresponding temperatures steam is released from the pool into the containment and influences the increase of the containment pressure. Under conditions of strong temperature stratification compared to a homogeneous temperature distribution, the fluid at the top of the pool much earlier reaches the saturation temperature. The evaporation starts much earlier resulting in an earlier the pressure increase in the containment.

In the presentation both experiments and numerical CFD simulations are reported to investigate the capability of actual CFD modeling this task.
Keywords: passive safety systems, large pools, natural circulation, experiments, CFD
  • Lecture (Conference)
    International Workshop on Thermal-Hydraulics of Innovative Reactor and Transmutation Systems – THIRS, 14.04.08, Karlsruhe, Germany

Publ.-Id: 11574 - Permalink


A high-brightness SRF photoelectron injector for FEL light sources
Arnold, A.; Büttig, H.; Janssen, D.; Kamps, T.; Klemz, G.; Lehmann, W. D.; Lehnert, U.; Lipka, D.; Marhauser, F.; Michel, P.; Möller, K.; Murcek, P.; Schneider, C.; Schurig, R.; Staufenbiel, F.; Stephan, J.; Teichert, J.; Volkov, V.; Will, I.; Xiang, R.;
Most of the proposed electron accelerator projects for future FELs, ERLs or 4th generation light sources require electron beams with an unprecedented combination of high brightness, low emittance, and high average current. In all projects photoguns will be applied: DC-photoguns, normal conducting RF-photoguns (NC-guns), and superconducting RF photoguns (SRF-guns). While the concepts of DC- and NC-guns are well proofed, the SRF-gun development still possesses a high risk. Challenges are the design of the superconducting cavity, the choice of the photocathode type, its life time, a possible cavity contamination, the difficulty of coupling high average power into the gun, and, finally, the risk of beam excitation of higher-order cavity modes. In combination with SRF linacs, the SRF-guns seem to be the best solution for high average currents. Several R&D projects of SRF-gun have been launched. In this paper, we will give an overview of the progress of the SRF photoinjector development. In detail, the technical concept, the performance and the status of the Dresden Rossendorf SRF-gun project, a collaboration of BESSY, DESY, MBI and FZD, will be presented. The main design parameters of this SRF-gun are the final electron energy of 9.5 MeV, 1 mA average current, and transverse normalized emittances (rms) of 1 mm mrad at 77 pC and 2.5 mm mrad at 1 nC bunch charge. The 1.3 GHz cavity consists of three TESLA-shaped cells, a specially designed half-cell where the photocathode is placed and a choke filter in order to prevent RF losses at the cathode side. The normal-conducting photocathode with a Cs2Te photoemission layer is cooled by liquid nitrogen. The SRF-gun cryostat consists of a stainless steel vacuum vessel, a warm magnetic shield, a liquid nitrogen-cooled thermal shield and a titanium He tank with a two-phase supply tube. The 10 kW fundamental power coupler is adopted from the ELBE cryomodule. In a first commissioning and test period the gun will be operated in parallel to the accelerator. A diagnostic beamline will allow beam parameter measurement and further optimization of the SRF-gun. In a final step, the gun will be connected to the ELBE superconducting linear accelerator to deliver an improved electron beam to the user labs.
Keywords: Superconductivity; Radio frequency; Photoelectron injector; SRF-gun; Cavity; Laser
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 593(2008), 57-62

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Publ.-Id: 11573 - Permalink


Quasiparticle model for the quark-gluon plasma: equation of state near T-c
Bluhm, M.; Kämpfer, B.;
We test the quark mass dependence implemented in the quasiparticle dispersion relations of our quasiparticle model for the QCD equation of state by comparing with recently available lattice QCD data near Tc employing almost physical quark masses. In addition, we emphasize the capability of our model to successfully describe lattice QCD results for imaginary chemical potential and to analytically continue the latter to real chemical potential.

Publ.-Id: 11572 - Permalink


Magnetic field reversals in nature, experiments and simulations
Giesecke, A.; Stefani, F.; Gerbeth, G.;
From paleomagnetic observations, numerical simulations and -- meanwhile -- also experiments, it appears that reversing dynamos are a quite common phenomenon.
Long time series of mean field simulations adopting Earth-like parameters yield reversal sequences whose statistical behavior is comparable to the Earth.
Recent hints for a reversing experimental dynamo give reason for the examination of a cylindrical dynamo with simulations that are especially suited to the experimental conditions.
This requires a numerical scheme that is able to treat insulating boundary conditions and material properties like permeability and/or conductivity jumps.
Preliminary calculations including a high permeability zone show a slight reduction of the critical Reynolds number.
In future simulations permeability jumps will be increased and an alpha-effect describing the inductive action of turbulence will be included.
Keywords: Reversals, Geodynamo, Simulations
  • Lecture (Conference)
    ICTAM2008 - International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 25.-29.08.2008, Adelaide, Australia
  • Contribution to proceedings
    ICTAM2008 - International Congress of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, 25.08.-29.09.2008, Adelaide, Australien, 978-0-9805142-1-6

Publ.-Id: 11571 - Permalink


Dielectron spectroscopy at 1–2 AGeV with HADES
Spataro, S.; Agakishiev, G.; Agodi, C.; Balanda, A.; Bellia, G.; Belver, D.; Belyaev, A.; Blanco, A.; Böhmer, M.; Boyard, J. L.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Cabanelas, P.; Castro, E.; Chernenko, S.; Christ, T.; Destefanis, M.; Díaz, J.; Dohrmann, F.; Dybczak, A.; Eberl, T.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O.; Finocchiaro, P.; Fonte, P.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzón, J. A.; Gernhäuser, R.; Gil, A.; Gilardi, C.; Golubeva, M.; González-Díaz, D.; Grosse, E.; Guber, F.; Heilmann, M.; Hennino, T.; Holzmann, R.; Ierusalimov, A.; Iori, I.; Ivashkin, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Kanaki, K.; Karavicheva, T.; Kirschner, D.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Kotte, R.; Kozuch, A.; Krása, A.; Krizek, F.; Krücken, R.; Kühn, W.; Kugler, A.; Kurepin, A.; Lamas-Valverde, J.; Lang, S.; Lange, J. S.; Lapidus, K.; Lopes, L.; Lorenz, M.; Maier, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Marín, J.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Micel, J.; Michalska, B.; Mishra, D.; Morinière, E.; Mousa, J.; Müntz, C.; Naumann, L.; Novotny, R.; Otwinowski, J.; Pachmayer, Y. C.; Palka, M.; Parpottas, Y.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Pérez Cavalcanti, T.; Pietraszko, J.; Przygoda, W.; Ramstein, B.; Reshetin, A.; Roy-Stephan, M.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Sailer, B.; Salabura, P.; Schmah, A.; Simon, R.; Sobolev, Y. G.; Spruck, B.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Sturm, C.; Sudol, M.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Trebacz, R.; Tsertos, H.; Veretenkin, I.; Wagner, V.; Wen, H.; Wisniowski, M.; Wojcik, T.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Yurevich, S.; Zanevsky, Y.; Zumbruch, P. Z. P.;
The HADES spectrometer at GSI (Darmstadt) is investigating the e+e- pair production in p+p, p+A and A+A collisions. In this contribution we would like to highlight the physics motivations and the experiments performed so far, focusing mainly on the first results coming form 12C+12C collisions at 1 and 2 AGeV, and on preliminary results from p+p/d+p collisions at 1.25 AGeV.

Publ.-Id: 11570 - Permalink


Measurement of the in-medium K0 inclusive cross section in pi- -induced reactions at 1.15 GeV/c
Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Herrmann, N.; Wisniewski, K.; Kecskemeti, J.; Andronic, A.; Barret, V.; Basrak, Z.; Bastid, N.; Buehler, P.; Cargnelli, M.; Caplar, R.; Cordier, E.; Deppner, I.; Crochet, P.; Dupieux, P.; Dzelalija, M.; Fabbietti, L.; Fodor, Z.; Gasik, P.; Gasparic, I.; Grishkin, Y.; Hartmann, O. N.; Hildenbrand, K. D.; Hong, B.; Kang, T. I.; Kienle, P.; Kirejczyk, M.; Kim, Y. J.; Kis, M.; Koczon, P.; Korolija, M.; Kotte, R.; Lebedev, A.; Leifels, Y.; Lopez, X.; Manko, V.; Marton, J.; Mangiarotti, A.; Merschmeyer, M.; Matulewicz, T.; Petrovici, M.; Piasecki, K.; Rami, F.; Reischl, A.; Reisdorf, W.; Ryu, M. S.; Schmidt, P.; Schuttauf, A.; Seres, Z.; Sikora, B.; Sim, K. S.; Simion, V.; Siwek-Wilczynska, K.; Smolyankin, V.; Suzuki, K.; Tyminski, Z.; Widmann, E.; Xiao, Z. G.; Yamazaki, T.; Yushmanov, I.; Zhang, X. Y.; Zhilin, A.; Zmeskal, J.; Bratkovskaya, E.; Cassing, W.;
The K0 meson production by pi- mesons of 1.15 GeV/c momentum on various nuclear targets was measured with the FOPI spectrometer at the SIS accelerator of GSI. Inclusive production cross-sections and the momentum distributions of K0 mesons are compared to the elementary production cross-sections and to QMC and HSD model predictions. The results point to modifications of the elementary reactions amplitudes inside nuclei and to the existence of a repulsive KN potential of about 20 MeV at normal nuclear matter density.

Publ.-Id: 11569 - Permalink


Magnetic and superconducting properties of metal and oxide nanoclusters on biological templates
Walter, C.; Bartkowiak, M.; Ignatchik, O.; Herrmannsdörfer, T.; Wosnitza, J.; Merroun, M.; Pollmann, K.; Raff, J.; Selenska-Pobell, S.;
Nanogranular materials will play an important role in future technologies due to their exciting magnetic and superconducting properties that differ strongly from their bulk counterparts. In this study, we have focused on metal and oxide nanoclusters that have been deposited on a biological template, a self-assembling surface layer (S-layer) of Bacillus sphaericus JG-A12 which is composed of identical monomers. We present data of Pd, Pb, and Fe3O4 nanograins with sizes of 2, 19, and 13 nm respectively. The magnetization data obtained for the palladium clusters demonstrate that the Stoner enhancement factor of the d conduction-electron susceptibility is clearly reduced compared to the one of bulk Pd. For the Pb nanograins we have investigated the superconducting B-T phase diagram and encountered a superconducting critical field of the size of several Tesla which is strongly enhanced in comparison to the corresponding critical magnetic field of 0.09 T for bulk Pb. Last but not least we investigated the superparamagnetic properties of Fe3O4 nanograins and have found a magnetic anomaly at 30 K. Here, we present magnetization data taken by SQUID magnetometry as well as experimental results of dielectric measurements.
  • Poster
    72. Jahrestagung der DPG und DPG Frühjahrstagung des Arbeitskreises Festkörperphysik mit anderen Fachverbänden und den Arbeitskreisen der DPG, 25.-29.02.2008, Berlin, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 11568 - Permalink


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