Publications Repository - Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf

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33407 Publications

In-situ investigations at BM20-ROBL

Grenzer, J.; Baehtz, C.; Beckers, M.; Jeutter, N. M.; von Borany, J.
The beamline BM20 operated by the Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf is located at ESRF storage ring and divided into two experimental stations for spectroscopy and diffraction. A double crystal monochromator provides an energy range from 6 to 30 keV. A six-circle goniometer allows different scattering and diffraction methods like XRR, XRD, GID and GISAXS, additionally even in combination with X-ray spectroscopy. Different detector systems (point, one, two dimensional or energy dispersive) as well as an additional detector bank for large area detectors are available. A major part of ROBL-MRH experiments are performed as in-situ X-ray studies using a dual magnetron sputtering deposition chamber equipped optionally with an ion gun for ion beam bombardment and erosion. Using a hemispherical Beryllium dome scattering experiments can be carried out up to 1200°C under vacuum conditions.
The focus of the beamline research is on thin film investigations and on new nanostructured materials. X-ray investigations are a very important tool to find the correlation between the functional and the corresponding structural properties that are generating this function and to explain the influence of different deposition conditions, substrate parameters etc. by the underlying physical processes making it possible to design thin films with specific properties.
By the use of the deposition chamber for reactive magnetron sputtering thin films of Ti2AlN were for the first time synthesized. Different ways of synthesis, the thermal and phase behavior were investigated [1, 2].
A key element for the development of a new generation of solar cells are nanocrystalline materials. In-situ studies of the growth of SiO2/GeOx multilayers were carried out to create Ge nanocrystalls by subsequent thermal decomposition or directly by sputtering at elevated temperatures.

[1] C. Höglund et al.; Appl. Phys. Lett., 90, 174106, (2007).
[2] M. Beckers et al.; Appl. Phys. Lett., 89, 074101, (2006).
Keywords: synchrotron radiation, nanostructures
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Materials Science and Engineering 2008 - MSE08, 01.-04.09.2008, Nuernberg, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11918
Publ.-Id: 11918


X-ray scattering and diffraction from ion beam induced ripples in crystalline silicon

Biermanns, A.; Pietsch, U.; Grenzer, J.; Hanisch, A.; Facsko, S.; Carbone, G.; Metzger, T. H.
We report on periodic ripple formation on Si(001) surfaces after bombardment with Xe+ ions with energies between 5 and 35 keV under incidence angles of 65 degrees and 70 degrees. The sputter process leads to the formation of a rippled amorphous surface layer, followed by a rippled interface toward crystalline material. Using grazing-incidence small-angle scattering and diffraction, we show that the surface morphology is exactly reproduced at the interface. In addition, we observe that the crystal lattice close to the interface is anisotropically expanded. The lattice expansion parallel to the ripples is larger than those perpendicular to them.
Keywords: X-ray scattering, Ion beam irradiation
  • Journal of Applied Physics 104(2008)4, 044312
  • Lecture (Conference)
    XTOP 2008 - 9th Biennial Conference on High Resolution X-Ray Diffraction and Imaging, 15.-19.09.2008, Linz, Austria

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11917
Publ.-Id: 11917


Neue Kupferchelatoren auf der Basis von pyridinhaltigen 1,4,7-triazacyclononan-Liganden

Ruffani, A.; Stephan, H.; Fähnemann, S.; Bergmann, R.; Steinbach, J.
Ziel/Aim: Ziel der Arbeit ist die Entwicklung von bifunktionellen Markierungsbausteinen für eine milde und selektive Radiomarkierung von biologisch aktiven Molekülen mit dem Positronenstrahler Kupfer-64. In diesem Zusammenhang sind Pyridin-haltige Derivate des 1,4,7-Triazacyclononans (TACN) besonders geeignet, weil sie sehr stabile Kupfer(II)-Komplexe bilden sowie eine schnelle Komplexbildungskinetik aufweisen. Weiterhin ist es leicht möglich, diese Verbindungen mit Maleinimid- und Isothiocyanat-Derivaten oder Aktivestern zu modifizieren und damit an Biomoleküle zu kuppeln. Erste Untersuchungen zeigen, dass Komplexe von Kupfer-64 mit einem TACN-Carbonsäurederivat sowie ein entsprechendes Peptidkonjugat auf der Basis eines stabilisierten Bombesinfragments BBN(7-14) eine hohe in vitro- und in vivo-Stabilität besitzen.[1] Bombesin und dessen Derivate weisen eine hohe Affinität zum Gastrin Releasing Peptide Rezeptor (GRPR) - der auf einer Vielzahl von Tumoren, wie Brust-, Prostata- und Pankreaskarzinomen, überexprimiert ist - auf. Aus diesem Grund sind radioaktiv markierte BBN-Derivate für die Diagnostik und Therapie von Tumoren sehr interessant.

Methodik/Methods: Die Umsetzung von Aminoethylmaleinimid mit einem TACN-Carbonsäurederivat durch Peptidkupplung mittels HBTU in Anwesenheit der Hünigbase DIPEA führt zu einer Maleinimid-haltigen TACN-Verbindung. In analoger Weise wurden über eine Peptidkupplung, stabilisierte BBN(7-14)-Derivate an TACN-Liganden gebunden. Ein weiterer vielseitig einsetzbarer Synthesebaustein wurde durch Umsetzung von zweifach pyridylmethylsubstituiertem TACN mit einem Boc-geschützten Phenylendiamin-Derivat erhalten. Durch Abspaltung der Schutzgruppe erhält man das freie Amin, das durch Behandlung mit Thiophosgen in das Isothiocyanat überführt wird.

Ergebnisse/Results: Markierungsstudien des Maleinimid-funktionalisierten TACN-Derivates mit Kupfer-64 weisen auf eine sehr schnelle Komplexbildungskinetik unter physiologischen Bedingungen hin. Untersuchungen mit dem Modellpeptid Glutathion zeigen, dass dieser Markierungsbaustein sehr effektiv an Thiolgruppen bindet. Bioverteilungsstudien mit Cu-64-Komplexen von TACN-Bombesin-Konjugaten in Wistar Ratten ergaben eine Anreicherung des Radiotracers im Pankreas. Untersuchungen mittels Kleintier-PET an PC-3 Tumor-Mäusen zeigten eine Akkumulation dieser Tracer im Tumorgewebe, so dass eine klare Visualisierung der Tumore möglich ist.

Schlussfolgerungen/Conclusions: Bifunktionelle Liganden auf der Basis von pyridinhaltigen TACN-Derivaten können unter physiologischen Bedingungen effektiv mit Kupfer-64 markiert werden. Die mit Maleinimid-, Isothiocyanat-Gruppen und Aktivester funktionalisierten TACN-Derivate können effizient an Biomoleküle gekuppelt werden. TACN-Bombesin-Konjugate besitzen ein hohes Anwendungspotential zur Darstellung von GRPR-reichem Gewebe.

Referenzen/Refrences:
[1] G. Gasser et al., Bioconjugate Chem. 2008, 19, 719-730.
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Nuklearmedizin 48(2009)2, A55
  • Lecture (Conference)
    47. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Nuklearmedizin, 22.-25.04.2009, Leipzig, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11916
Publ.-Id: 11916


Time resolved and nonlinear spectroscopy of semiconductor quantum structures using an infrared free-electron laser

Helm, M.
there is no abstract available
Keywords: free electron laser, semicondcutor quantum structures, infrared spectroscopy
  • Lecture (others)
    Seminarvortrag Universität Marburg, 07.11.2008, Marburg, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11915
Publ.-Id: 11915


New Density Functional Theory Investigations of Vanadium Silicides

Thieme, M. B.; Gemming, S.
Vanadium and silicon form several binary compounds; the most well characterized structures have
the compositions V:Si= 3:1, 5:3, 6:5, 1:2. Spin-Density-functional band-structure calculations with the
Projector Augmented Wave-method have been carried out to investigate the structural properties and the
phase stability for the experimentally known binary crystals.
  • Poster
    72. Jahrestagung der DPG und DPG Frühjahrstagung des Arbeitskreises Festkörperphysik, 25.-29.02.2008, Berlin, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11914
Publ.-Id: 11914


The system Vanadium:Silicon - an ion-beam generated diluted magnetic semiconductor? – a case study

Thieme, M. B.; Gemming, S.; Potzger, K.; Anwand, W.; Grötzschel, R.; Grenzer, J.
Since approximately 20 years we have controversial discussions about the possibility of ion beam generated diluted magnetic semiconductors (DMS) primarily transition metals in silicon. Now a detailed study has been done for the system Vanadium:Silicon. Vanadium and silicon form several binary compounds; the most well characterized structures have the compositions V:Si= 3:1, 5:3, 6:5, 1:2; as well as different constellations of substitutional and interstitial vanadium atoms in a silicon crystal matrix. Suitable magnetic properties of a semiconductor are important for DMS.
  • Poster
    IBMM 08 - 16th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials, 03.09.2008, Dresden, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11913
Publ.-Id: 11913


Master Curve testing of highly irradiated IAEA RPV steels JRQ and JFL

Viehrig, H.-W.; Zurbuchen, C.
While the Master Curve (MC) method is gradually entering brittle fracture safety assessment procedures world-wide, knowledge is still lacking about its limits of applicability to highly neutron irradiated material. In this paper two reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels A533B Cl. 1 (IAEA reference material code JRQ) and A508 Cl.3 (code JFL) were scrutinized for possible deviations of the postulated invariant MC shape and the MC validity for macroscopically inhomogeneous microstructure. Besides tensile and Charpy-V tests, MC tests were performed on Charpy size three-point bend specimens in the unirradiated, neutron irradiated with fluences up to nearly 1020 n/cm² (E>1MeV) and recovery heat treated condition. Evaluation procedures include Master Curve reference temperature T0 determination according to ASTM E1921-05 as well as additional analysis methods such as SINTAP, multimodal MC method (MML) and the Unified Curve (UC). Integrity assessment according to ASME Code Cases N-629 and N-631has been applied. It is shown that the standard MC concept provides a precise description of the fracture toughness for all conditions, even exceptionally well for the highly irradiated state. No MC shape change could be observed, whereas the UC concept indicates a significant influence of irradiation on the fracture toughness curves for the highly irradiated JRQ.
Keywords: Fracture Toughness; RPV steels, neutron irradiation, Master Curve; Unified Curve
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Workshop on Trend Curve Development for Surveillance Data with Insight on Flux Effects at High Fluence: Damage Mechanisms and Modelling, 19.-21.11.2008, Mol, Belgium

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11912
Publ.-Id: 11912


THEREDA - Online

Richter, A.; Brendler, V.
Der Zugang zur THEREDA-Datenbank erfolgt über die URL http://www.thereda.de. Der Internetzugang vereint dabei die Schnittstelle für externe Nutzer zum Abfragen von Datensätzen sowie eine Schnittstelle zur Administration des gesamten Internetauftritts im Rahmen des Content Management Systems (CMS) Joomla! Joomla! ist Open Source Software, durch die große Community, die das Projekt ständig weiterentwickelt, ist gewährleistet, dass ein problemloser Zugriff auf den Inhalt und die Datenbank über einen sehr langen Zeitraum erfolgen kann. Mit Joomla! verfügt THEREDA über ein sehr gutes Tool, die Datenbank mit geringem Pflegeaufwand und über einen langen Zeitraum zur Verfügung zu stellen. Über www.thereda.de erhalten Besucher der Webseite Informationen zum Projekt und den THEREDA-Partnern, können Dokumente downloaden sowie Links zu anderen relevanten Projekten finden. Zusätzlich nutzen die Mitglieder des Verbundprojektes die Internetseite als Intranet (nach Anmeldung). Im Vortrag werden der gegenwärtige Stand des THEREDA-Online-Auftrittes und die interaktiven Möglichkeiten für die Nutzer vorgestellt.
Keywords: THEREDA, Thermodynamic Database, online, downloads, interactive, CMS, Joomla
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Fachgespräch "Entwicklung einer thermodynamischen Referenzdatenbasis - THEREDA", 12.11.2008, Karlsruhe, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11911
Publ.-Id: 11911


Respiratory Gating Facilitating 4D Imaging in MRI, CT, and FDG-PET for GTV Definition in Patients with NSCLC

Abolmaali, N.; Abramyuk, A.; Koch, A.; Richter, C.; Hoinkis, C.; Zips, D.; Zöphel, K.; Enghardt, W.; Baumann, M.
PURPOSE
Respiratory motion blurs PET-images and may cause localization errors in studies acquired using breath holding such as CT and MRI. To reduce motion related influences on radiation therapy planning of lung cancer, image acquisition may be gated. The aim of our study was to compare motion of primary lung tumors as detected by respiration gated data acquired with PET, CT, MRI.

METHOD AND MATERIALS
So far, this ongoing study included four patients (median age 72.5 years) with NSCLC scheduled for radiation therapy. All patients were investigated under free breathing conditions and respiratory gated FDG-PET, CT and MRI. Image data was separated into eight comparable gates uniformly distributed over the breathing cycle. After blinded GTV-definition, volumes and centers of volumes (COV) were generated from all gates and all modalities. Comparative statistics were done using t-tests, confidence intervals and Lin's concordance analysis.

RESULTS
Median tumor volumes in PET, CT and MRI were 28 ml, 69 ml, and 46 ml, respectively. t-tests revealed significant differences for the comparison CT/MRI (p=0.04) and PET/CT (p=0.05), but not for MRI/PET (p=0.09). The medians of the maximum distances the COV traveled during the entire breathing cycle in PET, CT and MRI were 0.42 cm, 0.95 cm, 0.93 cm, respectively. t-tests revealed nearly significant differences between PET and CT (p=0.06) and MRI and PET (p=0.06), while the result for CT and MRI was in good agreement (p=0.74). Lin’s concordance analysis (OCCC=0.172) revealed best congruency between CT and MRI (rho=0.55), only fair congruency between MRI and PET (rho=0.2) and poor congruency between PET and CT (rho=0.02).

CONCLUSION
In our early experience, the differences in GTV-definition of NSCLC in 4D imaging by PET, CT and MRI are mainly related to the observer’s experience. As shown in other tumors before, PET revealed the smallest tumor volume. Due to the low movement of the tumors evaluated in the patients included so far, results are preliminary. Nevertheless, results suggest that MRI may be applicable in radiation therapy planning for GTV-definition. The inclusion of a higher number of patients with pronounced tumor movement during breathing is required.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE/APPLICATION
Gated 4D imaging in NSCLC may increase planning accuracy in radiation oncology. In selected patients, gated radiation therapy might be advantageous and may reduce toxicity in normal tissues.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    RSNA 2008, 30.11.-05.12.2008, Chicago, USA

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11910
Publ.-Id: 11910


Small animal PET with hCT-derived cell-penetreting peptides

Bergmann, R.; Közle, I.; Neundorf, I.
Aim:
Cell-penetrating peptides (CPP) derived from the native peptide hormone human calcitonin (hCT) represent a high potential drug delivery system for in vivo intracellular targeting of diagnostic and therapeutic compounds. Cell penetration of hCT-derived substances was verified in vitro, however, the knowledge about CPP in vivo distribution and metabolism is very limited. Therefore we studied the in vivo radiopharmacology of Ga-68 radiolabeled DOTA modified, hCT-derived CPP in rats using small animal PET (1).

Methods:
Three hCT-derived peptides (hCT(9-32), LGTYTQDFNKFHTFPQTAIGVGAPNH2; [f12,16]-hCT(9-32), LGTfTQDfNKFHTFPQTAIGVGAP-NH2; random (rd)-hCT(9-32), FLTAGQNTIQTPVKTGGHFPFADY-NH2) were at the N-terminus modified with DOTA. The internalization of the stabilized peptide, biodistribution and kinetics of the radiolabeled Ga-68-DOTA-hCT(9-32) or Ga-68-DOTA-[f12,16]-hCT(9-32) or Ga-68-DOTA-rd-hCT(9-32) were studied with small animal PET. The arterial blood at different time points, and urine were analyzed for radio-metabolites.

Results:
Ga-68-DOTA-[f12,16]-hCT(9-32) was in vitro internalized. In vivo the radio-peptides were eliminated mainly by the renal system, more than 50% of the injected dose was found at 60 min after injection in the urine, only small amounts of the activity were detected in the intestine. The general activity retention in the body was low, except the kidneys. The blood clearance of the original peptides reached terminal half-lifes of Ga-68-DOTA-hCT(9-32) 15.9 min, Ga-68-DOTA-[f12,16]-hCT(9-32) 20.9 min, Ga-68-DOTA-rd-hCT(9-32) 15.8 min; the relative AUC in comparison to Ga-68-DOTA-hCT(9-32) were 100%, 170%, and 51%, respectively. The patterns of metabolic cleavage in the arterial blood were different. The Ga-68-DOTA-[f12,16]-hCT(9-32) was metabolized to three radio-metabolites after 30 min, the other radiopeptides were degraded to more than five radioactive metabolites.

Conclusion:
It was shown that D-amino acid modifications of the sequence hCT(9-32) resulted in an increased in vivo stability and lower retention in the kidney cortex. The blood clearance and the elimination of the Ga-68-DOTA-peptides were relatively high and should be decreased by structural changes to enhance the tissue uptake of this drug carrier system.

References:
(1) Neundorf I, Rennert R, et Bergmann R, Bioconjug Chem. 2008 Aug;19(8):1596-603.
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Nuklearmedizin 48(2009)2, A78
  • Lecture (Conference)
    47. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Nuklearmedizin, 22.-25.04.2009, Leipzig, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11909
Publ.-Id: 11909


Phasenkorrelierte Schwächungskorrektur von 4D-PET mit Hilfe von 4D-CT

Richter, C.; Just, U.; Pönisch, F.; Enghardt, W.
wird nachgereicht
  • Lecture (Conference)
    „Der Wiener Kongress“ - DEGRO ÖGRO 2008, 01.-04.05.2008, Wien, Austria
  • Contribution to proceedings
    „Der Wiener Kongress“ - DEGRO ÖGRO 2008, 01.-04.05.2008, Wien, Österreich
    Strahlentherapie und Onkologie - Abstactband zum DEGRO-ÖGRO-Kongress, München: Urban&Vogel, 61-61

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11908
Publ.-Id: 11908


Repeat 4D-CTs during fractionated radiotherapy of lung cancer: a clinical protocol providing a basis of target definition for gated radiotherapy

Hoinkis, C.; Appold, S.; Enghardt, W.; Reiffenstuhl, C.; Richter, C.; Wieczorkowski, L.; Zips, D.; Zöphel, K.; Kotzerke, J.; Baumann, M.
Purpose: Planning target volume definition is one of the crucial points for gated radiotherapy. To gain reliable information on variability of tumour position and tumour motion during the course of fractionated radiotherapy a longitudinal study was implemented.

Patients and Methods: Patients with locally advanced, inoperable non small cell lung cancer are enrolled in a clinical protocol for curative treatment with 66 Gy @ 2 Gy. For treatment planning a 4D-FDG-PET/4D-CT with phase correlated attenuation correction of the PET in treatment position was performed (Biograph 16, Siemens). Target volumes are derived from the Internal Target Volume (ITV) + 7 mm (Clinical Target Volume) + 8 mm (Planning Target Volume) for the first week. The latter margin is reduced to 5 mm after 6 fractions if deviations in tumour location are small. For treatments patients are positioned by X-ray verification (ExacTrac-Xray, BrainLab). Repeat 4D-CT scans are acquired with an in-room CT (Primatom, Siemens) directly before treatment for the first 5 fractions and subsequently twice per week (i.e. 16 4D-CTs per patient). Immediate evaluation of the 4D-CTs includes verification of patient positioning and adequateness of treatment fields (Pinnacle, Philips). Further evaluation of data includes intra- and interfractional variability of tumour volume and centre of gravity. Margins will be evaluated simulating gated radiotherapy.

Results: The protocol started in January 2008. Up to now 5 patients are enrolled, 2 of them have completed their treatment. For the first 5 patients a PTV reduction to 79,5 % (SD 2,1 %) after the first treatment week could be reached, which led to a decrease of Mean Lung Dose of 0.7 Gy (SD 0.3 Gy). Preliminary evaluation of the 4D data shows minor intrafractional variability of the tumour volume compared to greater interfractional variations. The preliminary data rather suggest variability in contouring than true variability in tumour volume. The trajectory of centre of gravity associates with the tumour motion.

Conclusion: The preliminary data suggest only small setup variability during treatment. Extension of the data base and further analysis will address if dose escalation by introducing gated radiotherapy is possible.


Supported by BMBF (03ZIK/OncoRay) and Siemens Medical Solutions.
  • Poster
    ESTRO 2008, 14.-17.09.2008, Göteburg, Konungariket Sverige
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Radiotherapy and Oncology 88(2008)Suppl. 2, S376-S377

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11907
Publ.-Id: 11907


Small animal PET investigation of regional pulmonary perfusion in prone and supine position of rats

Bergmann, R.; Richter, T.; Közle, I.; Schiller, E.; Ragaller, M.; Steinbach, J.
Aim: Ga-68 radiolabeled human albumin microspheres (Ga-68-DOTA-HSAM) with a diameter of 20 µm are expected to lodge in the pulmonary capillaries. The purpose of the study was to quantify the pulmonary perfusion (Qr) in prone and supine position in terms of their imaging manifestations in healthy rats.

Methods: The animal research committee of the Landesdirektion Dresden approved the animal facilities and the experiments according to institutional guidelines and the German animal welfare regulations. Seven anesthetized, spontaneous breathing Wistar rats (297 +/- 53 g), were positioned either in prone (n=3) or supine (n=4) position and Ga-68-DOTA-HSAM were infused. Qr was achieved by imaging the radioactivity distribution in the lungs. The animal PET 3D volume data were reconstructed with 3D OSEM MAP algorithm. After first measurement animals were arranged in opposite position and the PET measurement was repeated. The 3D data were at first manually coregistered and residual differences in the relative positioning of the lungs were corrected user independent (Rover, ABX GmbH, Germany). Masks for defining regions of interest (ROI) were set in the coregistered volume data for all animals. Mean normalized Qr values (Qmean) of the dorsal and ventral parts of the lungs were calculated of the basis of an automatic ROI-setting including threshold analysis.

Results: Vertical gradient of regional perfusion was significantly steeper in the supine, -0.131 ± 0.01 %/cm, than in the prone animals -0.055 ± 0.01 %/cm (P = 0,002), indicating that the vertical distribution of regional perfusion was in dependent regions more accentuated in the supine than in the prone infused animals. Changes in the vertical gradient after rotation in the opposite position resulted in a vertical gradient of -0.093 ± 0.031 %/cm in prone position. Vertical gradient in the supine position of prone infused animals was -0.093 ± 0.015 %/cm. Position changes did not produce significant changes in vertical gradient in supine (P = 0.125) and in prone infused animals (P = 0.25).
Conclusions: Ga-68-DOTA-HSAM (20µm) can be used for pulmonary perfusion studies in rats with small-animal PET. Qmean was not affected by posture, whereas vertical gradient indicating significant decrease from dependent to the nondependent regions of Qr in supine infused animals in supine position. Lung structure distribution changes are less pronounced than perfusion distribution changes in prone and supine position.
Distribution pattern of regional perfusion in prone and supine position in normal rat lungs will be used as reference data set for studies on injured rat lungs.
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Nuklearmedizin 48(2009)2, A92
  • Poster
    47. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Nuklearmedizin, 22.-25.04.2009, Leipzig, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11905
Publ.-Id: 11905


Event-basierte Bewegungskorrektur in der klinischen Routine

Langner, J.; Mölle, H.; Dittrich, S.; Hofheinz, F.; Oehme, L.; Beuthien-Baumann, B.; van den Hoff, J.
Ziel/Aim:
Eine event-basierte Bewegungskorrektur verbunden mit einer räumlichen Transformation jeder Line-of-Response (LOR) erlaubt eine exakte Korrektur von Patientenbewegungen in der PET. In den letzten Jahren haben wir bereits verschiedene Verbesserungen dieses Verfahrens vorgestellt. Neben Optimierungen zur klinischen Akquisition von List-Mode Daten, sowie der Entwicklung von Methoden zur Analyse der Patientenbewegungen wurde gezeigt, dass mit der Reduzierung der durch das limitierte Gesichtfeld begründeten Artefakte (Out-of-FOV) ein letztes wichtiges Hindernis für die klinische Nutzung bei Hirnmessungen beseitigt werden konnte. Ziel der nunmehr vorliegenden Arbeit war es, nach der klinischen Integration den Einfluss dieser Bewegungskorrektur innerhalb eines Patientenkollektivs mit starken Patientenbewegungen genauer zu quantifizieren.

Methodik/Methods:
Für die klinische Nutzung wurden zwei graphische Nutzeroberflächen entwickelt, die eine einfache Aufnahme von Bewegungs- und List-Mode Daten ermöglichen. Nach erfolgter Akquisition werden die Daten vollautomatisch verarbeitet und bewegungskorrigiert. Für die Evaluation des Einflusses der Bewegungskorrektur auf die Bildqualität bzw. Quantifizierung dynamischer PET Aufnahmen wurden aus einem Patientenkollektiv von [18F]DOPA Hirnstudien N=15 Patientendaten anhand der Größe der Bewegung ausgewählt. Für den jeweils unkorrigierten und korrigierten Datensatz wurden 8 ROIs innerhalb des Striatum sowie eine Referenz-ROI positioniert. Neben dem Vergleich der Zeit-Aktivitäts-Kurven (TAC) wurde mittels eines irreversiblen Zweikompartment-Modells mit Referenzgewebe die jeweiligen Einstromraten (R0k3) durch eine Patlak Auswertung berechnet und durch Kalkulation parametrischer Bilder entsprechend mit den Werten der unkorrigierten Daten verglichen.

Ergebnisse/Results:
Die entwickelten Benutzeroberflächen erlauben eine einfache Nutzung der List-Mode- sowie Bewegungsaufnahme in der klinischen Routine. Beim Vergleich der Datensätze konnten qualitative Verbesserungen sowie ein besseres Signal-to-Noise-Ratio (SNR) durch die Korrektur festgestellt werden. Des Weiteren zeigt die quantitative Auswertung der dynamischen Aufnahmen Unterschiede von bis zu 30% im Verlauf der TACs. Auch die Auswertung der 0k3 Parameter zeigt eine relevante Änderung und der Vergleich der parametrischen Bilder eine Reduzierung von Artefakten.

Schlussfolgerungen/Conclusions:
Durch die einfache Bedienung der Benutzeroberflächen konnten diese nunmehr für die generelle Aufnahme von Hirnaufnahmen an unserer Einrichtung etabliert werden. Bei der Auswertung der Patientendaten zeigte sich, dass die event-basierte Bewegungskorrektur nicht nur die Bildqualität sondern auch die Quantifizierung der Tracerkonzentrationen bei PET-Hirnstudien positiv beeinflusst. In Folge dessen werden nun alle Hirnaufnahmen mit deutlicher Patientenbewegung in unserer Einrichtung standardmäßig mit der event-basierten Bewegungskorrektur durchgeführt.
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Nuklearmedizin 48(2009)2, A22
  • Lecture (Conference)
    47. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Nuklearmedizin, 22.-25.04.2009, Leipzig, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11904
Publ.-Id: 11904


A Comparison of CT-Based Attenuation Correction Strategies for PET Data of Moving Structures

Richter, C.; Hoinkis, C.; Just, U.; Pönisch, F.; Woithe, J.; Enghardt, W.
Respiratory motion introduces image artefacts not only in standard 3D-CT but also in 3D-PET images due to two reasons: (a) Smearing of the activity concentration and (b) an incorrect attenuation correction. In 4D-PET the effect of smearing becomes negligible but the influence of incorrect attenuation correction remains important.
To investigate the quantitative influence of attenuation correction on both PET acquisition methods (3D- and 4D-PET), a comprehensive phantom study was performed using a respiratory motion mimicking phantom on a dedicated Siemens Biograph 16 PET/CT, which had the extended capability of acquiring 4D-PET and 4D-CT data. The used respiratory motion phantom is able to simulate typical lung tumor motion in two dimensions with two possible patterns of respiration. The 3D- and 4D PET data sets were corrected with different CT attenuation data, namely a standard 3D-CT (pitch 1.5), a slow 3D-CT (pitch 0.5), an ultraslow 3D-CT (pitch 0.15), and also an average CT and a maximum intensity projection, both calculated from a 4D-CT (pitch 0.1). Additionally, the 4D-PET was corrected phase-wise with the 4D-CT (phase-correlated attenuation correction). For that purpose the synchronization between 4D-PET and 4D-CT has been verified. The reconstructed PET images were analyzed concerning the reconstructed volume, the activity concentration and the full width half maximum (FWHM) of the activity distribution in the direction of the highest phantom movement. Additionally, the motion amplitude of the phantom was obtained from the 4D-PET data sets.
Our results suggest that attenuation correction of 3D-PET data should be performed with a slow CT. However, the 4D PET data should be reconstructed using phase-correlated attenuation correction with a 4D-CT.
  • Contribution to proceedings
    IEEE Dresden 2008, 19.-25.10.2008, Dresden, Germany
    IEEE Conference Report
  • Poster
    IEEE Dresden 2008, 19.-25.10.2008, Dresden, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11903
Publ.-Id: 11903


Small animal PET with new Cu-64-chelating ligands coupled to stabilized bombesin

Bergmann, R.; Walther, M.; Juran, S.; Gasser, G.; Pietzsch, J.; Stephan, H.; Steinbach, J.
Aim: Gastrin releasing peptide receptors (GRPR) are overexpressed in different human tumors like prostate, breast and squamous cell carcinomas. The goal of this study was to compare the biodistribution and metabolism of a stabilized bombesin analogue radiolabeled with two new Cu-64-complexes for PET imaging of GRPR expression in xenografted mice.

Methods: Cu-64 was complexed with a bis(2-pyridylmethyl) derivative of 1,4,7-triazacyclononane (TAC) and a bispidine 1,5-dicarboxylic acid derivative (Cu-64-N2Py4-OH(COOH)2) conjugated to a stabilized bombesin (BBN) derivative βhomoGlu-βAla-βAla-[Cha13, Nle14]BN(7-14) (Garcia Garoya et al. 2007). Biodistribution, elimination, and metabolism were studied in rats. Tumor accumulation was exemplarily evaluated with small animal PET in xenografted mice bearing prostate (PC3), squamous cell carcinoma (FaDu), and colorectal (HT-29) human tumors. Cu-64 chloride was studied for comparison.

Results: PET imaging of Cu-64-N2Py4-OH(COOH)2-BBN in mice 1 h after injection revealed tumor-to-background ratios of 2.1 (PC3), 2.4 (FaDu control), 1.0 (FaDu blocked), and 1.5 (HT-29). The uptake found in PC3 tumors with tissue sampling was significantly higher (5.3 control; 2.6 blocked). In comparison to the Cu-64-TAC-BBN, the uptake of Cu-64-N2Py4-OH(COOH)2-BBN in rat pancreas and intestine was lower but the accumulation in kidney, liver, and stomach was higher. The metabolic stabilities of the Cu-64-labeled BBN‘s studied were comparable. More than 85% of the original substances were remained after 1 hour in vitro incubation with rat blood or blood plasma. In vivo all compounds were fast metabolized in rats, and lower than 5% of the original compounds were recovered in arterial blood plasma 1 hour after injection. However, the metabolism in xenografted nude mice was slower, after 1 hour 12% of blood plasma activity correspond to the original compound.

Conclusion: Both investigated new Cu-64 chelating agents conjugated to a stabilized BBN analogue showed typical BBN biodistribution and GRPR specific accumulation in vivo. The differences in biodistribution and metabolism between Cu-64-TAC- and Cu-64-N2Py4-OH(COOH)2) labeled BBN demonstrate the influence of the Cu-64 chelating units on these processes, especially on the nonspecific activity biodistribution. Comparison of biodistribution data of the BBN analogues and Cu-64 chloride indicate only marginal, if any, in vivo copper demetalation, revealing high in vivo stability of the copper complex units. With further optimization of the radiolabeling in particular of specific activity the low specific uptake should increase. The studied chelating agents appear to be promising candidates for copper labeling of peptides under mild conditions.
Partly supported by the 6th framework EU-project “BioCare”, proposal # 505785.
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Nuklearmedizin 48(2009)2, A56
  • Lecture (Conference)
    47. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Nuklearmedizin, 22.-25.04.2009, Leipzig, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11901
Publ.-Id: 11901


Kalibrierungsmessungen mit Kugelphantomen führen zu einer fehlerhaften Volumenbestimmung bei schwellwertbasierten Verfahren in der PET

Dittrich, S.; Hofheinz, F.; Langner, J.; Pötzsch, C.; van den Hoff, J.
Ziel/Aim:
Für eine genaue Volumenabgrenzung von Zielstrukturen in PET-Aufnahmen mittels schwellwert-basierten Algorithmen wird der Einfluss verschiedener Faktoren (Objektgröße, Bildkontrast, etc.) auf den volumenreproduzierenden Schwellwert üblicherweise durch Kalibrierungsmessungen unter Nutzung von Zylinderphantomen mit eingesetzten Glashohkugeln bestimmt. In einer quantitativen Bewertung einer derartigen Phantommessung wurde auch nach Untergrundsubtraktion eine Abhängigkeit des relativen Schwellwertes vom Bildkontrast nachgewiesen. In der vorliegenden Arbeit soll nun systematisch der Einfluss der inaktiven Glaswand in den Kugelphantomen auf die beobachtete Kontrastabhängigkeit des untergrundbereinigten Schwellwertes untersucht werden.

Methodik/Methods:
Es wurden Kalibrierungsmessungen unter Verwendung eines Zylinderphantoms (Durchmesser: 20 cm, Höhe: 18 cm) durchgeführt. Die im Zylinder befindlichen 6 Kugeleinsätze besitzen Volumina von 2,5 ml bis 27 ml und eine Glaswanddicke von 1,2 mm. In 9 Phantommessungen mit einem ECAT EXACT HR+ (Siemens/CTI, Knoxville, Tennessee) wurden der Zylinder und die Kugeln mit unterschiedlichen Aktivitätsmengen (Fluor-18) befüllt um das Signal-Untergrund-Verhältnis und damit den Bildkontrast zu variieren. Der analytische Ausdruck für die Faltung der Objektfunktion (Aktivitätsverteilung) mit der Point Spread Function (PSF) wurde an die aus den experimentellen Bilddaten gewonnenen radialen Aktivitätsprofile angefittet.

Ergebnisse/Results:
Die aus den Least Squares Fits ermittelten Radien sind stets kleiner als die wahren Kugelradien, wenn die inaktive Glaswand in der Objektfunktion vernachlässigt wird. Erst unter expliziter Berücksichtigung der Wanddicke von 1,2 mm der Hohlkugeln in der Objektfunktion verschwindet diese scheinbare Radiusreduktion. Mit den berechneten theoretischen Aktivitätsprofilen der Phantomkugeln konnte zudem eine Absenkung des untergrundbereinigten Schwellwertes bei steigendem Untergrundanteil in den Bilddaten verifiziert werden. Die gemessene Kontrastabhängigkeit des relativen Schwellwertes nach Untergrundsubtraktion konnte daher vollständig mit dem Vorhandensein der inaktiven Glaswände in den Phantomstudien erklärt werden.

Schlussfolgerungen/Conclusions:
Inaktive Wände zur Separation verschiedener Aktivitätsbereiche in PET Phantommessungen verursachen auch nach erfolgter Untergrundsubtraktion eine Kontrastabhängigkeit des volumen-reproduzierenden Schwellwertes. In realen Patientendaten kann daher aufgrund der Abwesenheit inaktiver Wände der untergrundbereinigte optimale Schwellwert als unabhängig vom Bildkontrast angenommen werden. Kalibrierungsmessungen zur Bestimmung des korrekten Wertes für den volumenreproduzierenden Schwellwert können daher auf eine einfache Phantommessung ohne Untergrundaktivität reduziert werden.
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Nuklearmedizin 48(2009)2, A93
  • Poster
    47. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Nuklearmedizin, 22.-25.04.2009, Leipzig, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11900
Publ.-Id: 11900


Stability of Yttrium-90-citrate-, Erbium-169-citrate- and Rhenium-186-sulfur-colloid in vitro

Bergmann, R.; Pinkert, J.
Aim: Yttrium-90-citrate- (YMM-1), Erbium-169-citrate- (ERMM-1), and Rhenium-186-sulfur-colloid (Re-186-MM1) were applied in radiosynovectomy (RSO), a local intraarticular injection of radionuclides in colloidal form for radiotherapy. The local metabolism of the colloidal particles is not fully understood; however, knowledge about the leakage is important for risk assessment. Therefore we investigated stability of the radiocolloids by by equilibrium dialysis, which provided information about interaction of the colloids with buffer components, synovia in controlled equilibrium conditions.

Materials & Methods: Carrier added YMM-1, ERMM-1, Re-186-MM1 colloids were dispersed and dialyzed against synovia, different electrolytes and buffers separated by dialysis membranes with a molecular weight cut off (MWCO) of 10,000 Dalton. The activity concentration in the dialysis compartment was studied up to 24 hours. Tl-201-chloride, F-18-FDG, F-18-fluoride, and Er-169-chloride were used as reference tracers.

Results: The equilibria were reached at the latest 10 hours after start of dialysis. The ionic Er-169-chloride (as negative control) and Re-186-perrhenate showed very similar diffusion kinetics compared with reference radiotracers. The colloidal radionuclides, incubated and dialyzed against electrolytes comparable with plasma (MEM Dulbeco medium), human synovia, or phosphate containing buffers were not detected in the dialysis solution (lower 0.5% of applied dose (%ID)), except Re-186-MM1. Significant amounts of compounds were found in the dialysis compartment. Incubation of the colloids with isotonic sodium chloride or 0.1 M hydrochloric acid was followed by an activity release into the dialysis solution YMM-1 (67%ID) and ERMM-1 (62%ID).

Conclusion: The increased stabilities of the carrier added radiocolloids studied in different electrolyte solutions was mainly a result of the presence of phosphate ions. The low solubility of the phosphates of rare earth elements, the binding to synovia proteins, and hydroxylation were the main mechanisms of colloidal particle stabilization or reformation of free or secondary formed Erbium or Yttrium ions. This generally results in formation of particles of low diffusibility, increasing the retention of the radiocolloids inside the joint before the radionuclide-loaded colloidal particles are phagocytozed by macrophages in the inflamed synovial membrane.
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Nuklearmedizin 48(2009)2, A72
  • Lecture (Conference)
    47. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Nuklearmedizin, 22.-25.04.2009, Leipzig, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11899
Publ.-Id: 11899


Optimum Voxel Size for Reconstruction of In Beam PET Data

Shakirin, G.; Crespo, P.; Fiedler, F.; Wagner, A.; Enghardt, W.
At the heavy ion therapy facility at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt, Germany, an in-beam PET scanner is operated for quality assurance monitoring simultaneously to the therapeutic irradiation. The PET scanner, which is completely integrated into the treatment facility, registers the annihilation γ - rays following the decay of minor amounts of β+ radioactive nuclei produced via nuclear reactions between the ions of the therapeutic beam and the atomic nuclei of the irradiated tissue. From a comparison of the reconstructed activity distributions with those predicted from the treatment plan, deviations between the prescribed and the applied dose distributions can be detected. The solution currently implemented for the reconstruction of in-beam PET data is the ML-EM algorithm adapted to the low statistics case and to the dual head geometry. The size of image elements (voxels) influences significantly the quality of the image. A small voxel size increases the resolution but produces high oscillations of a signal. Large voxels produce homogeneous images, however, with low spatial resolution. The size of the voxel is always a compromise between suppressing signal oscillations which requires larger voxel size, and covering small imaging details which requires smaller voxel size. The standard voxel side-length used for the BASTEI scanner, 1.6875 mm, is exactly 1/4 of the crystal width. For in-beam PET the size of the voxel can be enlarged for typical irradiation fields from the standard (1.6875 mm)3 to 2 × 2 × 3 mm3 without loss of quality. The images reconstructed with bigger voxel are less noisy and still contain enough information about activity in small cavities and deviations of the range. Reconstruction performs almost two times faster for the 2 × 2 × 3 mm3 voxel.
Keywords: in-beam PET, reconstruction, voxel size, radiotherapy, ML-EM, OS-EM, RFS-EM
  • Poster
    IEEE Dresden 2008, 19.-25.10.2008, Dresden, Germany
  • Contribution to proceedings
    IEEE Dresden 2008, 19.-25.10.2008, Dresden, Germany
  • Contribution to external collection
    in: GSI Scientific Report 2008, GSI: GSI, 2009
  • Poster
    OncoRay Retreat meeting, 14.-15.01.2009, Bautzen, Germany

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11898
Publ.-Id: 11898


On the Optimum Strategy for Subsets Based Reconstruction of In-Beam PET Data

Shakirin, G.; Crespo, P.; Enghardt, W.
At the heavy ion therapy facility at the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt, Germany, an in-beam PET scanner is operated for quality assurance monitoring simultaneously to the therapeutic irradiation. The PET scanner, which is completely integrated into the treatment facility, registers the annihilation γ - rays following the decay of minor amounts of β+ radioactive nuclei produced via nuclear reactions between the ions of the therapeutic beam and the atomic nuclei of the irradiated tissue. From a comparison of the reconstructed activity distributions with those predicted from the treatment plan, deviations between the prescribed and the applied dose distributions can be detected. The solution currently implemented for the reconstruction of in-beam PET data consists of ML-EM and recently developed randomly filled subsets expectation maximization (RFS-EM) algorithms adapted to the low statistics case and to the dual head geometry. We proposed the reconstruction scheme for the subsets based RFS-EM algorithm. The scheme includes 4 iterations only, the number of subsets decreases from iteration to iteration and equals to 8, 6, 4, and 2 subsets, respectively. The scheme has been tested for two typical irradiation cases: head and neck (image space dimensions: 190 × 122 × 122 mm3) and pelvic (398 × 152 × 136 mm3) fields. The image quality was evaluated by means of visual inspection, root mean square error, and sensitivity of the method to the range deviations. The images reconstructed with the proposed RFS-EM scheme are of similar quality as those reconstructed with the reference 50 iterations of ML-EM. High quality of the system matrix is required for RFS-EM reconstructions of large fields.
Keywords: in-beam PET, radiation therapy, reconstruction, ML-EM, RFS-EM, OS-EM
  • Lecture (Conference)
    IEEE Dresden 2008, 19.-25.10.2008, Dresden, Germany
  • Contribution to proceedings
    IEEE Dresden 2008, 19.-25.10.2008, Dresden, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11897
Publ.-Id: 11897


Broad-beam PIXE and µ-PIXE analysis of normal and in vitro demineralized dental enamel

Preoteasa, E. A.; Preoteasa, E.; Kuczumow, A.; Gurban, D.; Harangus, L.; Grambole, D.; Herrmann, F.
Dental enamel has been widely studied by particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE), but less attention was paid to its demineralization, which leads to caries formation. Using broad-beam PIXE and mu-PIXE, we investigated normal enamel and the in vitro formation of pre-carious lesion in lactic acid solution, aiming also to evaluate intercusp differences within the same tooth. Broad-beam PIXE was performed using 3.0 MeV protons, and µm-PIXE maps of Ca, Fe and Zn were collected with 3.1 MeV protons at similar to 4 mu m resolution. In normal enamel a differentiated Ca-rich surface layer was observed, where Fe and Zn reached their highest levels. In deeper layers, Fe and Zn evidenced quasiperiodic patterns of maxima, possibly due to coupled diffusion-reaction catalytic processes involved in the enamel growth. Both Fe and Zn appeared to be located in a few distinct types of pools. Near the surface, demineralization induced an increase of Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr and Pb with respect to Ca, attr!
ibuted to partial hydroxyapatite dissolution and/or to chelate extraction and concentration of trace metals. Ca maps revealed limited changes in the surface layer and a massive loss in the inner enamel; here, Fe was almost depleted and Zn partially removed. The maps of Ca, Fe and Zn demonstrated major intercusp variations in both normal and altered enamel. Thus, broad-beam PIXE and mu-PIXE, which do not require (semi)thin sectioning of the tooth as the conventional methods, provide compositional and structural insight of normal dental enamel, of its intercusp variability and of the alterations produced by ill vitro demineralization, largely not accessible to the current techniques, and highly relevant for understanding the incipient caries formation.
  • X-Ray Spectrometry 37(2008)5, 517-535

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11896
Publ.-Id: 11896


Dipole transition strengths in 26Mg

Schwengner, R.; Rusev, G.; Fujita, Y.; Erhard, M.; de Frenne, D.; Grosse, E.; Junghans, A.; Kosev, K.; Schilling, K. D.; Wagner, A.
Dipole transitions from J = 1+ and 1- states in 26Mg were studied by means of photon scattering. The 1+ and 1- states were excited with bremsstrahlung produced by an electron beam of 13.0 MeV kinetic energy provided by the superconducting electron linear accelerator ELBE. We determined the transition strengths from 1+ and 1- states to the ground state as well as to low-lying states. In addition, we observed a J = 1 state at 11.154 MeV, above the neutron-separation energy of 11.093 MeV, and determined its partial gamma decay width for the first time.
Keywords: Nuclear structure, nuclear astrophysics, photon scattering, dipole transition strengths.

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11895
Publ.-Id: 11895


Validation of 99mTc-labeled "4+1" fatty acids for myocardial metabolism and flow imaging Part 2: Subcellular distribution

Mirtschink, P.; Stehr, S. N.; Walther, M.; Pietzsch, J.; Bergmann, R.; Pietzsch, H.-J.; Weichsel, J.; Pexa, A.; Dieterich, P.; Wunderlich, G.; Binas, B.; Kropp, J.; Deussen, A.
Our group has synthesized technetium labeled fatty acids which are extracted into the myocardium and sequestered due to H-FABP binding. In this paper we further address the detailed subcellular distribution and potential myocardial metabolism of "4+1" 99mTc-fatty acids (FA).

Experiments were conducted using isolated hearts of wistar rats as well as wildtype and H-FABP-/--mice. Myocardium samples underwent subcellular fractionation (subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar mitochondria, cytosol with microsomes as well as nuclei and crude membranes) and analysis by TLC and HPLC.

The largest fraction of tissue radioactivity was associated with the cytosol (79.69 ± 8.88% of the infused dose =ID). 9.07 ± 0.95% and 3.43 ± 1.38% of the ID were associated with the subsarcolemmal and the intermyofibrillar mitochondrial fractions, respectively. In the rat heart, etomoxir, an inhibitor of the carnitin-palmitoyl transferase I, did not significantly decrease radioactivity associated with the mitochondrial fractions, whereas the myocardial extraction of 123I-IPPA (13.26% vs. 49.49% in control) and the radioactivity associated with the subsarcolemmal and the intermyofibrillar mitochondrial fractions was blunted. The percentage of the ID in the mitochondrial and crude fractions increased with the number of NH-amide groups of the FA derivative. Absence of H-FABP significantly decreased the radioactivity count in the cytosolic fraction (P < 0.001). No metabolic products of a 99mTc "4+1" FA could be detected in any isolated hearts. Myocardial 99mTc "4+1" FA extraction reflects binding to H-FABP and membrane structures (including the mitochondrial membrane). However, the compounds do not undergo mitochondrial metabolism, because they do not reach the mitochondrial matrix.
Keywords: Technetium fatty acid; Isolated heart; Subcellular distribution: H-FABP; Etomoxir

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11894
Publ.-Id: 11894


Validation of 99mTc-labeled "4+1" fatty acids for myocardial metabolism and flow imaging Part 1: Myocardial extraction and biodistribution

Mirtschink, P.; Stehr, S. N.; Walther, M.; Pietzsch, J.; Bergmann, R.; Pietzsch, H.-J.; Weichsel, J.; Pexa, A.; Dieterich, P.; Wunderlich, G.; Binas, B.; Kropp, J.; Deussen, A.
13C, 18F and 123I fatty acids (FA) are used for myocardial imaging. Recently, our group showed that 99mTc-labeled "4+1" FA are extracted into the rat and guinea pig myocardium. The present study evaluates determinants of myocardial uptake and whole body biodistribution of these FA derivatives. Studies were performed with isolated perfused hearts of Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with a FAT/CD36 deficiency, as well as with heart type FA binding protein knockout mice (H-FABP-/-) and H-FABP+/+. Eight "4+1"-99mTc- FA were applied for 3 min followed by 1 min washout. A mathematical model was used to analyze FA dynamics and binding to proteins. Whole body distribution was studied in rats with and without Tween 80. In vitro fractionation studies with 99mTc- FA assessed red blood cell uptake as well as association with plasma lipoproteins (VLDL, LDL and HDL). Myocardial extraction was 19.0-33.0 % of the infused dose in isolated WKY and 15.2-26.4 % in SHR hearts. However, H-FABP-/- showed a marked reduction of tracer extraction (2.8 ± 0.6%ID vs. 17 ± 2%ID P < 0.001). Uptake in red blood cells (< 1.2%ID) and incorporation into lipoproteins were negligible. Incubation of 99mTc-FA with albumin reduced ventricular extraction (P < 0.001) into the range of established iodinated FA tracers. Tween 80 improved the heart-to-liver ratio in the biodistribution studies. Myocardial uptake of "4+1"-99mTc- FA derivatives is dependent on H-FABP. These substances may therefore provide a new tool to specifically assess regional myocardial changes of H-FABP.
Keywords: Technetium fatty acid; isolated heart; H-FABP; CD36; myocardial imaging

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Publ.-Id: 11893


Structure sensitive properties of Al-Si liquid alloys

Sklyarchuk, V.; Plevachuk, Y.; Yakymovich, A.; Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.; Eigenfeld, K.
Development and application of new expedient aluminium-based light alloys are a key issue in current materials science. In this study we present measurements of the thermophysical properties of liquid Al-7wt%Si, AlSi7Mg, and AlSi8Cu3 (wt.%) alloys, which are the most utilized casting alloys in the aluminium industry. Experimental data with respect to the density, viscosity, electrical and thermal conductivity have been determined in a wide temperature range and corresponding fit relations have been derived. A comparison with already published data and scaling relations available in the literature is given.
Keywords: Al-Si alloys; density; viscosity; electrical conductivity; thermal conductivity

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Publ.-Id: 11892


The impact of a vertically travelling magnetic field on the flow in a cylindrical liquid metal bubble plume

Zhang, C.; Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.
This paper describes laboratory experiments for investigations of flow structures and related transport processes in liquid metal bubbly flows under the influence of a travelling magnetic field (TMF). The melt flow is driven by central gas injection into a cylindrical container filled with the low melting point alloy GaInSn. Velocity fields of both the liquid and the gaseous phase were measured non-intrusively using the ultrasound Doppler method. Depending on the travelling direction of the magnetic field, the TMF mainly imposes either a co-current or counter flow with respect to the original bubble-driven circulation. In general, the application of a downward TMF significantly increases the liquid velocity all over the fluid volume. An upward TMF gives rise to more complex structures of the velocity field resulting in alternately arranged up- and downstream regions. Both the upward and downward TMF promote the occurrence of non-steady motions with distinct velocity fluctuations leading to an intensification of related transport processes in the melt and providing the perspective of enhanced mixing efficiencies.
Keywords: fluid flow, liquid metal, bubble plume, magnetic field, mixing
  • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions B 40(2009)5, 700-711

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Publ.-Id: 11891


Tunable-frequency ESR as a tool to study magnetic excitations in highly-correlated electron systems

Zvyagin, S.
In this presentation I will talk about recent development of the high-field Electron Spin Resonance program at the Dresden High Magnetic Field Laboratory (HLD) in Rossendorf. A unique feature of the facility is a combination of an extraordinary broad frequency range, 9 GHz - 100 THz (quasi-continuously covered by a number of tunable-frequency radiation sources, including THz-range free-electron laser FELBE) and high magnetic fields (up to 60 T). The talk will be illustrated by tunable-frequency ESR results obtained in sine-Gordon chain material Cu-PM and BEC candidate NiCl2-4SC(NH22 (known as DTN).
  • Lecture (others)
    Einladung durch BESSY, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, 03.11.2008, Berlin-Adlershof, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11890
Publ.-Id: 11890


The relationship of monodentate and bidentate coordinated uranium(VI) sulfate in aqueous solution

Hennig, C.; Ikeda, A.; Schmeide, K.; Brendler, V.; Moll, H.; Tsushima, S.; Scheinost, A. C.; Skanthakumar, S.; Wilson, R.; Soderholm, L.; Servaes, K.; Görrler-Walrand, C.; van Deun, R.
investigated by uranium LIII-edge EXAFS and HEXS measurements with the aim to distinguish monodentate and bidentate coordinated sulfate in aqueous solution. UV-vis absorption spectroscopy has been used to differentiate the species and to determine the species distribution as a function of the [SO42−]/[UO22+] ratio. A monodentate coordination prevails in solutions with [SO42−]/[UO22+] ratio of 1, where UO2SO4 is the dominant species. Besides the dominating monodentate sulfate a small amount of bidentate sulfate could be observed, indicating that two isomers may exist for UO2SO4. With increasing [SO42−]/[UO22+] ratio the UO2(SO4)2 2− species becomes the main species. The uranium atom of this species is coordinated by two bidentate sulfate groups.
Keywords: EXAFS, UV-Vis, HEXS, uranyl sulfate, aqueous solution

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Publ.-Id: 11889


Vacancy-hydrogen Complexes in ZnO

Kuriplach, J.; Brauer, G.; Melikhova, O.; ČižEk, J.; Procházka, I.; Anwand, W.; Skorupa, W.
Hydrogen is an important impurity in zinc oxide and can be incorporated into the lattice in several ways. Hydrogen can be also bound by vacancies that can be studied using positron annihilation techniques. Here we examine theoretically oxygen and zinc vacancies in ZnO, the latter also with hydrogen atoms inside. Several computational approaches are employed to determine the defect geometries and related positron characteristics. Positron-induced forces are also taken into account. Calculated positron lifetimes are compared with those observed in experiment, which gives an indication of the presence of zinc vacancy-hydrogen complexes in ZnO materials.
Keywords: zinc oxide, vacancy-hydrogen complexes, positron annihilation, positron-induced forces
  • Materials Science Forum 607(2009), 117-121

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Publ.-Id: 11888


Structure and Positron Characteristics of Basic Open Volume Defects in Zirconia

Melikhova, O.; Kuriplach, J.; Cizek, J.; Prochazka, I.; Brauer, G.
In this contribution we report on the theoretical study of basic vacancy-like defects in cubic zirconia and yttria stabilized zirconia. In particular, we concentrate on oxygen vacancy, zirconium vacancy and oxygen vacancy – yttrium complex. Relaxed atomic configurations of studied defects are obtained by means of an ab initio pseudopotential method within the supercell approach. Positron characteristics, like positron lifetime and binding energy to defects, are calculated using self-consistent electron densities and potentials taken from ab initio calculations.
Keywords: positron annihilation, open volume defects, zirconia.
  • Materials Science Forum 607(2009), 125-127

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Publ.-Id: 11887


Planung, Errichtung und Betrieb einer kleintechnischen Anlage zur Aufbereitung von und zur Sulfatabtrennung aus schwefelsaurem Grubenwasser durch Elektrolyse am Standort der GWRA Rainitza der LMBV

Friedrich, H.-J.; Zaruba, A.; Meyer, S.; Kryk, H.
Vertraulicher Abschlussbericht

Auftraggeber: LMBV mbH
Auftragnehmer: Verein für Kernverfahrenstechnik und Analytik Rossendorf e.V.

Leistungszeitraum: 01.04.2006 - 31.08.2008
  • Other report
    Dresden: VKTA, 2008
    75 Seiten

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11886
Publ.-Id: 11886


Atomic Layer Deposition of Platinum Oxide and Metallic Platinum Thin Films from Pt(acac)2 and Ozone

Hämäläinen, J.; Munnik, F.; Ritala, M.; Leskelä, M.
Platinum oxide and platinum thin films have been grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using Pt(acac)2 (acac ) acetylacetonato) and ozone as precursors. Amorphous platinum oxide thin films were deposited at 120 and 130 °C while metallic platinum films were obtained at 140 °C and above. The sublimation temperature of Pt(acac)2 set the low temperature limit for oxide film deposition. The platinum oxide films were successfully deposited on Al2O3 and TiO2 adhesion layers, soda lime glass, and silicon substrate with native oxide on top. Platinum films were grown on Al2O3 adhesion layer. The platinum oxide had good adhesion to all tested surfaces, whereas metallic platinum films did not pass the common tape test. Resistivities of 50-60 nm thick platinum oxide films were between 1.5 and 5 Ω cm at 130 °C and could be varied with both precursor pulse lengths. The resistivity of about 110 nm thick metallic film deposited at 140 °C was about 11 μΩ cm. The platinum films deposited at higher temperatures suffered from deterioration of thickness uniformity. The platinum oxide films can be reduced in 5% H2 gas under reduced pressure at room temperature to porous platinum structures.

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Publ.-Id: 11885


Construction and timing system of the EPOS beam system

Jungmann, M.; Krause-Rehberg, R.; Muller, A.; Krille, A.; Brauer, G.
The Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf provides an intense pulsed 40 MeV electron beam with high brilliance and low emittance (ELBE). The pulse has a length of 1-10 ps and a repetition time of 77 ns, or in slow mode 616 ns. The EPOS system (ELBE Positron Source) generates by pair production on a tungsten converter and a tungsten moderator an intense pulsed beam of mono-energetic positrons. To transport the positrons to the laboratory (12 m) we constructed a magnetic beam guidance system with a longitudinal magnetic field of 75 G. In the laboratory outside the cave, the positron beam is chopped and bunched according to the time structure, because the very sharp bunch structure of the electron pulses is broadened for the positron beam due to transport and moderation.

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Publ.-Id: 11884


EXAFS study of neptunium complex structures in aqueous solution

Hennig, C.; Ikeda-Ohno, A.; Tsushima, S.
Electrochemical and complexation properties of neptunium are investigated in aqueous perchlorate and nitrate solutions by means of cyclic voltammetry, bulk electrolysis, UV-visible absorption, and Np LIII-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The redox reactions of Np(III)/Np(IV) and Np(V)/Np(VI) couples are reversible or quasi-reversible, while the electrochemical reaction between Np(III)/(IV) and Np(V)/(VI) is irreversible because they undergo structural rearrangement from spherical coordinating ions (Np3+ and Np4+) to trans-dioxoneptunyl ions (NpO2n+). The redox reaction of the Np(V)/Np(VI) couple involves no structural rearrangement on their equatorial planes in acidic perchlorate solutions. A detailed analysis of EXAFS spectra suggests that Np(IV) forms a decaaquo complex of [Np(H2O)10]4+ in 1.0 M HClO4, while NpV and NpVI exist dominantly as pentaaquoneptunyl complexes, [NpO2(H2O)5]n+ (n = 1 for Np(V) and 2 for NpVI) [1].
Structural information on the sulfate coordination of neptunium in aqueous solution is actually rather scarce. We investigated actinide complexes in aqueous sulfate solution by using samples of 10-50 mM of actinide and total sulfate concentrations, 0.05 ≤ [SO42-] ≤ 10 M. In contrast to the coordination of actinides with carbonate where bidentate coordination always prevails, the coordination with sulfate comprises monodentate and bidentate linkage with a wide variety of combinations. In general, with increasing [SO42-]/[Ann+] ratio the bidentate coordination becomes dominant in solution [2]. As example, at low [SO42-]/[UO22+] ratio, where the UO2SO4(aq) species prevails, the sulfate coordinates in a monodentate and only to a less extend in bidentate fashion. At high [SO42-]/[UO22+] ratio, where UO2(SO4)22- species prevails, bidentate sulfate coordination with the species [UO2(SO4)2bid]2- becomes dominant. In oxidation state IV, up to five coordinating sulfate groups have been observed, mostly with predominant bidentate coordination as for example in the high-charged complex [U(SO4bid)3(SO4mon)2]6- [3]. Np(IV) and Np(VI) follows the tendency of U(IV) and U(VI), whereas Np(V) is weakly coordinated by sulfate, in accordance with its low formation constant. The attempt to preserve solution species in crystal structures led in most of the cases to a rearrangement of bidentate sulfate groups in solution to monodentate–bridging coordination in solid state. The coordination of the solution complexes was optimized by DFT calculation and the results are compared with the experimental observations.
Keywords: EXAFS, Neptunium, aqueous solution
  • Lecture (others)
    JAEA Actinide Network Workshop, 29.10.2008, Tokai, Japan

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Publ.-Id: 11883


J-selfadjoint operators with C-symmetries: extension theory approach

Albeverio, S.; Günther, U.; Kuzhel, S.
A well known tool in conventional (von Neumann) quantum mechanics is the selfadjoint extension technique for symmetric operators. It is used, e.g., for the construction of Dirac-Hermitian Hamiltonians with point-interaction potentials. Here we reshape this technique to allow for the construction of pseudo-Hermitian (J-selfadjoint) Hamiltonians with complex point-interactions. We demonstrate that the resulting Hamiltonians are bijectively related with so called hypermaximal neutral subspaces of the defect Krein space of the symmetric operator. This symmetric operator is allowed to have arbitrary but equal deficiency indices . General properties of the C-operators for these Hamiltonians are derived. A detailed study of C-operator parametrizations and Krein type resolvent formulas is provided for J-selfadjoint extensions of symmetric operators with deficiency indices <2,2>. The technique is exemplified on 1D pseudo-Hermitian Schrödinger and Dirac Hamiltonians with complex point-interaction potentials.
Keywords: PT-symmetric quantum mechanics, pseudo-Hermitian operators, Krein space, extension theory, point interactions, hypermaximal neutral subspace, C-operator, super-symmetry, contraction mapping, resolvent, defect index, defect subspace, extension center

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Publ.-Id: 11882


The influence of annealing on manganese implanted GaAs films

Bürger, D.; Zhou, S.; Grenzer, J.; Reuther, H.; Anwand, W.; Gottschalch, V.; Helm, M.; Schmidt, H.
Besides low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy, ion implantation provides an alternative route to incorporate Mn into GaAs above the equilibrium solubility limit. However, post-implantation annealing can lead to the formation of secondary phases. In the published papers concerning Mn implanted GaAs, diluted magnetic GaAs is only obtained by pulsed laser annealing. In order to compare the post-annealing effect, we investigate GaMnAs by implanting up to 6 at% Mn followed by rapid thermal and flashlamp annealing. The structural properties were probed by high resolution X-ray diffraction. The magnetic properties were determined by SQUID measurements. Auger electron spectroscopy has been used to profile the depth distribution of Mn in GaAs after implantation and annealing. We elucidate after implantation a loss of As and that during rapid thermal annealing most of the Mn diffuses towards the surface. Flash lamp annealing prevents out-diffusion, but the recrystalisation effciency is low. Only the flash lamp annealed samples reveal weak ferromagnetism.
Keywords: diluted magnetic semiconductor, flashlamp annealing, HRXRD, ion implantation, RBS, RTA
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 267(2009), 1626-1629
    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nimb.2009.01.066
  • Poster
    IBMM 2008 - 16th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials, 31.08.-05.09.2008, Dresden, Germany

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Publ.-Id: 11881


Oxygen gettering in the initial stage of SIMOX process

Ou, X.; Kögler, R.; Mücklich, A.; Skorupa, W.; Möller, W.; Wang, X.
The presentation reported latest results about defect engineering of the SIMOX process
Keywords: Silicon, Oxygen, SIMOX, SOI
  • Lecture (Conference)
    16th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials (IBMM 2008), 31.08.-05.09.2008, Dresden, Germany
  • Poster
    16th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials (IBMM 2008), 31.08.-05.09.2008, Dresden, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11880
Publ.-Id: 11880


Gettering layer for oxygen accumulation in the initial stage of SIMOX processing

Ou, X.; Kögler, R.; Skorupa, W.; Möller, W.; Wang, X.; Gerlach, J. W.
A cavity layer or nano-bubble layer introduced by He implantation before the oxygen implantation collects the implanted oxygen and increases the oxygen concentration. The average size and density of the oxygen precipitates formed in the initial stage of the Separation-by-implanted-oxygen (SIMOX) process is conform with the size and density of the cavities pre-formed by He implantation and annealing. The gettering ability of the cavity layer for oxygen is directly related to the area of the internal surface of the cavities. A nano-bubble layer accumulates oxygen in a very narrow range occurring between the damage maximum, DP, and the mean projected ion range, RP. Such a nano-bubble layer is most efficient in oxygen gettering due to their larger area of the internal surface and the small size of the oxide precipitates initially formed at the bubbles.
Keywords: Ion implantation; SIMOX; Defect engineering; Empty volume; Internal surface
  • Contribution to proceedings
    16th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials (IBMM 2008), 31.08.-05.09.2008, Dresden, Germany: Elsevier
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 267(2009), 1273-1276
    DOI: 10.1016/j.nimb.2009.01.029

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Publ.-Id: 11879


Integration of Thin-Film-Fracture-Based Nanowires into Microchip Fabrication

Jebril, S.; Elbahri, M.; Titazu, G.; Subannajui, K.; Essa, S.; Niebelschütz, F.; Röhlig, C.-C.; Cimalla, V.; Ambacher, O.; Schmidt, B.; Kabiraj, D.; Avasti, D.; Adelung, R.
One-step device fabrication through the integration of nanowires (NWs) into silicon microchips is still under intensive scientific study as it has proved difficult to obtain a reliable and controllable fabrication technique.
So far, the techniques are either costly or suffer from small throughput. Recently, a cost-effective method based on thin-film fracture that can be used as a template for NW fabrication was suggested. Here, a way to integrate NWs between microcontacts is demonstrated. Different geometries of microstructured photoresist formed by using standard photolithography are analyzed. Surprisingly, a very simple ‘‘stripe’’ geometry is found to yield highly reproducible fracture patterns, which are convenient templates for fault-tolerantNWfabrication. Microchips containing integrated Au, Pd, Ni, and Ti NWs and their suitability for studies of conductivity and oxidation behavior are reported, and their suitability as a hydrogen sensor is investigated. Details of the fabrication process are also discussed.
Keywords: gas detection, microchip fabrication, nanowires, thin-film fractures

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11878
Publ.-Id: 11878


Spinel ferrite nanocrystals embedded inside ZnO: magnetic, electronic and magneto-transport perperties

Zhou, S.; Potzger, K.; Xu, Q.; Kuepper, K.; Talut, G.; Shalimov, A.; Mäucklich, A.; Helm, M.; Fassbender, J.ORC; Arenholz, E.; Schmidt, H.
In this paper we show that spinel ferrite nanocrystals (NiFe2O4, and CoFe2O4) can be texturally embedded inside a ZnO matrix by ion implantation and post-annealing. The ferrite nanocrystals show comparable magnetization with corresponding bulk ferrites. Anomalous Hall effect and positive magnetoresistance have been observed. Our study suggests a ferrimagnet/semiconductor hybrid system for potential applications in magneto-electronics. This hybrid system can be tuned by selecting different transition metal ions (from Mn to Zn) to obtain various magnetic and electronic properties.
Keywords: Ferrite, Ion implantation, X-ray absorption, Magneto-transport

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Publ.-Id: 11877


Origin of the ferromagnetism in defective TiO2 single crystals

Zhou, S.; Cizmar, E.; Potzger, K.; Krause, M.; Talut, G.; Helm, M.; Fassbender, J.ORC; Zvyagin, S. A.; Wosnitza, J.; Schmidt, H.
In this paper we show that ferromagnetism can be induced in pure TiO2 single crystals by oxygen ion irradiation. By combining x-ray diffraction, Raman-scattering, and electron spin resonance spectroscopy, a defect complex, Ti^{3+} ions on the substitutional sites accompanied by oxygen vacancies, has been identified in irradiated TiO2. This kind of defect complex results in a lattice strain and a local (TiO_{6-x}) stretching Raman mode. We elucidate that Ti^{3+} ions with one unpaired 3d electron provide the local magnetic moments.
Keywords: TiO2, Induced ferromagnetism, Defects, ESR
  • Physical Review B 79(2009), 113201
    DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.79.113201
  • Poster
    International Conference on Magnetism, 26.-31.07.2009, Karlsruhe, Germany

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Publ.-Id: 11876


Room temperature ferromagnetism in carbon-implanted ZnO

Zhou, S.; Xu, Q.; Potzger, K.; Talut, G.; Fassbender, J.ORC; Vinnichenko, M.; Grenzer, J.; Helm, M.; Hochmuth, H.; Lorenz, M.; Grundmann, M.; Schmidt, H.
Unexpected ferromagnetism has been observed in carbon doped ZnO films grown by pulsed laser deposition [Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 127201 (2007)]. In this letter, we introduce carbon into ZnO films by ion implantation. Room temperature ferromagnetism has been observed. Our analysis demonstrates that (1) C-doped ferromagnetic ZnO can be achieved by an alternative method, i.e. ion implantation, and (2) the chemical involvement of carbon in the ferromagnetism is indirectly proven.
Keywords: ZnO, Diluted magnetic semiconductor, Carbon, ion implantation
  • Applied Physics Letters 93(2008), 232507
    DOI: 10.1063/1.3048076
  • Lecture (Conference)
    DPG Frühjahrstagung der Sektion Kondensierte Materie (SKM) 2009, 22.-27.03.2009, Dresden, Germany

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Publ.-Id: 11875


Inverse spinel ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles synthesized by ion implantation and post-annealing: an investigation using X-ray spectroscopy and magneto-transport

Zhou, S.; Potzger, K.; Buerger, D.; Kuepper, K.; Helm, M.; Fassbender, J.ORC; Schmidt, H.
Noncrystalline ZnFe2O4 has been investigated intensively due to the drastic difference in cation distribution compared with bulk materials. We previously synthesized ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles by ion implantation and post-annealing [J. Phys. D-Appl. Phys. 40, (2007) 964]. These ZnFe2O4 nanocrystals are crystallographically oriented inside the ZnO matrix and show a hysteretic behavior upon magnetization reversal at 5 K. Their magnetic properties are explained by assuming that Fe^{3+} ions partially occupy tetrahedral sites. In this paper an X-ray spectroscopic and magneto-transport investigation on ZnFe2O4 nanocrystals in a ZnO matrix will be presented. The occupation of Fe^{3+} at tetrahedral sites has been directly proved. A positive magnetoresistance (MR) effect is observed and is attributed to ordinary MR.
Keywords: ZnFe2O4, X-ray absorption, Magnetoresistance

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Publ.-Id: 11874


Sorption of uranium(VI) onto opalinus clay in absence and presence of humic acid

Joseph, C.
An anaerobic opalinus clay sample was characterized (BET, TC, TOC, CEC, XRD, IR). No significant differences between the aerobic and the anaerobic clay could be determined.
For the uranium(VI) sorption onto kaolinite the effect of the background electrolyte was investigated. An explanation for the different results is given by EQ3/6-speciation diagrams. The uranium(VI) sorption onto aerobic opalinus clay (S/L = 60 g/l) in opalinus clay pore water in absence and presence of humic acid was investigated and compared with the according uranium(VI)-humic acid-kaolinite sorption results.
Keywords: opalinus clay, characterization, anaerobic, sorption, uranium(VI), speciation, humic acid, kaolinite
  • Lecture (others)
    Meeting FZD - PSI, 03.-04.11.2008, Rossendorf, Germany

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Publ.-Id: 11873


Spectroscopic investigations of U(VI) speciation In cementitious materials

Macé, N.; Wieland, E.; Tits, J.; Dähn, R.; Kunz, D.; Geipel, G.; Scheinost, A. C.
In the Swiss radioactive waste management program, cement is used as a matrix for long-lived intermediate-level waste (ILW), in which Uranium is an important radionuclide. Calcium Silicate Hydrates (C-S-H) are one of the major components of Hardened Cement Paste (HCP). A molecular-level understanding of Uranium uptake processes occurring in cementitious materials is essential to improve long-term predictions in safety analysis. U(VI) uptake by C-S-H (CaO/SiO2 = 1.07) in Artificial Cement pore-Water (ACW) and HCP has been investigated using Time Resolved Laser Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLFS) and X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) in order to determine the chemical environment of retained and precipitated U(VI) species in cementitious matrices. Phase X (CaUO4(H2O)x) soddyite and a uranophane ([Ca(H3O)2](UO2)2(SiO4)2(H2O)3) have been chosen as relevant reference compounds.
The main results are:
1) Preliminary TRLFS and XAS results are in a good agreement concerning U(VI) speciation in cementitious systems
2) TRLFS spectra of U(VI) in supernatant ≠ TRLFS spectra of U(VI) in cementitious pastes, i.e. free U(VI) species in ACW ≠ sorbed U(VI) species in cementitious pastes
3) TRLFS and XAS spectra of U(VI) sorbed species in HCP and C-S-H pastes are similar, i.e. C-S-H phases are responsible of U(VI) immobilization in HCP
4) For U(VI) high loading in HCP and U(VI) precipitated in ACW, i.e. U(VI) environment closed to a Ca-uranate phase with long U-Oaxial distances (1.86 ± 0.02) Ǻ
5) For U(VI) low loadings in HCP and C-S-H in ACW, i.e. uranophane-like structure with short UOaxial distances (1.83 ± 0.02) Ǻ
Keywords: cement nuclear waste uranium TRLFS EXAFS
  • Poster
    Cement08 - 2nd International workshop on Mechanism and Modelling of waste/cement interaction, 12.-16.10.2008, Le Croisic, France

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11872
Publ.-Id: 11872


eta and eta-prime production in nucleon-nucleon collisions near thresholds

Kaptari, L. P.; Kämpfer, B.
The production of eta and eta-prime mesons in nucleon-nucleon collisions near thresholds is considered within a one-boson exchange model. We show the feasibility of an experimental access to transition formfactors.

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Publ.-Id: 11871


Fracture mechanics characterization of Russian WWER type reactor pressure vessel welding seams

Viehrig, H.-W.; Schuhknecht, J.
The paper is focussed on Master Curve testing according to ASTM E1921-05 [5] of the Russian WWER-440 type reactor pressure vessel steel. Charpy size SE(B) specimens from the beltline welding seam SN0.1.4 of the Greifswald NPP Unit 1 (1st generation WWER-440/V-230) and Unit 2 (2nd generation WWER-440/V213) were investigated in this study. The specimens are TL and TS oriented in the RPV welding seam, this means specimen axis axial to the RPV wall and crack propagation circumferential and through the thickness, respectively. The WWER-440 welding seam consists of a welding root welded with an unalloyed wire Sv-08A and the filling material welded with the alloyed wire Sv-10KhMFT. Fracture toughness values at brittle failure, KJc, measured on Charpy size SE(B) specimens were evaluated following Master Curve analyses as specified in ASTM E1921-05. The results show a wavelike course of the evaluated reference temperature, T0, through the thickness of the welding seams of Unit 1 and Unit 8. The scatter is more pronounced for the irradiated annealed and reirradiated 1st generation RPV of Unit 1.
Another issue was the influence of the specimen orientation and mainly the crack extension direction. While the crack front of a TS specimen is located in a more or less uniform structure, the structure along the crack front of a TL specimen varies, because it usually spans several welding beads. Roughly speaking, TS and TL specimens have a differentiating and integrating behaviour, respectively. A difference in T0 was found also for TS and TL oriented specimens of Unit 8. The lowest T0 was measured on TS specimens from the welding root with 114°C, whereas TL specimens of the same thickness locations gave 62°C.
For the 2nd generation RPV of Unit 8, the KJc values measured on specimens of both orientations generally follow the course of the Master Curve and are enveloped by the fracture toughness curves for 2% and 98% fracture probability. This statement can generally be made also for the first generation RPV of Unit 1, but the scatter of the KJc values is larger compared to the Unit 8 RPV. More values than expected lie below the 2% fractile.
The reason for the scatter in the KJc values and T0 is found in the structure at and along the crack tip, which depends on the welding technology and the specimen orientation. The welding technology applied on the beltline welding seams of the 1st and 2nd WWER-440 RPV generation is different, which is clearly visible in macroscopic section in Figs. 3 and 4. KJc values measured on SE(B) specimens from the thickness locations beyond the welding root of Unit 8 RPV result in a valid T0. KJc values from specimens of the same thickness within the welding seam of Unit 1 show a larger scatter. The majority of KJc values from one thickness location falls below the fracture toughness curve for 2% fracture probability. The reason is seen in the brittle zone in the fusion region between two welding beads. The application of the SINTAP MC extension procedure leads to a conservative T0.
In comparison to the correlative and indirect approach of the fracture toughness estimation in the present codes, the results presented here show that the orientation of the surveillance specimens is crucial for the direct measurement of the fracture toughness. For fracture toughness determinations the specimen orientation should be chosen which either yields the most conservative fracture toughness values or which agrees with the loading and crack extension direction considered in the integrity assessment.
Keywords: reactor pressure vessel, multilayer welding seam, SE(B) specimen, specimen orientation, fracture toughness, Master Curve approach
  • Contribution to proceedings
    12th International Conference on Fracture, 12.-17.07.2009, Ottawa, Kanada
    Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Fracture
  • Lecture (Conference)
    12th International Conference on Fracture, 12.-17.07.2009, Ottawa, Kanada

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11870
Publ.-Id: 11870


Photon data shed new light upon the GDR spreading width in heavy nuclei

Junghans, A. R.; Rusev, G.; Schwengner, R.; Wagner, A.; Grosse, E.
A global study of the electric dipole strength in and below the isovector giant dipole resonance (GDR) is presented for mass numbers A>80. It relies on the recently established remarkably good match between data for the nuclear photo effect to novel photon scattering data covering the region below the neutron emission threshold as well as by average resonance neutron capture (ARC). From the wide energy coverage of these data the correlation of the GDR spreading width with energy can be studied with remarkable accuracy. A clear sensitivity to details of the nuclear shape, i.e. the beta- and gamma-deformations, is demonstrated. Based hereon a new parameterization of the energy dependence of the nuclear electric-dipole strength is proposed which - with only two new parameters - allows to describe the dipole strength in all heavy nuclei with A>80. Although it differs significantly from previous parameterizations it holds for spherical, transitional, triaxial and well deformed nuclei. The GDR spreading width depends in a regular way on the respective resonance energy, but it is independent of the photon energy.
Keywords: Isovector giant dipole resonance, E1 strength function, Lorentzian, Spreading width

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Publ.-Id: 11869


The properties of the nanometer thick Si/Ge films-on-insulator produced by Ge+ ion implantation and subsequent hydrogen transfer

Tyschenko, I. E.; Voelskow, M.; Cherkov, A. G.; Popov, V. P.
The behaviour of germanium implanted into the SiO2 layers in the vicinity of the bonding interface of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) structures has been studied. The enhanced segregation of the implanted Ge atoms at the Si/SiO2 bonding interface has been observed. Segregated Ge atoms form the layer, which is coherent with the silicon lattice. It is suggested that the formation of intermediate Ge layer is mediated by the occurrence of liquid Ge phase. The effect of Ge on the Hall mobility of holes in the 25 nm thick SOI layer was studied. An increase in the hole mobility by a factor of three was obtained in the SiGe-on insulator structures in comparison with that measured in the respective Ge-free SOI films.
Keywords: SiGe on insulators
  • Physica Status Solidi (C) 5(2008)12, 3724-3727

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Publ.-Id: 11868


Influence of the transition metal affinity on the encapsulating carbon medium during the growth of carbon:transition metal nanocomposite films

Berndt, M.; Krause, M.; Abrasonis, G.; Mücklich, A.; Munnik, F.; Kolitsch, A.; Möller, W.
The understanding of the interactions of carbon (C) atoms with transition metals (TM) is of particular importance as these interactions are involved in many processes in nanoscience. However, the underlying fundamental mechanisms are still not well understood. In this work, the influence of the TM chemical affinity to C on the encapsulating carbon nanostructuring is studied during the growth of C:TM nanocomposite films. C:Co and C:V nanocomposites with metal content of ~ 15 and ~ 30 at.% have been grown by ion beam co-sputtering in the temperature range of RT-500°C. The so-grown films have been investigated by the means of elastic recoil detection analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy at two excitation wavelengths (532 nm and 785 nm). In order to highlight the influence of the transition metal on the encapsulating matrix, the results are compared with the pure carbon films deposited at the same temperatures.

Nanocomposite structure is observed for all the C:TM films which consists of metal (or metal carbide) nanograins embedded in carbon medium. The C:V films consist of spherical grains of the diameter of ~2 nm whose size or shape is independent of the growth temperature. Vanadium is in the carbidic state over the whole temperature range of this study. The Co nanoparticles in C:Co films grown at RT also exhibit a spherical shape with a diameter of ~ 2 nm. However, with increasing deposition temperature the Co nanoparticles become elongated the long axis coinciding with the direction of the film growth. A carbide phase is identified for growth temperatures of RT-300°C, while a metallic phase is formed above 300°C.

The embedding carbon phase resembles that of the amorphous carbon at lower growth temperatures, while at elevated growth temperatures (>= 300°C) curved graphenic sheets encapsulating the metal nanoparticles can be identified. Raman spectroscopy shows that both metals enhance 6-fold ring clustering of the carbon phase since the D peak intensity related to the 6-fold ring breathing vibrations is increased in comparison to the pure carbon films. This enhancement occurs independently on the nanoparticle type, size, shape and phase. Besides the D and G peak, a third peak at ~ 1100 cm-1 is identified, which shows a resonance enhancement for visible laser excitation. This peak is absent in pure carbon films. Its intensity in relation to D-G band decreases when the growth temperature increases, while it increases concomitantly with the metal content. Moreover, the position of this peak is independent on the metal type indicating that it is an inherent feature of carbon.
Keywords: composites, ion beam sputtering, metallic and carbon nanostructures
  • Poster
    XXIInd International Winterschool on Electronic Properties of Novel Materials, 01.-08.03.2008, Kirchberg, Austria

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11867
Publ.-Id: 11867


Morphology, structure and growth pathways of carbon:transition metal nanocomposite thin films prepared by Ion beam co-sputtering

Krause, M.; Abrasonis, G.; Berndt, M.; Mücklich, A.; Munnik, F.; Kolitsch, A.; Möller, W.
Nanocomposites (NC) represent a new class of composite materials, wherein at least one component has a size of =< 100 nm in one dimension. [1] They are expected to show improved properties compared to classical materials and conventional composites due to their higher number of interfaces and their smaller particle size. In this work ion beam co-sputtering (IBS) of carbon and the 3d metals V, Co, Ni, and Cu was used to prepare NC thin films. Stable and homogenous NC with good adhesion on silicon were obtained for all the metals in a composition range of 15 at.% to 40 at.% metal, although the stability of the corresponding metal carbides gets smaller from vanadium to copper.
The NC morphology and structure was investigated by transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, x-ray absorption and Raman spectroscopy. In general, the NC consisted of nanoparticles embedded in a carbon matrix. Depending on the growth parameters, i.e. the chemical nature of the metal and the deposition temperature, the NC morphology could be varied from spherical grains via ellipsoidal nanocrystals to vertical standing columns extending over the whole thickness of the thin films. The phase properties of the nanoparticles resembled those of the bulk phases. While VC was formed in the temperature range of RT-500°C and no carbide phase at all was obtained for copper, cobalt and nickel exhibited either carbidic or metallic nanoparticles. Independently of the metal type the surrounding carbon phase exhibits an enhanced 6-fold aromatic ring formation compared to pure carbon reference films grown at identical conditions. The enhancement is particularly strong for low growth temperatures. While the carbon phase in general consists of a superposition of nanocrystalline graphite and amorphous carbon, the degree of graphitization could be controlled by the incorporated metal and the growth temperature. The results indicate that phase stability, nucleation rate and surface diffusivity determine the growth pathway of carbon:transition metal NC thin films grown by IBS. [2]-[5]


[1] P. M. Ajayan, L.S. Schadler, P.V. Braun, Nanocomposite Science and Technology, Wiley-VCH, 2003
[2] G. Abrasonis, M. Krause, A. Mücklich, K. Sedlackova, G. Radnoczi, U. Kreissig, A. Kolitsch, W. Möller, Carbon, 45, 2995-3006 (2007)
[3] M. Krause, G. Abrasonis, A. Kolitsch, A. Mücklich, U. Kreissig, W. Möller, Phys. Stat. Sol. (B), 244, 4236-4239 (2007)
[4] G. Abrasonis, A. Scheinost, S. Zhou, R. Torres, R. Gago, I. Jimenez, K. Kuepper, K. Potzger, M. Krause, A. Kolitsch, W. Möller, S. Bartkowski, M. Neumann, R. Gareev, J. Phys. Chem. C, 112, 12628-12637 (2008)
[5] G. Abrasonis, M. Berndt, M. Krause, K. Kuepper, F. Munnik, A. Kolitsch, W. Möller, J. Phys. Chem. C, in press, 2008

Keywords: Composites, Ion beam sputtering, growth, structure
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    SIWAN 2008 - 4th Szeged International Workshop on Advances in Nanoscience, 09.-10.10.2008, Szeged, Hungary

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11866
Publ.-Id: 11866


Advanced measuring techniques for multiphase flow at Research Center Dresden-Rossendorf

Da Silva, M. J.
Multiphase flow, the simultaneous stream in a pipe or vessel of two or more physically distinct and immiscible substances, is present in many industry branches. The correct understanding and modeling of such flows is a key issue for safety and efficiency aspects of processes and plants where they occur. In this presentation, state-of-the-art measuring techniques for investigation of multiphase flows are presented which have been developed or are under investigation at Research Center Dresden-Rossendorf. Special focus has been given to imaging techniques which are able to resolve phase distributions at high temporal and spatial resolution, including different types of wire-mesh sensors, gamma ray tomography and ultra fast electron beam tomography. Furthermore, the application of such techniques in basic research as well as industrial applications is presented and discussed.
Keywords: Multiphase flow, imaging techniques, wire-mesh sensor, tomography
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Research Seminar, Engineering School of Sao Carlos, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 08.10.2008, Sao Carlos, Brazil

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11865
Publ.-Id: 11865


Rare-Earth Implanted MOS Devices for Silicon Photonics

Rebohle, L.; Skorupa, W.
The book concentrates on the microstructural, electric and optoelectronic properties of rare earth implanted MOS structures and their use as light emitters in potential applications. It describes the structural formation processes in the gate oxide during fabrication and under operation, how this microstructure development will affect the electrical device performance and how both microstructure and electrical characteristics determine the optoelectronic features of the light emitters. However, most of the discussed physical processes as well as the described fabrication methods and device characterization techniques are of general interest and are beyond the scope of this type of light emitter. The book will be of value to engineers, physicists, and scientists dealing either with Si based photonics in particular or optoelectronic device fabrication and characterization in general.
Keywords: Si-based light emission Electroluminescence Rare earth implantation MOS technology Nanocluster formation
  • Book (Authorship)
    Heidelberg: Springer, 2010
    173 Seiten

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11864
Publ.-Id: 11864


Coexisting stochastic and coherence resonance in a mean-field dynamo model for Earth's magnetic field reversals

Fischer, M.; Stefani, F.; Gerbeth, G.
Using a spherical symmetric mean-field alpha^2-dynamo model for Earth's magnetic field reversals, we show the coexistence of the noise-induced phenomena coherence resonance and stochastic resonance. Stochastic resonance was recently invoked to explain the 100 kyr periodicity in the distribution of residence times between reversals. The comparison of the resulting residence time distribution with the paleomagnetic one allows for some estimate of the effective diffusion time of the Earth's core which may be 100 kyr or slightly below rather than 200 kyr as it would result from the molecular resistivity.

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11863
Publ.-Id: 11863


Excitation hierarchy in the BEC candidate DTN

Zvyagin, S. A.; Wosnitza, J.; Kolezhuk, A. K.; Batista, C. D.; Kawashima, N.; Tsukamoto, M.; Zapf, V. S.; Jaime, M.; Paduan-Filho, A.; Krzystek, J.; Glazkov, V. N.; Sosin, S. S.; Smirnov, A. I.
NiCl2-4SC(NH2)2 (known as DTN) is a quantum S = 1 chain system with strong easyplane anisotropy that is regarded as a new candidate for the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of spin degrees of freedom, with critical fields Bc1 = 2.1 T and Bc2 = 12.6 T. Tuneable-frequency Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) studies of magnetic excitations in DTN in fields up to 25 T are presented. Based on analysis of the single-magnon excitation mode observed in the high-field spin-polarized phase1 and previous experimental results2, a revised set of spin-Hamiltonian parameters is obtained. Our results yield D = 8.9 K, Jc = 2.2 K, and Ja,b = 0.18 K for the anisotropy, intrachain, and interchain exchange interactions, respectively. These values are used to calculate the antiferromagnetic phase boundary, magnetization and the frequency-field dependence of two-magnon bound-state excitations predicted by theory3 and observed in DTN for the first time. Furthermore, we present a systematic study of the low-energy excitation spectrum of DTN in the fieldinduced magnetically ordered phase (which is regarded as the magnon BEC phase) at temperatures down to 0.45 K. We argue that two gapped modes observed in the experiment4 can be consistently interpreted within a four-sublattice antiferromagnet model with a weak isotropic corner-center interaction of magnetic ions in the body-centered tetragonal lattice with unbroken axial symmetry. The latter is of particular importance, being a necessary prerequisite for the interpreting of the antiferromagnetic ordering in DTN in terms of the BEC scenario. The physically simplest scenario would correspond to the isotropic "corner-center" exchange. Since the exchange interaction within each sublattice is antiferromagnetic, the ground state in DTN in the ordered state (Bc1 < B < Bc2) is predicted to be frustrated and thus infinitely degenerated.
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Highly Frustrated Magnetism (HFM) 2008, 07.-12.09.2008, Braunschweig, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11862
Publ.-Id: 11862


Kleintier Positronen-Emissions-Tomographie zur in vivo Charakterisierung von Tumoren

Bergmann, R.
kein Abstract verfügbar
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Wissenschaftliches Kolloquium Leibniz-Institut für Naturstoff-Forschung und Infektionsbiologie e.V. (HKI), 02.12.2008, Jena, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11861
Publ.-Id: 11861


Photoactivation experiment on 197Au and its implications on the dipole strength in heavy nuclei

Nair, C.; Junghans, A. R.; Erhard, M.; Bemmerer, D.; Beyer, R.; Grosse, E.; Klug, J.; Kosev, K.; Rusev, G.; Schilling, K. D.; Schwengner, R.; Wagner, A.
The 197Au(gamma, n) reaction is used as an activation standard for the photodisintegration studies on astrophysically relevant nuclei. At the bremsstrahlung facility of the superconducting electron accelerator ELBE of FZ Dresden-Rossendorf, photoactivation measurements on 197Au have been performed with bremsstrahlung endpoint energies from 8.0 to 15.5 MeV. The measured activation yield is compared with previous experiments as well as calculations using Hauser-Feshbach statistical models. It is shown that the experimental data are best described by a two-lorentzian parametrization with taking the axial deformation of 197Au into account. The experimental 197Au(gamma, n) reaction yield measured at ELBE via the photoactivation method is found to be consistent with previous experimental data using photon scattering or neutron detection methods.
Keywords: bremsstrahlung, photoactivation
  • Physical Review C 78(2008)5, 055802

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11860
Publ.-Id: 11860


Influence of irradiation on the metabolism of melanoma cells and development of corresponding in vitro and in vivo models for the characterization of radiopharmaceuticals

Mosch, B.; Müller, K.; Pietzsch, J.
Aim:
Irradiation is an effective implement for the therapy of solid tumors. But often single cells elude this treatment and constitute a basis for recurrence of the primary tumor and formation of metastases. One possible explanation for this observation could be predicted on irradiationdependent metabolic changes which lead to a predisposition of certain cells to show enhanced survival and migratory activity. The aim of our study was to investigate metabolic properties of irradiated melanoma cells which should further enable us to develop and validate appropriate in vitro and in vivo models for the characterization of new radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and therapy of metastases and solid tumors.

Materials and methods:
We applied different singledose X‐ray irradiation (1, 2, 5, 7, 10, and 20 Gy) to murine B16‐F10 melanoma cells. At several timepoints we analyzed cell viability, growth properties, clonogenic regrowth capability, cellular proliferation, and expression of cell cycle markers. Furthermore, we analyzed the cellular uptake of the radiotracers 2‐[18F]Fluor‐2‐desoxy‐D‐glucose and 3‐O‐Methyl‐[18F]fluor‐L‐DOPA, providing information about the glucose and amino acid metabolism before and after irradiation. Additionally, we performed in vivo studies in a syngeneic mouse model to analyze the capability of untreated and irradiated melanoma cells to form lung metastases. Results: In a dosedependent manner we detected a decrease in the growth properties, viability and tracer uptake of the melanoma cells, particularly, in the period 3 to 6 days after irradiation. In contrast, already one day after irradiation cell cycle analyses showed an increase in the number of G2/M phase cells and the expression of G2‐phase markers in irradiated compared to untreated cells. Additionally, in vitro analyses showed an influence of irradiation concerning the extent to form lung metastases in the mouse.

Conclusion:
Our results indicate that metabolic changes in melanoma cells after irradiation can be analyzed by a set of different in vitro and in vivo approaches, even in a dose‐dependent manner. Using this experimental approach, we are able to characterize new radiotracers and, furthermore, to investigate metabolic effects of applied radiopharmaceuticals in combination with experimental radiation therapy.
  • Poster
    Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM), 11.-15.10.2008, München, Deutschland
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging 35(2008), S316
    DOI: 10.1007/s00259-008-0896-9

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11859
Publ.-Id: 11859


Irradiation of melanoma cells induced changes in the S100A4-RAGE interaction toward a promigratory phenotype

Haase, C.; Wolf, S.; Pietzsch, J.
Aim:
Tumor metastasis is responsible for most cancer deaths, and can occur after long periods of tumor dormancy. The treatment of metastases would be either radiation only or surgery combined with adjunctive postoperative radiation therapy. Multiple reports have focused on the role of S100A4 in cancer progression, specifically its ability to enhance metastasis. We suggest that RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation endproducts) is a putative receptor for S100A4.
However, the role of S100A4‐RAGE interaction in melanoma metastasis is still unclear. The aim of this study was to characterize molecular and cellular mechanism of irradiated B16‐F10 melanoma cells, thereby, examining changes in the S100A4‐RAGE interaction and the ability for migration of irradiated melanoma cells in the presence of tumor associated macrophages.

Material and Methods:
B16‐F10 cells were exposed to single dose irradiation (5 Gy, 20 Gy) and mouse RAW 264.7 cells were used as a model for tumor‐associated macrophages. The expression of S100A4 and RAGE was quantified via real‐time RT‐PCR and Western‐blot analysis. Furthermore, cell migration was investigated with irradiated B16‐F10 cells in a 24‐transwell chamber for 16 h and 24 h. Migration was influenced by seeding RAW cells as a chemoattractant into the lower
compartments and recombinant S100A4 as a stimulus to the upper compartments. Migratory cells were labeled with Calcein‐AM and quantified in a standard fluorescence microplate reader.

Results:
The total number of vital irradiated B16‐F10 cells is significantly decreased with increasing dose up to 20 Gy and up to six days, thereby altering their morphological appearance. Expression of S100A4 and RAGE is significantly increased in surviving B16‐F10 cells three and six days after 20 Gy (p[[Unsupported Character ‐ ]]0.05). Furthermore, irradiated B16‐F10 cells have a higher migratory activity supposed due to an enhanced expression of S100A4 and RAGE. RAW cells and/or recombinant S100A4 caused a further increasing migration activity of irradiated cells (20 Gy).

Conclusions:
There is a close association of melanoma cells and macrophages with alterations of their migratory and invasive activity after irradiation. We suppose a perpetual para‐/autocrine expression mechanism of extracellular S100A4 and RAGE,
and thereby changing functional properties of melanoma cells towards a promigratory phenotype. This study was supported in part by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (grant Pi 304/1‐1).
  • Poster
    Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM, 11.-15.10.2008, München, Deutschland
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging 35(2008), S316
    DOI: 10.1007/s00259-008-0896-9

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11858
Publ.-Id: 11858


In vitro investigation of Yttrium-90-citrate-, Erbium-169-citrateand Rhenium-186-sulfur-colloid stability

Bergmann, R.; Pinckert, J.
Aim:
Yttrium‐90‐citrate‐ (YMM‐1), Erbium‐169‐citrate‐ (ERMM‐1), and Rhenium‐186‐sulfurcolloid (Re‐186‐MM1) were applied in radiosynovectomy (RSO), a local intraarticular injection of radionuclides in colloidal form for radiotherapy. The local metabolism of the colloidal particles is not fully understood; however, knowledge about the leakage is important for risk assessment. Therefore we investigated diffusion of the radionuclides by equilibrium dialysis, which provided
information about interaction of the colloids with synovia, stability and size in controlled equilibrium conditions.

Materials & Methods:
Carrier added YMM‐1, ERMM‐1, Re‐186‐MM1 colloids were dispersed and dialyzed against synovia, different electrolytes and buffers separated by dialysis membranes with a molecular weight cut off (MWCO) of 10,000 Dalton. The activity
concentration in the dialysis compartment was studied up to 24 hours. Tl‐201‐chloride, F‐18‐FDG, and Er‐169‐chloride were used as reference tracers.

Results:
The equilibria were reached at the latest 10 hours after start of dialysis. The ionic Er‐169‐chloride (as negative control) and Re‐186‐perrhenate showed very similar diffusion kinetics compared with reference radiotracers. The colloidal radionuclides, incubated and dialyzed against electrolytes comparable with plasma (MEM Dulbeco medium), human synovia, or phosphate containing buffers were not detected in the dialysis solution (lower 0.5% of applied dose(%ID)), except Re‐186‐MM1. Significant amounts of this compound were found in the dialysis compartment. Incubation of the colloids with isotonic sodium chloride or 0.1 M hydrochloric acid was followed by an activity release into the dialysis solution YMM‐1 (67%ID) and ERMM‐1 (62%ID). Conclusion: The different stabilities of the carrier added radiocolloids studied in different electrolyte solutions was mainly a result of the presence of phosphate ions. The low solubility of the phosphates of rare earth elements, the binding to synovia proteins, and hydroxylation were the main mechanisms of colloidal particle stabilization or reformation of free or secondary formed Erbium or Yttrium ions. This generally results in formation of particles of low diffusibility, increasing the retention of the radiocolloids inside the joint before the radionuclide‐loaded colloidal particles are phagocytozed by macrophages in the inflamed synovial membrane.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM), 11.-15.10.2008, München, Deutschland
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging 35(2008), S204
    DOI: 10.1007/s00259-008-0896-9

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11857
Publ.-Id: 11857


Biodistribution and metabolism of stabilized bombesin labeled with new Cu-64-chelating ligands

Bergmann, R.; Walther, M.; Juran, S.; Gasser, G.; Pietzsch, J.; Stephan, H.
Aim:
Gastrin releasing peptide receptors (GRPR) are overexpressed in different human tumors like prostate, breast and squamous cell carcinomas. The goal of this study was to compare the biodistribution and metabolism of a stabilized bombesin analogue radiolabeled with two new Cu‐64‐complexes for PET imaging of GRPR expression in xenografted mice.

Method:
Cu‐64 was complexed with a bis(2‐pyridylmethyl) derivative of 1,4,7‐triazacyclononane (TAC) and a bispidine 1,5‐dicarboxylic acid derivative (Cu‐64‐N2Py4‐OH(COOH)2) conjugated to a stabilized bombesin (BBN) derivative βhomoGlu‐βAla‐βAla‐[Cha13, Nle14]BN(7‐14) (Garcia Garoya et al. 2007). Biodistribution, elimination, and metabolism were studied in rats. Tumor accumulation was exemplarily evaluated with small animal PET in xenografted mice bearing prostate (PC3), squamous cell carcinoma (FaDu), and colorectal (HT‐29) human tumors. Cu‐64 chloride was studied for comparison. Results: PET imaging of Cu‐64‐N2Py4‐OH(COOH)2‐BBN in mice 1 h after injection revealed tumor‐to‐background ratios of 2.1 (PC3), 2.4 (FaDu control), 1.0 (FaDu blocked), and 1.5 (HT‐29). The uptake found in PC3 tumors with tissue sampling was significantly higher (5.3 control; 2.6 blocked). In comparison to the Cu‐64‐TAC‐BBN, the uptake of Cu‐64‐N2Py4‐OH(COOH)2‐BBN in rat pancreas and intestine was lower but the accumulation in kidney, liver, and stomach was higher. The metabolic stabilities of the Cu‐64‐labeled BBN‘s studied were comparable. More than 85% of the original substances were remained after 1 hour in vitro incubation with rat blood or blood plasma. In vivo all compounds were fast metabolized in rats, and lower than 5% of the original compounds were recovered in arterial blood plasma 1 hour after injection. However, the metabolism in xenografted nude mice was slower, after 1 hour 12% of blood plasma activity correspond to the original compound.

Conclusion:
Both investigated new Cu‐64 chelating agents conjugated to a stabilized BBN analogue showed typical BBN biodistribution and GRPR specific accumulation in vivo. The differences in biodistribution and metabolism between Cu‐64‐TAC‐ and Cu‐64‐N2Py4‐OH(COOH)2) labeled BBN demonstrate the influence of the Cu‐64 chelating units on these processes, especially on the nonspecific activity biodistribution. Comparison of biodistribution data of the BBN analogues and Cu‐64 chloride indicate only marginal, if any, in vivo copper demetalation, revealing high in vivo stability of the copper complex units. With further optimization of the radiolabeling in particular of specific activity the low specific uptake should increase. The studied chelating agents appear to be promising candidates for copper labeling of peptides under mild conditions. Partly supported by the 6th framework EU‐project “BioCare”, proposal # 505785.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM), 11.-15.10.2008, München, Deutschland
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging 35(2008), S153
    DOI: 10.1007/s00259-008-0896-9

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11856
Publ.-Id: 11856


The use of nanocavities for the fabrication of ultrathin buried oxide layers

Ou, X.; Kögler, R.; Skorupa, W.; Möller, W.; Wang, X.; Vines, L.
A continuous buried oxide (BOX) layer with a thickness of only 58 nm is formed in silicon by oxygen implantation at 185 keV with a very low ion dose of 1×1017 cm-2 and subsequent He implantation. Due to the implanted He efficient oxygen gettering occurs at the implantation induced damage and results in the accumulation of the implanted oxygen as well as of oxygen in-diffused from the annealing atmosphere. The morphology and the resistivity of the resulting silicon-on-insulator (SOI) structure are analyzed by cross section transmission electron microscopy and by cross section scanning spreading resistance microscopy, which is demonstrated to be a promising tool for the characterisation of a thin BOX layer.
Keywords: Ion Implantation, Silicon, Oxygen, SIMOX, BOX

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11855
Publ.-Id: 11855


Grafting of Poly(3-hexylthiophene) from Poly(4-bromostyrene) Films by Kumada Catalyst-Transfer Polycondensation: Revealing of the Composite Films Structure

Khanduyeva, N.; Senkovskyy, V.; Beryozkina, T.; Bocharova, V.; Simon, F.; Nitschke, M.; Stamm, M.; Grötzschel, R.; Kiriy, A.
In order to achieve a stable, long-term operation of flexible electronic devices, it is necessary to firmly fix semiconductive conjugated polymers to plastic substrates, thus preventing their damage against delamination or chemical treatments. Surface-initiated Kumada catalyst-transfer polycondensation of 2-bromo-5-chloromagnesio-3-alkylthiophene from photo-cross-linked poly(4-bromostyrene), PS(Br), films leads to covalent grafting of regioregular head-to-tail poly(3-hexylthiophenes), P3HT. Herein, we investigate the grafting process in detail and elucidate the structure of the resulting composite films using ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, and conductive mode atomic force microscopy techniques. In particular, we found that the grafting process is much more efficient if thick PS(Br) supporting layers are used. The maximal reachable thickness of the P3HT deposits is directly proportional to the thickness of the supporting PS(Br) layers. The obtained data suggest that the grafting process occurs not only at the PS(Br)/polymerization solution interface but also deeply inside the swollen PS(Br) films, penetrable for the catalyst and for the monomer. The process results into a kind of interpenetrated PS(Br)/P3HT network in which relatively short (∼10 nm) P3HT grafts emanate from long cross-linked PS(Br) chains. The films show good stability against delamination, high electrical conductivity in the doped state, and high swellability that might be exploited for construction of fully “plastic” electronic devices and sensors.
  • Macromolecules 41(2008)20, 7383-7389

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11854
Publ.-Id: 11854


Quark mass dependence of thermal excitations in QCD in one-loop approximation

Seipt, D.; Bluhm, M.; Kämpfer, B.
A comprehensive determination of the quark mass dependence in the dispersion relations of thermal excitations of gluons and quarks in non-Abelian gauge theory (QCD) is presented for the one-loop approximation in Feynman gauge. Larger values of the coupling are admitted, and the gauge dependence is discussed. In a Dyson-Schwinger type approach, the effect of higher orders is estimated for asymptotic thermal masses.

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11853
Publ.-Id: 11853


Reactive magnetron sputtering of CuInS2 adsorbers for thin film photovoltaic: relation between deposition parameters and film morphoöogy

Seeger, S.; Grötzschel, R.; Ellmer, K.
For the preparation of high-quality CuInS2 absorber films, two film properties are decisive: large crystallites and compact film morphologies. In this work we investigate the influence of the deposition parameters discharge power and substrate bias, on the morphology and chemical composition of CuInS2 films, which were prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering (radio frequency) in H2S/Ar atmosphere. A lateral concentration distribution along the substrate axis, which is caused by the arrangement the copper and indium cathodes in our sputtering equipment, was used to study the influence of the Cu-to-In ratio on the film growth. At a Cu-to-In ratio of one, which can be adjusted by the discharge powers at the copper and indium target to be positioned at the middle of the substrate, the crystallites in the film are small in size and separated by crevices from each other. In order to achieve compact CuInS2 films, the negative substrate bias was varied systematically (-15V to -150 V). The influence of the ion assistance, i.e. the impact of positive argon ions onto the growing film, was investigated with respect to the chemical composition and the morphology of the films.
Keywords: magnetron sputtering, CuInS2
  • Lecture (Conference)
    23rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, 01.-4.9.2008, Feria Valencia, Spain

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11852
Publ.-Id: 11852


Dynamical scaling at the metal-insulator transition in YHx

Pronin, A. V.; Romijn, I. G.; Brom, H. B.; Hoekstra, A. F. T.; Gorshunov, B. P.; Wosnitza, J.
There are strong indications that the light-induced metal-insulator transition in YHx is a quantum phase transition. If true, the conductivity should develop not only a characteristic scaling behavior with regard to doping and temperature, but also to frequency. Here we present our results on the frequency-temperature scaling of the conductivity in YHx at sub-terahertz frequencies on the insulating and metallic sides of the metal-insulator transition. In the insulating state, the data suggest the expected ω/T-scaling to hold. In the metallic phase, however, this scaling breaks down, and the sub-terahertz conductivity demonstrates frequencyindependent behavior. These results do not agree with the simplest picture of a quantum phase transition.
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    3rd International Conference "Fundamental Problems of High Temperature Superconductivity" (FPS'08), 13.-17.10.2008, Moscow-Zvenigorod, Russia

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11851
Publ.-Id: 11851


Bacterial Uranium Binding - Basis for the Development of Innovative Materials

Raff, J.
Within the radio-ecological research on bacteria, living in uranium mining waste piles, it was demonstrated that the microorganisms developed an intelligent detoxification strategy to survive in such an extreme habitat. They possess a special kind of surface layer (S-layer) to protect themselves from uranium. Beside fundamental research on the protein-radionuclide interaction, the S-layers were used for the development of new and innovativ materials. Immobilized on carrier materials, these proteins keep their high and selective metal binding properties and can thusly be used for (multi)functional coatings. For example, the basic technology allows the production of metal selective filter materials for the removal and recovery of metals and the production of photocatalytical active nanoclusters immobilized on different carriers or surfaces. The latter can be used for new and innovative water treatment, whereby pharmaceutical remnants and hormones will be eliminated.
  • Lecture (others)
    INE-FZD Workshop, 22.-23.10.2008, Karlsruhe, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11849
Publ.-Id: 11849


Fe nanoparticles embedded in MgO crystals

Shalimov, A.; Potzger, K.; Geiger, D.; Lichte, H.; Talut, G.; Misiuk, A.; Reuther, H.; Stromberg, F.; Zhou, S.; Baehtz, C.; Fassbender, J.ORC
Iron nanoparticles embedded in MgO crystals were synthesized by Fe+ ion implantation at an energy of 100 keV and varying fluences from 3×10e16 to 3×10e17 cm-2. Investigations of structural and magnetic properties of Fe nanoparticles have been performed using magnetometry, x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy, as well as by theoretical Preisach modeling of bistable magnetic systems. It has been found that alpha- and gamma-Fe nanoparticles are formed for all fluences. The content of the alpha- Fe phase increases at higher fluences and after annealing. The influence of post implantation annealing at 800 ºC in vacuum and under enhanced up to 10 kbar hydrostatic pressure in argon atmosphere on the formation of nanoparticles has been analyzed.
Keywords: iron, ferromagnetic materials, nanoparticles, ion implantation
  • Journal of Applied Physics 105(2009), 064906
  • Virtual Journal of Nanoscale Science & Technology 19(2009)13

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11848
Publ.-Id: 11848


Visualizing different uranium oxidation states during the surface alteration of uraninite and uranium tetrachloride

Grossmann, K.; Arnold, T.; Steudtner, R.; Weiss, S.; Bernhard, G.
The surface alteration of uraninite (U(IV)O2) and uranium tetrachloride UCl4 in air atmosphere was studied by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (LIFS) using an excitation wavelength of 408 nm. It was found that within minutes the oxidations state on the surface of the uraninite and the uranium tetrachloride changed. During the surface alteration process U(IV) atoms on the uraninite and uranium tetrachloride surface became stepwise oxidized by a one-electron step at first to U(V) and than further to U(VI). These observed changes in the oxidation states of the uraninite surface were microscopically visualized and spectroscopically identified on basis of their fluorescence emission signal. A fluorescence signal in the wavelength range of 415-475 nm was indicative for metastable uranium(V) and a fluorescence signal in the range of 480-560 nm was identified as uranium(VI). In addition, the oxidation process of tetravalent uranium in aqueous solution at pH 0.3 was visualized by CLSM and U(V) was fluorescence spectroscopically identified.
Keywords: uraninite UO2, uranium, uranium tetrachloride UCl4, CLSM, oxidation states, fluorescence spectroscopy
  • Naturwissenschaften 96(2009)8, 963-974

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Publ.-Id: 11847


Exceptionally Long Exciton Photoluminescence Lifetime in ZnO Tetrapods

Zhong, Y.; DjurišIc´, A. B.; Hsu, Y. F.; Wong, K. S.; Brauer, G.; Ling, C. C.; Chan, W. K.
The fabrication of ZnO tetrapods of an exceptional optical quality, based on a photoluminescence (PL) lifetime in the range of tens of nanoseconds and the absence of defect emission, is found to be possible in a very narrow temperature range only. A reduction in the PL lifetime and an increase in the defect emission are observed for both higher and lower growth temperatures. The obtained PL lifetime for the optimal growth temperature is an order of magnitude higher than the best results achieved in epilayers and single crystals. Temperature dependence of the PL lifetime of high-quality tetrapod samples indicates that the dominant recombination processes are radiative.
  • Journal of Physical Chemistry C 112(2008)42, 16286-16295

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Publ.-Id: 11846


Magnetic excitations in the BEC candidate DTN: high-field ESR studies

Zvyagin, S.
NiCl2-4SC(NH2)2 (known as DTN) is a quantum S = 1 chain system with strong easy-plane anisotropy that is regarded as a new candidate for the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of magnons, with critical fields Bc1 = 2.1 T, Bc2 = 12.6 T (defined at T = 0). Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) studies of magnetic excitations in DTN in fields up to 25 T are presented. Based on analysis of the single-magnon excitation mode observed in the high-field spin-polarized phase at temperatures above Tc (Tc ≤ 1.2 K), a revised set of spin-Hamiltonian parameters is obtained. Our results yield D = 8.9 K, Jc = 2.2 K, and Ja,b = 0.18 K for the anisotropy, intrachain, and interchain exchange interactions, respectively. These values are used to calculate the antiferromagnetic phase boundary, magnetization and the frequency-field dependence of two-magnon bound-state excitations predicted by theory and observed in DTN for the first time. Furthermore, we present a systematic study of the low-energy excitation spectrum of DTN in the field-induced magnetically ordered phase at temperatures down to 0.45 K. We argue that two gapped modes observed in the experiment can be consistently interpreted within a four-sublattice antiferromagnet model with a finite interaction between two tetragonal subsystems and unbroken axial symmetry. The latter is of crucial importance for the interpretation of the field-induced ordering in DTN in terms of the BEC of magnons.
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Correlated Electron Systems in High Magnetic Fields, 13.-17.10.2008, Dresden, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11845
Publ.-Id: 11845


Spectroscopic studies of the uranium(VI) interaction with nitrogen and sulfur containing model ligands

Raditzky, B.; Joseph, C.
The migration and interaction behavior of actinides can be effectively influenced by humic substances, biopolymers ubiquitous in natural environments, due to their ability for complex and colloid formation and their redox properties. In addition to oxygen containing functional groups, humic substances also offer sulfur and nitrogen containing functionalities.
The aim of this work is to determine the influence of various nitrogen and sulfur containing functional groups on the uranium(VI) complexation and to evaluate their contribution in comparison to oxygen containing functional groups. For this, simple organic model ligands that can occur as building blocks for humic substances are used. In this study, results are presented for the uranium(VI) complexation by the organic ligands benzenesulfonic acid and 4-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid as well as anthranilic and nicotinic acid. The complex formation constants for the uranium(VI) complexation were determined applying time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS).
Keywords: uranium(VI), fs-TRLFS, TRLFS, benzenesulfonic acid, 4-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid, anthranilic acid, nicotinic acid, complexation
  • Lecture (others)
    ACTINET 05-08 Project Meeting, 27.-31.10.2008, Larnaca, Cyprus

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11844
Publ.-Id: 11844


Synthetic Humic Acids for Basic Studies of Humic Acid Complexation Properties and Migration Processes

Sachs, S.
In order to improve the knowledge about the interaction processes between humic acids and metal ions, e.g., actinide ions, various humic acid model substances with different functional properties were developed at the Institute of Radiochemistry. These includes synthetic humic acids with different functional group contents and various structural elements, chemically modified humic acids, humic acids with pronounced redox functionalities, and isotopically labeled humic acids. The presentation gives an overview about the synthesis, characterization and application of the different types of designed humic acid model substances.
Keywords: Humic acid, humic acid model substances, synthesis, characterization, modification, labeling, application
  • Lecture (others)
    ACTINET 05-08 Project Meeting, 27.-31.10.2008, Larnaca, Cyprus

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11842
Publ.-Id: 11842


Redox Properties of Humic Substances in the Systems Np(V)/(IV) and U(VI)/(IV)

Schmeide, K.
The Np(V) and U(VI) reducing capacities of humic substances of varying functionality are discussed.
Keywords: Neptunium, Uranium, Reduction, Tetravalent, Humic acid, Redox processes
  • Lecture (others)
    ACTINET 05-08 Project Meeting, 27.-31.10.2008, Larnaca, Cyprus

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11841
Publ.-Id: 11841


Formation of UO2(OH)HA(I) Studied by TRLFS

Sachs, S.
The complexation of U(VI) with purified Aldrich humic acid was studied at pH 7 under nitrogen atmosphere. Using two independent laser-induced spectroscopic methods, the formation of the ternary uranium(VI) mono hydroxo humate complex (UO2(OH)HA(I)) was studied and complexation data were derived. The results of this study are discussed in comparison to literature data.
Keywords: Humic acid, complexation, uranium, U(VI), ternary complexes, TRLFS
  • Lecture (others)
    ACTINET 05-08 Project Meeting, 27.-31.10.2008, Larnaca, Cyprus

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11840
Publ.-Id: 11840


A critical review on atomistic simulations of solid-phase epitaxial regrowth of amorphous Si and Ge layers

Posselt, M.; Gabriel, A.-A.
In semiconductor technology ultra-shallow junctions are produced by ion implantation and subsequent annealing. The relatively high fluence applied in dopant implantation and the use of pre-amorphization implantation may lead to the formation of an amorphous (a-)layer. In the first stage of annealing the solid phase epitaxial regrowth (SPER) of the a-layer takes place. SPER leads to redistribution of dopants, and they are incorporated into the crystal either substitutionally or within clusters containing self-interstitials (Is) or vacancies. In Si the SPER process leaves beyond the original a/c interface the end-of-range (EOR) damage which contains an excess of Is. During further annealing, free Is are emitted from the EOR damage and may cause an enhanced diffusion of the dopants. It is highly desirable to understand the processes occurring during SPER on the atomic level. This work presents results of classical molecular dynamics simulations of SPER in pure Si and Ge. While in the last decade several authors investigated SPER in Si, the regrowth of a-Ge layers has not been considered yet. The critical review of SPER simulations using different interatomic potentials shows that the experimental regrowth rates cannot be reproduced reasonably well. Moreover, it is found that the results obtained by different groups under virtually equal conditions do not agree. Possible reasons for these differences are outlined. The main cause for the disagreement with experimental data is the inaccuracy of the interatomic potentials used. Proposals for physically-based improvements are discussed. They are based on a better description of the amorphous phase using a modified potential, without changing the established potential for the single-crystalline material. It is shown that a-Si and a-Ge with realistic structural and thermodynamic propertied can be obtained by various modifications of known interatomic potentials, whereas it is very difficult to find a modification which also yields the correct SPER rate.
Keywords: computer simulation, Si, Ge, solid-phase epitaxial regrowth
  • Lecture (Conference)
    The 9th International Conference on Computer Simulation of Radiation Effects in Solids (COSIRES2008), 12.-17.10.2008, Beijing, China

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11839
Publ.-Id: 11839


Terahertz wave emission from an InGaAsN large area emitter

Peter, F.; Winnerl, S.; Schneider, H.; Helm, M.; Köhler, K.
We present large-area emitters based on InGaAsN which show efficient THz emission for excitation wavelengths up to 1.35 μm.
The substrate material consists of a 1000 nm GayIn1-yAs1-xNx (y=0.11 and x=0.04) layer grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on semi-insulating GaAs. On top there is an additional GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As heterostructure with thicknesses of 5 nm for the GaAs and 60 nm for the AlGaAs layer, respectively. Transmission measurements with a Fourier spectrometer reveal a bandgap corresponding to a wavelength of 1.5 μm. The resistance of a complete device with an active area of 1 mm2 is 0.3 MΩ. This allows operation with high bias fields (30 kV/cm) without being limited by heating. For excitation an optical parametric oscillator (OPO), tunable between 1.1 μm and 1.5 μm, is used. The pulse duration is 280 fs (FWHM). The THz signal is detected using electro-optical sampling with a 1 mm thick ZnTe crystal. The gating beam (λ = 820 nm) for detection is split off from a Ti:sapphire oscillator which drives the OPO.
  • Poster
    GDR-E-2008 THz Workshop, 25.-26.09.2008, Paris, France

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11838
Publ.-Id: 11838


Influence of the neutron-kinetic feedback parameter variation on an anticipated transient without SCRAM in a PWR

Kliem, S.; Mittag, S.; Rohde, U.; Weiß, F.-P.
The complete failure of the reactor scram system upon request during an operational transient is called anticipated transient without scram (ATWS). According to the German regulatory guidelines, postulated ATWS events have to be analyzed with regard to their consequences on the safety of nuclear power plants.

Since the course of ATWS transients is determined by a strong interaction of the neutron kinetics with the thermal hydraulics of the system, coupled 3D neutron kinetic/thermal hydraulic code systems are adequate tools for the analysis of such transients. In the following, the coupled code system DYN3D/ATHLET is applied to the analysis of an ATWS transient. The objective of the present work is to perform a best-estimate analysis with consequent use of a 3D neutron kinetic code (DYN3D) in combination with an advanced thermal hydraulic system code (ATHLET) together with a quantification of differences in the course and the results of transients, which arise from the uncertainties of neutron-physical conditions.

Typically, the complete failure of the main feed water supply is assumed to be the bounding ATWS event with regard to the maximum primary coolant pressure, which can be reached during the transient. The situation is aggravated if the main coolant pumps remain in operation.

For this particular transient, the influence of different neutron-physical conditions on the course of the transient was analyzed. Variations of the reactivity coefficients of the moderator density, the moderator temperature (spectral coefficient) and the fuel temperature were assumed.

One of the most relevant safety parameters in this ATWS event is the primary circuit pressure. It has been found that the spreading of the first pressure maximum is influenced only by the variation of the moderator density coefficient. A variation of the Doppler coefficient contributes only to the second pressure peak. For that reason the spreading of the tolerance limits during the second pressure peak is higher.
  • Contribution to proceedings
    2009 International Conference on Advances in Mathematics, Computational Methods, and Reactor Physics, 03.-07.05.2009, Saratoga Springs, USA
    Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Advances in Mathematics, Computational Methods, and Reactor Physics, CDROM paper 201661, La Grange Park: ANS, 9780894480690
  • Lecture (Conference)
    2009 International Conference on Advances in Mathematics, Computational Methods, and Reactor Physics, 03.-07.05.2009, Saratoga Springs, USA

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11837
Publ.-Id: 11837


Achieving high free electron mobility in ZnO:Al thin films grown by reactive pulsed magnetron sputtering

Cornelius, S.; Vinnichenko, M.; Shevchenko, N.; Rogozin, A.; Kolitsch, A.; Möller, W.
The study is focused on improvement of the free electron mobility in Al-doped ZnO films grown by cost-effective deposition method of reactive pulsed magnetron sputtering. At optimum growth conditions it yields low absorbing films with Hall effect mobility of 46 cm2V-1s-1, free electron density of 6x1020 cm-3 and electrical resistivity of 2.26x10-4 Ohm cm. The relation between the mobility and free electron density for the films grown at different conditions is discussed in terms of ionized impurity scattering and impurity clustering mechanism or grain boundary limited transport.
Keywords: transparent conductive oxides, ZnO:Al, reactive magnetron sputtering, electrical properties

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Publ.-Id: 11836


Jahrestagung Kerntechnik 2008 - Sektionsbericht Sektion: Thermo- und Fluiddynamik

Schaffrath, A.; Kliem, S.
Der Beitrag gibt einen Überblick über die in den Sitzungen der Sektion Thermo- und Fluiddynamik gehaltenen Vorträge.
  • atw - International Journal for Nuclear Power 53(2008)8/9, 559-561

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Publ.-Id: 11835


Radiation treatment planning in brain tumours Potential impact of 3-O-methyl-6-[18F]fluoro-L-DOPA and PET

Alheit, H.; Oehme, L.; Winkler, C.; Füchtner, F.; Hoepping, A.; Grabowski, J.; Kotzerke, J.; Beuthien-Baumann, B.
Aim:
Amino acid PET has become an important diagnostic tool for brain tumour imaging. In this data analysis, the potential impact of amino acid PET with 3-O-methyl-6-[18F]fluoro-L-DOPA ([18F]OMFD) on radiation treatment planning is addressed by the following questions: 1. Was tumour tissue identified with OMFD-PET which was not covered by the conventionally derived planning target volume (PTV)? 2. Would the PTV have been changed incorporating OMFD-PET?

Patients, methods:
OMFD-PET of 25 patients after subtotal resection of malignant glioma was evaluated. The region of elevated tracer uptake of PET and of contrast enhancing masses on MRI were outlined as separate gross tumour volumes (GTVMRI and GTVOMFD) and reconstructed in the planning CT for comparison with the conventionally drawn GTVconv. A PTVnew based on GTVconv+MRI was calculated. Pairwise differential volumes were calculated to estimate overlap and differential volumes delineation by each image modality and the PTVconv and PTVnew respectively.

Results:
Differential volume analysis showed > 10 cm3 of GTVOMFD outside GTVconv and GTVMRI in 5/25 patients respectively. From GTVMRI >10 cm3 were found outside GTVOMFD in 8/25 patients. Although all tumour areas indicated by
[18F]OMFD were covered by the conventionally derived PTV, based on a GTVOMFD+MRI, the PTVnew would have been enlarged >20% in seven patients. In seven patients the PTVnew would have been reduced.

Conclusion:
OMFD-PET indicated tumour tissue outside the tumour region identified with MRI, adding valuable information for the delineation of the GTV in radiation treatment planning. OMFD-PET contains the potential to tailor the high dose radiation to the appropriate tumour volume, especially if dose escalation is desired.
Keywords: Brain tumour, positron emission tomography, radiation treatment planning, multimodal imaging, 3-O-methyl-6-[18F]fluoro-L-DOPA

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Publ.-Id: 11834


Ultrasound at high magnetic fields: first scientific results at the HLD

Zherlitsyn, S.
Ultrasound investigations are a powerful experimental tool to study various phase transitions and critical phenomena. This technique is now available at the Dresden High Magnetic Field Laboratory (HLD) as part of the pulsed field user program. The possible application of the infrared radiation produced by next-door free electron lasers for photoacoustic spectroscopy will be discussed. Here I will present two results recently obtained at the HLD by use of ultrasound technique. First, I report results of magnetoacoustic studies of the quantum spin-chain magnet NiCl2-4SC(NH2)2 (DTN) having a field-induced ordered antiferromagnetic (AF) phase. The longitudinal acoustic c33 mode, which propagates along the spin chains, modulates the in-chain exchange interaction and shows a softening, accompanied by energy dissipation in the acoustic wave in the vicinity of the quantum critical points. Another example is CdCr2O4, a geometrically frustrated magnet with a metamagnetic phase transition at 28 T followed by a very wide magnetization plateau with one half of the full moment of S = 3/2 Cr3+. We have performed an ultrasonic investigation of a high quality CdCr2O4 single crystal in pulsed magnetic fields up to 64 T. A minimum in the sound velocity and a peak in the attenuation have been observed at 28 T for temperatures below the temperature of the AF phase transition TN = 7.8 K. Another anomaly in the sound velocity has been observed at 60 T, where the magnetization plateau is terminated. The observed anomalies become smoother at higher temperatures. The experimental data are analyzed by use of a model where the main contribution to the spin-lattice interaction arises from the exchangestriction coupling.
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Physical Phenomena at High Magnetic Fields (PPHMF), 01.-06.08.2008, Laulasmaa Resort, Estonia

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11833
Publ.-Id: 11833


Spin dynamics in the BEC candidate DTN studied by high-field ESR

Zvyagin, S. A.; Wosnitza, J.; Kolezhuk, A. K.; Batista, C. D.; Krzystek, J.; Zapf, V. S.; Jaime, M.; Paduan-Filho, A.; Glazkov, V. N.; Sosin, S. S.; Smirnov, A. I.
NiCl2-4SC(NH2)2 (DTN) is a quantum S=1 chain system with strong easy-pane anisotropy and a new candidate for the Bose-Einstein condensation of the spin degrees of freedom. Employing high-field electron spin resonance technique, we were able to study frequency-field dependence of magnetic excitations in DTN in fields up to 25 T [1] and at temperatures down to 0.45 K [2]. As a result of our studies, we were able to accurately estimate parameters of the spin-Hamiltonian for this compound. The values were used to calculate the antiferromagnetic phase boundary, magnetization and the frequency-field dependence of two-magnon bound-state excitations predicted by theory and observed in DTN for the first time. Excellent quantitative agreement with experimental data has been obtained. In addition, the excitation spectrum in DTN in the field-induced ordered phase has been studied. Two gapped modes have been observed and their frequency-field dependencies. We show that our observations can be consistently interpreted within the four-sublattice antiferromagnet model, involving a finite interaction between two tetragonal sublattices and leaving the axial symmetry intact, which is crucial for the interpretation of the field-induced ordering in DTN in terms of the BEC of magnons. Supported in part by NHMFL (through NSF and DOE) and DFG.
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Physical Phenomena at High Magnetic Fields (PPHMF), 01.-06.08.2008, Laulasmaa Resort, Estonia

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11832
Publ.-Id: 11832


Force-induced structural transitions in cross-linked DNA films

André, A.; Fontaine-Vive, F.; Möller, H. M.; Fischer, T.; Maret, G.; Forsyth, V. T.; Gisler, T.
We report on the preparation and characterization of wet-spun films of sodium DNA in which intermolecular cross-links were introduced following formaldehyde treatment. Raman scattering shows that the DNA in moderately cross-linked films is mainly in th B conformation. Stretching experiments show a transition from plastic to elastomeric behavior with increasing exposure to the cross-linking agent. Elastomeric DNA films are strongly disordered.X-ray diffraction shows that stretching of moderately cross-linked film under controlled high humidity conditions results in increased molecular orientation as well as the appearance of meridional reflections at 7.4-7.8 and 8.2 A. These reflections are not observed for any of the calssical conformations associated with mixed sequence DNA, and may arise from extended base-pair stacking in a stretched DNA structure.

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Publ.-Id: 11831


Ultrasonic Investigation of NiCl2-4SC(NH2)2 in the vicinity of the quantum critical points

Zherlitsyn, S.; Chiatti, O.; Sytcheva, A.; Wosnitza, J.; Zvyagin, A. A.; Zapf, V. S.; Jaime, M.; Paduan-Filho, A.
es hat kein Abstract vorgelegen!
  • Poster
    High Frustrated Magnetism (HFM) 2008, 07.-12.09.2008, Braunschweig, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11830
Publ.-Id: 11830


Evolution of ferromagnetic order in URhGe alloyed with Ru, Co and Si

Sakarya, S.; Huy, N. T.; van Dijk, N. H.; de Visser, A.; Wagemaker, M.; Moleman, A. C.; Gortenmulder, T. J.; Klaasse, J. C. P.; Uhlarz, M.; von Löhneysen, H.
We have investigated the evolution of ferromagnetic order in the correlated metal URhGe (Curie temperature TC = 9.5K) by chemical substitutionof Ru, Co and Si. Polycrystalline samples URh1−xRuxGe (x ≤ 0.6), URh1−xCoxGe (x ≤ 0.9) and URhGe1−xSix (x ≤ 0.2) have been prepared and the magnetic properties have been investigated by magnetization and transport experiments. In the case of Ru doping, TC initially increases, but then decreases linearly as a function of x and is completely suppressed for xcr ≈ 0.38. The Curie temperature in the URh1−xCoxGe series has a broad maximum TC = 20K near x = 0.6 and then drops to 8K for x = 0.9. In the case of Si doping TC stays roughly constant. We conclude that the alloy systems URh1−xRuxGe and URh1−xCoxGe are interesting candidates to study the ferromagnetic instability.
  • Journal of Alloys and Compounds 457(2008), 51-56

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11829
Publ.-Id: 11829


Flow imaging by high speed transmission tomography

Johansen, G. A.; Hampel, U.; Hjertaker, B. T.
Fourth generation medical x-ray scanners using a gantry with a rotating X-ray source and a fixed circular detector array as sensor head, are too slow for imaging of the process dynamics for instance in multiphase flows. To avoid inconsistent measurements and motion blurring, all measurements need to be carried out in a short time compared to the process time constants of the process dynamics. Two different high speed tomographic imaging systems are presented here demonstrating that image rates of several thousand images per second is possible.
Keywords: High speed tomographic imaging, Gamma-ray tomography, X-ray tomography, Electron beam scanning tomography, Flow imaging.
  • Contribution to proceedings
    7th International Topical Meeting on Industrial Radiation and Radioisotope Measurement (IRRMA 7), 22.-27.06.2008, Prague, Czech Republic
    Proceedings
  • Applied Radiation and Isotopes 68(2010), 518-524
    DOI: 10.1016/j.apradiso.2009.09.004

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11828
Publ.-Id: 11828


Si-based light emitters as a key element for smart biosensors

Rebohle, L.; Cherkouk, C.; Skorupa, W.; Prucnal, S.; Helm, M.
In this work we will present our concept of direct fluorescence analysis using Ge- or rare earth-implanted Si based light emitters for the detection of estrogen in waterish solutions. We will discuss the performance of these light emitters in terms of efficiency, operation lifetime, stability, and operation voltage and show that they are generally suitable for lab-on-chip applications. In addition we report about the composition and fabrication of a bioactive layer on top of the light emitters which has the task to immobilize estrogen selectively from a waterish sample. Finally, the interaction of a Tb-implanted light emitter with a quantum dot dye is investigated.
Keywords: Smart biosensing, Estrogen detection, Si-based light emission, Electroluminescence, Rare earth ion implantation
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Eurosensors XXII, 07.-10.09.2008, Dresden, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11827
Publ.-Id: 11827


The correlation between electroluminescence properties and the microstructure of Eu-implanted MOS light emitting devices

Rebohle, L.; Lehmann, J.; Kanjilal, A.; Prucnal, S.; Nazarov, A.; Tyagulskii, I.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.
In this work we investigated the correlation between the EL, the electrical properties and the microstructure of Eu-implanted MOS light emitting devices. The EL spectrum shows a red EL line centered at 618 nm which is usually assigned to Eu3+ and a broad blue-green EL band attributed to Eu2+. It was found that the red EL is favored by low injection currents, low Eu concentrations, lower anneal temperatures and shorter anneal times, especially for FLA. These properties are correlated with microstructural changes triggered by ion implantation and annealing, especially with the formation and ripening of Eu or Eu oxide clusters which strongly quench the red EL. Finally, the influence of Eu agglomerations at the injecting interface on the electrical properties of the light emitter is discussed.
Keywords: Europium Electroluminescence Si-based light emission MOS
  • Poster
    IBMM 2008 - 16th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials, 31.08.-05.09.2008, Dresden, Deutschland
  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 267(2009)8-9, 1324-1327

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11826
Publ.-Id: 11826


Rare earth implanted Si-based light emitters and their use for smart biosensor applications

Rebohle, L.; Cherkouk, C.; Prucnal, S.; Helm, M.; Skorupa, W.
In this presentation we will review our recent progresses in the development of Si-based light emitters consisting of a MOS structure with a rare earth implanted SiO2 layer. Depending on the implanted element, namely Gd, Tb and Eu, the devices exhibit strong electroluminescence in the UV, the green and in the red spectral region. It will be shown that the implantation and annealing conditions during the fabrication strongly influence the microstructural, electrical and electro¬luminescence device properties and are of special importance for the efficiency and life time of future devices. In order to improve the stability of the devices, both LOCOS (local oxidation of Si) processing and additional protection layers made of SiON were applied to the devices. The advantages and the shortcomings of these light emitters regarding their efficiency, life time, electrical excitation conditions, cut-off frequencies and miniaturization potential are compared with the needs of smart photonic and biosensor applications. A special approach for utilizing the light emitters for the detection of organic pollutants in fluid media by fluorescence analysis is discussed in more detail. In this approach the light emitter is directly placed beneath the dye-labelled sample exciting the dye whose light emission can be recorded by a suitable external detector.
Keywords: Smart biosensing, Estrogen detection, Si-based light emission, Electroluminescence, Rare earth ion implantation
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    VII-th International Conference on Ion Implantation and other Applications of Ions and Electrons – ION 2008, 16.-19.06.2008, Kazimierz Dolny, Polen
  • Vacuum 83(2009)SI Suppl., S24-S28

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11825
Publ.-Id: 11825


Blue and red electroluminescence of Europium-implanted MOS structures as a probe for the dynamics of microstructure

Rebohle, L.; Lehmann, J.; Prucnal, S.; Kanjilal, A.; Nazarov, A.; Tyagulskii, I.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.
The strong blue and red electroluminescence from Eu-implanted SiO2 layers were investigated as a function of implantation and annealing conditions. It is shown that the red electroluminescence assigned to Eu3+ ions is favored by low Eu concentrations, low anneal temperatures and short anneal times. Based on a more quantitative analysis of the electroluminescence spectra this preference is explained by a shorter supply of oxygen for higher Eu concentrations and the growth of Europium oxide clusters with increasing anneal temperatures and anneal times. The correlation between electroluminescence and microstructure is supported by transmission electron microscopy investigations and demonstrates that the electroluminescence of Eu-implanted SiO2 layers can serve as a probe for the microstructural development in the active layer of the light emitter.
Keywords: Europium Electroluminescence Si-based light emission MOS
  • Applied Physics Letters 93(2008), 071908

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11824
Publ.-Id: 11824


Si-based light emitters and their use for smart biosensor applications

Rebohle, L.; Cherkouk, C.; Prucnal, S.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.
In this presentation we will give a review about our recent progress in the development of rare earth-implanted Si-based light emitters. The devices consist of a MOS structure with a transparent front electrode made of indium tin oxide (ITO) and a SiON protection layer between the oxide and the ITO layer for a strong life time improvement. Gd, Tb and Eu are implanted in the middle of the oxide layer, and depending on the element the devices show strong electroluminescence in the UV, the green and in the red spectral region. The electrical and electroluminescence properties of these devices are discussed and evaluated in respect of possible applications on the field of biosensor technology. Based on the advantages and the shortcomings of these light emitters an approach for their use in biosensor applications is developed. In this approach the light emitters are utilized for the detection of biological substances by fluorescence analysis. There the emitter is directly placed beneath the dye-labelled sample exciting the dye whose light emission can be recorded by a suitable external detector. A very promising application is the detection of organic pollutants, e.g. estrogen, in drinking water.
Keywords: Smart biosensing, Estrogen detection, Si-based light emission, Electroluminescence, Rare earth ion implantation
  • Lecture (Conference)
    E-MRS 2008 Spring Meeting, 26.-30.05.2008, Strasbourg, Frankreich

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11823
Publ.-Id: 11823


Multifunctional Cyclam Derivatives with Carbohydrates and Peptides

Röhrich, A.; Stephan, H.; Kretzschmann, A.; Noll, S.; Bergmann, R.; Steinbach, J.
Multifunctional chelating systems with linked biomolecules provide the possibility to develop novel diagnostic and therapeutic agents with enhanced stability and improved bio-availability. In this perspective, cyclam derivatives 1 are attractive candidates for developing new metalloradiopharmaceuticals. Biomolecules like sugars and peptides direct the solubility behavior and the targeting efficiency.

Michael addition on cyclam with methyl acrylate and subsequent aminolysis with ethylene diamine delivered the tetraamino product 2.1 Ligands with four sugar units 3 were obtained by thiourea-bridging of sugar isothiocyanates with 2.2 Peptide coupling led to conjugates 4 with the hexapeptide neurotensin(8-13) which is interesting for the targeting of ductal pancreatic carcinomas.

Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) was used in order to characterize the interaction between glycoclusters 3 and the lectin Concanavalin A. In vitro binding studies between ligand 4 and the neurotensin receptor 1 (NTR1) were performed using the human colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT-29.

The glycoclusters 3 showed a distinct glycoside clustering effect which can be explained by an entropy advantage for the tetramer compared to the sugar monomer. Thiourea-containing compounds 3 form very stable Cu(II) complexes with slow kinetics.3 On the other hand, a rapid attainment of Cu(II) complexation equilibria was observed in the case of the peptide conjugate 4.

Multifunctional sugar and peptide conjugates of branched cyclam derivatives possess interesting complexation and targeting properties. Peripheral modifications provide the opportunity of tailoring the bio-distribution.

1. Stephan, H.; Geipel, G.; Appelhans, D.; Bernhard, G.; Tabuani, D.; Komber, H.; Voit, B. Tetrahedron Lett. 2005, 46, 3209.
2. Stephan, H.; Röhrich, A.; Noll, S.; Steinbach, J.; Kirchner, R.; Seidel, J. Tetrahedron Lett. 2007, 48, 8834.
3. Röhrich, A.; Noll, S.; Stephan, H.; Steinbach, J.; Bergamini, G.; Balzani, V. in „Technetium, Rhenium and other Metals in Chemistry and Nuclear Medicine“ U. Mazzi (Ed.), SGE Editoriali, Padova, Italy, 2006, 7, 233.
  • Poster
    2nd EUCHEMS Chemistry Congress, Chemistry: The Global Science, 16.-20.09.2008, Torino, Italy

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11822
Publ.-Id: 11822


The complex dynamics between the Eu2+ and Eu3+ electroluminescence of Eu-implanted MOS light emitting devices

Rebohle, L.; Lehmann, J.; Prucnal, S.; Nazarov, A.; Tyagulskii, I.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.; Biskupek, J.; Kaiser, U.
Si-based light emitters were fabricated by ion implantation of Eu into a thermally grown oxide layer on Si followed by a thermal treatment and the deposition of a SiON and an indium tin oxide layer. The Eu ions were implanted in such a way that the maximum Eu concentration varies between 0.1 and 6 %. Flash lamp annealing, rapid thermal annealing and furnace annealing at temperatures between 900 and 1100°C were applied in order to activate the Eu-related luminescence centres. The electroluminescence (EL) spectrum of the Eu-implanted SiO2 layers shows a relatively sharp red EL line centered at 618 nm and a broad EL band in the blue-green spectral region which is usually assigned to the light emission of Eu3+ and Eu2+ ions, respectively. In this work we will show that the ratio between blue and red EL shows a complex dependence on the Eu concentration, the annealing time and the annealing temperature, but that some general tendencies can be identified, too. So the blue EL assigned to Eu2+ ions will dominate for high concentrations and high annealing temperatures. The dynamics of Eu2+ and Eu3+ is discussed in the framework of charge injection, charge transport and the EL mechanism which is based on the direct excitation of Eu ions by hot ballistic electrons.
Keywords: Europium Electroluminescence Si-based light emission MOS
  • Lecture (Conference)
    E-MRS 2008 Spring Meeting, 26.-30.05.2008, Strasbourg, Frankreich

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11821
Publ.-Id: 11821


Dendritic Ligands with Fluorescent Labels

Röhrich, A.
Overview on known fluorescent labeled dendrimers and their cellular uptake behavior. New synthetic route using MMTr and boc protecting groups. UV-vis and time-resolved laser fluorescence spectra.
  • Lecture (others)
    5th Supraphone Meeting, 29.-31.05.2008, Prague, Czech Republic

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11820
Publ.-Id: 11820


Complexation of uranium(VI) with peptidoglycan

Barkleit, A.; Moll, H.; Bernhard, G.
We investigated the interaction of UO22+ with peptidoglycan (PG), the main part of the outer membrane of gram-positive bacteria, by potentiometric titration and time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) over a wide pH (2.0 to 9.0) and concentration range (10-5 to 10-4 M U(VI), 0.01 to 0.2 g/L PG). With potentiometry two different dissociation constants for the carboxyl sites of glutamic acid and diaminopimelic acid (pKa = 4.55 ± 0.02 and 6.31 ± 0.01), and one averaged pKa for hydroxyl and amino groups (which are not distinguishable) (9.56 ± 0.03) and the site densities could be identified. With potentiometry three different uranyl PG complexes were ascertained: two 1 : 1 uranyl carboxyl complexes R-COO-UO2+, one with the glutamic acid carboxyl group (log β110 = 4.02 ± 0.03), which has a very small formation ratio, and one with the diaminopimelic acid carboxyl group (log β110 = 7.28 ± 0.03), and a mixed 1 : 1 : 1 complex with additional hydroxyl or amino coordination, R-COO-UO2(+)-Ai-R (Ai = NH2 or O-) (log β1110 = 14.95 ± 0.02). With TRLFS, also three, but different species could be identified: a 1 : 1 uranyl carboxyl complex R-COO-UO2+ (log β110 = 6.9 ± 0.2), additionally a 1 : 2 uranyl carboxyl complex (R-COO)2-UO2 (log β120 = 12.1 ± 0.2), both with diaminopimelic acid carboxyl groups, and the mixed species R-COO-UO2(+)-Ai-R (Ai = NH2 or O-) (log β1110 = 14.5 ± 0.1). The results are in accordance within the errors of determination.

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11819
Publ.-Id: 11819


Cell cycle regulating kinase Cdk4 as a potential target for tumor cell treatment and tumor imaging

Graf, F.; Köhler, L.; Knieß, T.; Wüst, F.; Mosch, B.; Pietzsch, J.
The cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-cyclin D/INK4/retinoblastoma (pRb)/E2F cascade, which controls the G1/S transition of the cell cycle, has found to be altered in many neoplasias. Inhibition of this pathway by using, e.g., selective Cdk4 inhibitors has been suggested to be a promising approach for cancer therapy. We hypothesized that appropriately radiolabeled Cdk4 inhibitors are suitable probes for tumor imaging and may be helpful studying cell proliferation processes in vivo by positron emission tomography. Herein, we report the synthesis and biological, biochemical, and radiopharmacological characterization of two 124I-labeled small molecule Cdk4 inhibitors (8-cyclopentyl-6-iodo-5-methyl-2-(4-piperazin-1-yl-phenylamino)-8H-pyrido[2,3-d]-pyrimidin-7-one (CKIA) and 8-cyclopentyl-6-iodo-5-methyl-2-(5-(piperazin-1-yl)-pyridin-2-yl-amino)-8H-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-7-one (CKIB)). Our data demonstrate a defined and specific inhibition of tumor cell proliferation through CKIA and CKIB by inhibition of the Cdk4/pRb/E2F pathway emphasizing potential therapeutic benefit of CKIA and CKIB. Furthermore, radiopharmacological properties of [124I]CKIA and [124I]CKIB observed in human tumor cells are promising prerequisites for in vivo biodistribution and imaging studies.

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11818
Publ.-Id: 11818


Microscopic and spectroscopic investigation of U(VI) interaction with the monocellular green alga Chlorella vulgaris

Vogel, M.; Günther, A.; Raff, J.; Bernhard, G.
The green alga Chlorella vulgaris has the ability to bind high amounts of uranium(VI) in the pH range from 3 to 6 and to a lesser extend at higher pH values. The uranium removal is almost complete at pH 4.4 and 6 by metabolic active and inactive cells under the given experimental conditions. Laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy was used for the characterization of uranyl species formed in solutions and biomass. Fluorescence spectroscopic investigations indicate differences of the formed algal uranyl complexes in dependence of the metabolic activity of cells and the uranyl speciation. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrates that the algal cell wall is involved in the binding of U(VI).
Keywords: Chlorella vulgaris, algae, uranium(VI), biosorption, TRLFS, SEM
  • Lecture (others)
    Meeting INE-FWR, 22.-23.10.2008, Karlsruhe, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11817
Publ.-Id: 11817


PET-CT Co-Registration for In-Beam PET

Fiedler, F.; Sobiella, M.; Enghardt, W.
In-beam PET is based on the β+-activation of the irradiated volume and of the beam itself by interactions between the incoming ions and the nuclei of the tissue. Due to the special situation of in-beam PET, i.e. space for the rotating patient table and for the beam delivery has to be provided, the unique in-beam PET scanner cannot be a full ring device as in conventional PET imaging. It is necessary for patient evaluation to establish a relationship between the β+-activity created during therapeutic treatment and the anatomy of the patient. Therefore, the PET images have to be superimposed onto the planning X-ray computed tomogram (CT) with sub-millimeter precision. Since in-beam PET images and planning CT are acquired at completely different devices, their coordinates are matched by means of stereotactic coordinates. To enable a high flexibility of the measurement the double head PET scanner is rotatable around the central beam. Due to the weight of the detectors, the PET gantry is deformed under rotation, resulting in a displacement of the crystal positions in comparison to those, which are expected when assuming a rigid body rotation. Therefore, a technical solution to define the exact detector positions at any rotation angles has been developed. An exemplary embodiment will be illustrated by means of the in-beam PET installation at GSI.
Keywords: in-beam PET, PET-CT Coregistration
  • Poster
    2008 Nuclear Science Symposium, Medical Imaging Conference and 16th Room Temperature Semiconductor Detector Workshop, 19.-25.10.2008, Dresden, Germany
  • Contribution to proceedings
    2008 Nuclear Science Symposium, Medical Imaging Conference and 16th Room Temperature Semiconductor Detector Workshop, 19.-25.10.2008, Dresden, Germany
    PET-CT Co-Registration for In-Beam PET

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11816
Publ.-Id: 11816


Ion Beam Therapy: Principles and Quality Assurance - Short Course

Kraft, G.; Fiedler, F.; Weyrather, K. W.; (Editors)
Gerhard Kraft studied Physics at Heidelberg and Cologne where he received his Ph.D. in nuclear physics. He founded the biophysics department at GSI where he developed the heavy ion tumor therapy together with Wilma K. Weyrather. She studied Physics at the University of Cologne and received her Ph.D. at the University of Giessen in Radiobiology in 1978. They both together initiated the Radiobiology program at GSI and later on the tumor therapy.

The novel features of the GSI tumor therapy are the extreme target conform beam delivery using an intensity modulated scanning method, the biology based treatment planning and the in vivo control of the patient using online-PET. In order to cover the target with a dose having a homogenous biological effect and a steep gradient at the borders the Target volume is dissected in slices of equal particle energy which are covered by a grid of 20,000 to 50,000 pixels of different beam positions. For all these pixels the individual covering of particles has to be calculated according to the wanted dose level and the actual value of the Relative Biological Effectiveness, RBE, at the specific pixel. These RBE values depend on the physical composition of the beam at each location and the biological properties of the affected tissue mainly on its repair capacity of complex DNA damage.

For the clinical success of the up to now more than 400 patients treated with this technique, the quality assurance of the technical equipment, the biological modelling for the treatment planning and the physical dose delivery are extremely important.

The biological corrections of the treatment planning are based on the Local Effect Model LEM verified in many experiments. It is also confirmed by the follow up of the treated patients that did not show large side and late effects. For the quality assurance of the beam delivery an online measurement of the emission of gamma quants have been developed and used during patient irradiation. When penetrating through the patient a significant fraction of the primary beam such as carbon or other ions under go nuclear reaction with the tissue resulting in radioactive positron emitting isotopes either from the beam such as 11C and 10C or from the target atoms such as 15O. Their positron decay can be monitored from outside and can be used to track the beam stopping inside the patient.

Fine Fiedler did her Ph.D. in 2008 at the Technical University of Dresden and studied the feasibility to monitor the stopping points of the beam inside the patients. She is working in the In-beam-PET group of the Oncoray Dresden. She will report that the PET techniques are capable assessing the relevant parameters for quality assurance in respect to anatomical landmarks. But it has been also shown that it is possible to extend this technique to other ion than carbon such as Protons, 3He, 7Li and 16O.

In general, the short course will introduce in the physical and biological rational of ion beam therapy. It will explain the critical feature in planning and beam delivery and will give the principles for quality assurance.
Keywords: ion therapy
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    2008 Nuclear Science Symposium, Medical Imaging Conference and 16th Room Temperature Semiconductor Detector Workshop, 19.-25.10.2008, Dresden, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-11815
Publ.-Id: 11815


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