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Monitoring TaSchumann, P.sks and Selection of Operational and Diagnostic Signals for the NAPREMSystem
Schumann, P.

Lecture (Conference)
NAPREMMeeting (Nuclear Accident Prevention by Remote Monitoring), Greenville / USA, May 1992
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1925
Publ.Id: 1925
Spezielle Signalanalyseverfahren zur Schadensfrüherkennung und Diagnostik an WWERDruckwasserReaktoren
Schumann, P.

Lecture (Conference)
Oberseminar im KurtRischInstitut für Dynamik, Schall und Meßtechnik der Technischen Universität Hannover, Hannover / Germany, Februar 1992
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1924
Publ.Id: 1924
Linear Stability of MarangoniHartmann Convection
Nitschke, K.; Thess, A.; Gerbeth, G.

Lecture (Conference)
IUTAMSymposium on Microgravity Fluid Dynamics, Bremen, September 1992
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1923
Publ.Id: 1923
Investigation of CrossFlow Induced Tube Bundle Vibration in Heat Exchangers  Interpretation as Synergetic System
Liewers, P.; Schmitt, W.; Weiß, F.P.

Lecture (Conference)
IMORN23 (Informal Meeting on Reactor Noise), Nyköping / Sweden, June 1992
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1922
Publ.Id: 1922
Wirkungsweise und Anwendungsmöglichkeiten einer Plasmaneutronenquelle
Kumpf, H.

Lecture (Conference)
Technische Universität Dresden, September 1992
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1920
Publ.Id: 1920
Elektromagnetische Umströmungskontrolle in schwachleitfähigen Flüssigkeiten
Mutschke, G.; Fey, U.; Weier, T.; Avilov, V.; Gerbeth, G.
Der Bericht gibt einen Überblick über die Arbeiten der Abteilung Magnetohydrodynamik auf dem Gebiet der elektromagnetischen Umströmungskontrolle in schwachleitfähigen Flüssigkeiten.
Keywords: Magnetohydrodynamik; Fluidmechanik; Strömungskontrolle

Contribution to HZDRAnnual report
WissenschaftlichTechnische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR266 1999 Seite 2128
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1919
Publ.Id: 1919
Nachrechnung eines AbblaseExperimentes mit den thermohydraulischen Störfallprogrammen ATHLET und RELAP
Krepper, E.
Der Bericht beschreibt Nachrechnungen eines Abblaseexperiments, das vor etwa 10 Jahren am Moskauer Energetischen Institut durchgefhrt wurde und für das experimentelle Daten des zeitlichen Verlaufes der Druckentlastung im
Abblasebehälter und des Dampfgehaltes in verschiedenen Gefäßhöhen vorliegen.
Es wurden die Programme RELAP5/mod2 und ATHLET 1.0 Version E eingesetzt. Wie es sich zeigt, hat die richtige Beschreibung der Zweiphasenströmung an der
Ausströmöffnung den größten Einfluß auf die Genauigkeit der Nachrechnung.
Hierfür bietet das stationdre 1DFDModell für kritisches Ausströmen des
Programms ATHLET die bessere Anpassungsfähigkeit an die gegebenen
Versuchsbedingungen.

Lecture (Conference)
1. ATHLETAnwenderseminar, GRS Garching, Mai 1992
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1918
Publ.Id: 1918
Magnetohydrodynamic Flow Around a Circular Cylinder
Gerbeth, G.; Alemany, A.

Lecture (Conference)
IUTAM Symposium, Göttingen, September 1992
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1917
Publ.Id: 1917
NAPREMArchitecture and Tasks of its Elements
Carl, H.

Lecture (Conference)
NAPREMMeeting (Nuclear Accident Prevention by Remote Monitoring), Greenville / USA, May 1992
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1916
Publ.Id: 1916
Overview of VVERReactor Design
Carl, H.; Schumann, P.; Weiß, F.P.

Lecture (Conference)
NAPREMMeeting (Nuclear Accident Prevention by Remote Monitoring), Greenville / USA, May 1992
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1915
Publ.Id: 1915
Bubble detection in liquid metals
Block, F. R.; Dittmer, R.; Gerbeth, G.

Lecture (Conference)
International Conference on "MHD Processes to Protection of Environment", Kiev / Ukraine, June 1992
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1914
Publ.Id: 1914
Experimental Investigationand Numerical Simulation of Control Element Behaviour During Abnormal Core Barrel Motion at VVER440 Type Reactors
Altstadt, E.; Weiß, F.P.

Lecture (Conference)
IMORN23 (Informal Meeting on Reactor Noise), Nyköping / Sweden, June 1992
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1913
Publ.Id: 1913
Safety Research at Eastern Germany's Rossendorf Center.
Weiß, F.P.
 Nuclear Europe Worldscan, Journal of ENS, Topform'92 Czechoslovakia (1992) 9/10, p. 87
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1912
Publ.Id: 1912
Investigation on the Installation and the Installation and the Bonding Behaviour of Oxygen Atoms in the Yba2 Cu30 O(X7) Lattice
Schuster, G.; Große, M.; Teske, K.; Anwand, W.; Henkel, K.; Nicht, E.M.

Contribution to proceedings
Proc. 4th European Conference on Solid State Chemistry, Dresden, September 1992
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1911
Publ.Id: 1911
Neutronographische Untersuchungen zur Temperaturabhängigkeit der Besetzung der Sauerstoffpositionen in der YBa2 Cu30 O(x7)  Elemtarzelle
Schuster, G.; Große, M.

Contribution to proceedings
Proc. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Kristallwachstum und Kristallzüchtung, Dresden, March 1992
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1910
Publ.Id: 1910
Modelling of Fuel Rod Behavior and Heat Transfer in the Code FLOCAL for Reactivity Accident Analysis of Reactor Cores
Rohde, U.

Contribution to proceedings
Proceedings of the First Baltic Heat Transfer Conference (Gothenburg, Sweden, August 1991)  Transport Processes in Engineering 2: Recent Advances in Heat Transfer, Elsevier Publ., Amsterdam, 1992, p. 1214  1228
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1909
Publ.Id: 1909
Linear Stability of MarangoniHartmann Convection
Nitschke, K.; Thess, A.; Gerbeth, G.

Book (Authorship)
Ed. H. J. Rath: Microgravity Fluid Dynamics, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, Springer 1992, p. 285  296
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1907
Publ.Id: 1907
Systematic Analysis of Noisy Signals in the Nuclear Reactor Noise Diagnosis of Abnormal Core Barrel Motion
Liewers, P.; Schmitt, W.; Schumann, P.; Weiß, F.P.

Lecture (Conference)
Proc. of the 5th Symposium IMECO TC10, Dresden, September 1992 
Contribution to proceedings
Proc. of the 5th Symposium IMECO TC10, Dresden, September 1992
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1906
Publ.Id: 1906
The Dynamic Calibration Problems in Instrumented Impact Testing
Lenkey, G. B.; Major, Z.; Viehrig, H.W.

Contribution to proceedings
Proc. 9th Biennial European Conference on Fracture (EFC 9), Varna / Bulgaria, September 1992
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1905
Publ.Id: 1905
Improved Techniques of Analog and Digital Dynamic Compensation for Delayed SelfPowered Neutron Detectors
Hoppe, D.; Maletti, R.
Practical application of dynamic perturbation measurements for onpower determination of important parameters of nuclear reactors by means of delayed reacting neutron detectors is only possible, if a correction method is given to measure the timedependent neutron flux behaviour without delay and with high accuracy. An improved model of dynamic signal compensation is presented and illustrated by examples of analog and digital correction methods.
Knowing the transfer function of the neutron detector, it is possible to invert a dynamic (prompt jump response) system by transforming the output equation of the state equation system to the input. An analog circuit corresponding this inverse detector kinetics was developed. On the other hand a recursive digital algorithm of high computational speed and accuracy with regard to realtime processing was found.
The improved analog and digital dynamic compensation methods were developed and used in German and Hungarian nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactors of VVER type. By means of the named correction methods the time and spacedependent neutron flux behaviour during power changes or reactivity perturbations was followed to estimate reactivity coefficients like differential control rod worths or power coefficient.
 Nuclear Science and Engineering 111 (1992), p. 433
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1904
Publ.Id: 1904
Temperaturtransiente KriechBerstVersuche an ZrNb1Hüllrohren  Vergleich zu Zircaloy4Hüllrohren
Häusler, R.; Böhmert, J.; Erbacher, F. J.; Lübke, L.; Schmidt, H.; Wetzel, L.

Contribution to proceedings
Proc. Jahrestagung Kerntechnik 1992, Karlsruhe, Mai 1992
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1903
Publ.Id: 1903
Integral Test of FPND by Reactivity Measurements in Reactor Configurations with Specially Designed Adjoint Spectra
Dietze, K.

Contribution to proceedings
Proc. Specialists Meeting on FPND, in Report JAERI, TokaiMura / Japan, May 1992
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1902
Publ.Id: 1902
Neutron Data Check by Sample Reactivity Measurements in Reactor Configurations with Specially Designed Neutronic Properties
Dietze, K.; Hüttel, G.; Lehmann, E.
 Progress Report on Nuclear Data Research in the F.R. of Germany, NEANDCReport, 1992
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1901
Publ.Id: 1901
Embrittlement of ZrNb1 at Room Temperature after HighTemperature Oxidation in Steam Atmosphere
Böhmert, J.
The ductility of ZrNb1 claddings after exposure to steam between 700 and 1000 °C was determined by ring compression tests at room temperature and compared with the ductility behaviour of Zircaloy. The ductility of ZrNb1 is quickly reduced by steam exposure. Complete embrittlement of ZrNb1 is reached at a relative equivalent oxidelayer thickness of 5 %, in contrast to Zircaloy, where a relative thickness of 17 % is necessary to produce complete embrittlement. The different behaviour of the two alloys is caused by higher oxygen uptake and a more homogeneous oxygen distribution in ZrNb1 after cooling. Between 950 and 1000 °C, there is an additional effect of high hydrogen absorption. Validity of the 17 % criterion for ZrNb1 can no longer be taken for granted in view of these experimental findings.
 Kerntechnik 57 (1992), No. 1, 5558
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1899
Publ.Id: 1899
Bubble Detection in Liquid Metals
Block, F. R.; Dittmer, R.; Gerbeth, G.

Contribution to proceedings
Proc. International Conference on "MHD Processes to Protection of Environment", Kiev / Ukraine, June 1992
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1898
Publ.Id: 1898
Calculation of Neutron Fluence in the Region of the Pressure Vessel for the History of Different Reactors by Using the MonteCarloMethod
Barz, U.; Bertram, W.
 Nuclear Engineering and Design 137 (1992), 71
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1897
Publ.Id: 1897
Konzeption zur Ausgestaltung des technischen Systems für das BMUProjekt "Spezifikation Fernübertragung Saporoshje"
Zschau, J.
In the report the boundary conditions and the resulting technical possibilities are described for the construction of a technical system for remote monitoring of the nuclear power plant Zaporosh`ye, unit 5, available for the supervision by the state regulatory body. The general structure of the system and especially different technical solutions for the remote data transfer are discussed in more detail.

Other report
Fachbericht FWSF20/93, Juni 1993
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1895
Publ.Id: 1895
Untersuchungen zum Zylindernachlauf im MHDFall
Weier, T.
In der Arbeit wird experimentell und theoretisch die Frage behandelt, wie ein externes longitudinales Magnetfeld die Stabilität des ZylinderNachlaufs (Karmansche Wirbelstraße) beeinflußt. Die Messungen wurden am QuecksilberVersuchsstand des IMG Grenoble durchgeführt. Die Unterdrückung der Wirbelstraße wurde vom theoretischen Modell vorhergesagt und im Experiment verifiziert. Überraschend wurde sowohl vom Modell als auch im Experiment die Tendenz zu langwelligen Störungen gefunden, die bei wachsendem Magnetfeld immer ausgeprägter werden.

Other report
Diplomarbeit Universität HalleWittenberg, November 1993 (Betreuer: G. Gerbeth)
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1894
Publ.Id: 1894
Vorläufige Meßstellenliste technologischer Parameter für das behördliche Überwachungssystem des GosAtomNadsor am KKW Saporoshje, Block 5
Beyer, M.; Carl, H.; Langer, L.; Schumann, P.; Seidel, A.; Zschau, J.
In order to improve operational surveillance of a WWER1000 unit of the Ukrainian nuclear power plant Zaporozh`ye a technical monitoring system has been specified. The system shall enable the state regulatory and supervisory bodies to survey the unit operation independently of operators, to assess its safety status, and to impose appopriate conditions. Based on the definition of safety functions and control tasks 49 different technological parameters are investigated and selected for monitoring. Technical specifications of these parameters at NPP Zaporozh`ye and derived alerts by crossing operational threshold values of single parameters and/or parameter combinations are described in the report.

Other report
Fachbericht FWSF19/93, September 1993
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1893
Publ.Id: 1893
Aufbau eines technischen Systems zur Verbesserung der betrieblichen Überwachung der KKW durch die staatlichen Aufsichtsbehörden (Saporoshje)
Beyer, M.; Carl, H.; Langer, L.; Schumann, P.; Seidel, A.; Zschau, J.; Nowak, K.; Tolksdorf, P.
In order to improve operational surveillance of a WWER1000 unit of the Ukrainian nuclear power plant Saporoshje a technical monitoring system has been specified. The system shall enable the state regulatory and supervisory bodies to survey the unit operation independently of operators, to assess its safety status, and to impose appropriate conditions. By its uptodate configuration the system provides early indication of any operational incident and emission of radioactive materials connected. Based on the system an immediate warning in emergency situations is possible as well as an effective emergency management. For this purpose 49 operational parameters of the unit, 18 radiological parameters of the unit and the plant site and 6 meteorological parameters are monitored. The costs of establishing the technical system in its minimal size are estimated to about 1.3 Million DM (without expenses for installation of the system and of the data networks). Additionally about 650 000 DM are required for most necessary backfitting of measuring channels. Including another unit into the monitoring system implies further costs of about 200 000 DM.

Other report
Abschlußbericht im Rahmen eines BMUProjektes in 3 Teilen: Kurzfassung, Anlage A: Textteil, Anlage B: Materialsammlung, Rossendorf; Köln, Dezember 1993
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1892
Publ.Id: 1892
Measurement of Dynamic ElasticPlastic Fracture Toughness Parameters Using Various Methods
Viehrig, H.W.; Popp, K.; Rintamaa, R.
Two improved impact testing facilities are used for the dynamic fracture toughness evaluation of precracked Charpy Vnotch specimens. The methods of single specimen acoustic emission and crack mouth opening displacement testing are assumed to indicate the initiation points of stable crack growth. Thus, the dynamic ductile initiation J integral JId can be derived. It was shown that the toughness JId of the heatresistant steel 10CrMo9.10 cannot be approximated by the J value at the maximum of the load deflection curve.
 Int. J. Pres. Ves. and Piping 5 (1993), p. 233  241
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1891
Publ.Id: 1891
Electromgnetically Induced Flow Around a Cylinder
Thess, A.; Gerbeth, G.; Marty, P.
The unidirectional flow of an electrically conducting fluid around a cylinder of arbitrary electrical conductivity, which is driven by the interaction of a homogeneous electric current with a homogeneous magnetic field and the resulting force on the cylinder are calculated numerically without any approximation in a large range of parameters. Asymptotic solutions are derived for the case of very strong and very weak magnetic fields respectively. A comparison with experimental results on insulating and highly conducting cylinders leads to a partial agreement although inertial forces are not taken into account in the model. Finally, confinement effects are considered leading to a better agreement between theory and experiment.
 Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, Ed. H. Branover, Y. Unger, Washington 148 (1993), S. 535  550
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1890
Publ.Id: 1890
Conductivity Probes for TwoPhase Flow Pattern Determination During Emergency Core Cooling (EEC) Injection Experiments at the COCO Facility (PHDR)
Prasser, H.M.; Küppers, L.; Mai, M.
Within the frame of the PHDR reactor safety research programme a large series of emergency core cooling injection tests was performed. The tests aimed at the study of the flow structure in the main circulation pipe and the heat exchange between the injected subcooled water and the saturated steam originating from the reactor, a KONVOI type PWR. They were carried out at the COCO facility (COntact COndensation). The paper deals with the results from hot leg injection tests obtained by the needle shaped conductivity probes developed in Rossendorf. Eight probes were placed at different positions around the injection nozzle. In KONVOI PWRs a special feature is used for the injection, the so called "Hutze", which is a cylindrical halfshell welded to the bottom of the circulation pipe and directing the water towards the reactor vessel against the steam flow. The probes provided very clearly readable data about the flow structure in a high time resolution. The flow regime was characterized in the cases of stratified flow (countercurrent and cocurrent), complete flow revers and intermittent flow revers with plug formation. Additionally, in several cases the flow velocity was measured by means of cross correlation techniques.

Contribution to proceedings
Held on: OECD (NEA) CSNI SPECIALIST MEETING ON INSTRUMENTATION TO MANAGE SERVERE ACCIDENTS GRS, Cologne, Germany, 16th  17th March 1992, Proceedings of the 1. OECD (NEA) CSNISpecialist Meeting o ...
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1888
Publ.Id: 1888
Irradiation and Annealing Behaviour of 15Kh2MFA Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel
Popp, K.; Bergmann, U.; Bergner, F.; Hampe, E.; Leonhardt, W.D.; Schützler, H.P.; Viehrig, H.W.
Usually the assessment of the irradiation sensitivity and annealing behavior of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels is performed by means of destructive test methods, mainly impact and tension tests. In this paper a new kind of search for an efficient temperaturetime regime for postirradiation thermal heat treatment is presented using nondestructive test methods like positron annihilation (Doppler broadening parameter S) and hardness (Vickers hardness HV 10).
Samples of CrMoV RPV steels (Soviet type 15Kh2MFA) were irradiated to different fluence levels of fast neutrons at temperatures T < 156 °C in a test reactor (base metal) and T = 265 °C in a pressurized water reactor (base as well as weld metal). From isochronal and isothermal annealing curves of HV 10 and S, favorable temperaturetime regimes for each type of irradiated material were estimated. The data obtained from tension and impact tests indicate that sufficiently large recoveries took place by application of these regimes.
The new approach presented is especially useful in such cases where only the smallest amounts of irradiated materials are availablea case often met for RPV surveillance specimens.

Other report
in L.E. Steele (ed.): Radiation Embrittlement of Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels: An International Review, ASTMSTP 1170, Philadelphia, 1993, pp. 344  368, Vol. 4
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1887
Publ.Id: 1887
Remarks About the Thermal Use of Solar Energy in Saxonia
Maletti, R.
By the installation of more than 400 modern solar thermal collector plants with a summarized collector area of about 3000 m2 a remarkable entry in the thermal use of solar energy was reached in Saxonia in 1992. Simultaneously a network of little enterprises came into existence, which now work actively in the field of energy and environmental techniques. This development was essentially supported by the Saxonian promotion programme of rational use and application of renewable sources of energy.
 Energieanwendung/Energie und Umwelttechnik 42 (1993), S. 578
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1886
Publ.Id: 1886
MHD Flow Around a Cylinder in a Aligned Magnetic Field
Josserand, J.; Marty, P.; Alemany, A.; Gerbeth, G.
Recent results on the study of a liquid metal flow around an insulating cylinder with constant aligned magnetic field are presented. From the experimental point of view, a special type of differential pressure transducer using strain gauges is described. The results obtained with mercury as liquid metal are presented for an interaction parameter N ranging from O to approximately 8. The stabilizing effect of the magnetic field on the boundary layer separation is shown. Pressure distribution around the cylinder as well as the overall pressure drag coefficient CD are given for different values of N. The last section presents analytical calculations of the flow distribution of an inviscid fluid when N << 1. The theoretical results are in good agreement with these experimental results.
 Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, Ed. H. Branover, Y. Unger, Washington 148 (1993), S. 519  534
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1885
Publ.Id: 1885
Recent Developments of Liquid Metal MHD Thermoacoustic Engines
Hamann, D.; Gerbeth, G.
A literature review on thermoacoustic engines (TAEs), with particular emphasis on liquid metal MHD TAEs is presented. The main aim of this paper is to draw the attention and the interest of the international MHD community to these new developments since it has only been discussed in the literature on acoustics.
TAEs provide a new way to convert heat to mechanical energy, or more strictly speaking, to acoustic power. They have an efficiency comparable to existing techniques but with the possibility of increasing reliability because there are no moving parts. TAEs utilize heat flow from a hightemperature source to a lowtemperature sink to generate acoustic power in the form of highamplitude sound waves in liquid sodium. Since acoustic power is inconvenient in most situations, a power transducer is required to convert acoustic power into an electric one. Though there are a number of converter mechanisms, the magnetohydrodynamic one is particularly suited for sound waves in liquid metals. A magnetic field perpendicular to the direction of sound propagation is applied to the center of the resonator, in which the sound has been generated. There are electrodes in the sodium that form an electric current path perpendicular to both magnetic field and sound velocity.
 Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, Ed. H. Branover, Y. Unger, Washington 148 (1993), S. 441  455
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1884
Publ.Id: 1884
Survey of liquid metal MHD activities in Dresden
Gerbeth, G.; Uhlmann, G.; Hamann, D.
This study briefly summarizes the activities of the Rossendorf group in the field of liquid metal MHD. It shows in which way the present investigations on basic problems in liquid metal MHD followed from the fastbreeder research. Special interest is focussed on liquid metal twophase flow and MHD flow around obstacles, as well as the laminarturbulent transition in twodimensional MHD flows. Most of the investigations are theoretical, but partly connected to experiments performed in Riga, Latvia or Grenoble, France. Own experiments at a sodium loop are described. Finally, the most promising directions of future research are presented.
 Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, Ed. H. Branover, Y. Unger, Washington 148 (1993), S. 470  475
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1883
Publ.Id: 1883
New results on MHD drag coefficients
Gerbeth, G.
Theoretical and experimental results of MHD drag coefficients are summarized. Special attention is paid to Stokes flow, where a typical error has been found in the literature. This situation is clarified here, and correct results are presented. Numerical calculations are performed for the MHD Stokes flow around a cylinder in a transverse magnetic field, yielding qualitative agreement for the drag with both measurement as well as a rough asymptotic analysis. The MHD drag coefficient of the cylinder in a transverse magnetic field increases proportionally to M . lnM if M >> 1 (where M is the Hartmann number). Finally, the deflection of a rising bubble in a liquid metal is determined if the direction of the magnetic field is inclined relative to the vertical line.
 Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, Ed. H. Branover, Y. Unger, Washington 148 (1993), S. 551  565
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1882
Publ.Id: 1882
Magnetohydrodynamic Flow Around a Circular Cylinder
Gerbeth, G.; Alemany, A.
The flow around a circular cylinder is considered for the following particular configuration: The fluid is electrically conducting and the whole system is inside an external magnetic field. This magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow is of interest for various applications but also for basic fluiddynamic research.
As an introduction to typical MHD effects a simple model system is considered: Fluid flow parallel to the cylinder axis. It allows an analytical solution of the combined system of NavierStokes and Maxwellequations. The results clearly show the development of the typical shearlayers resulting from the electromagnetic and viscous forces: Boundary layer at the cylinder surface, tangential layers at the cylinder poles, deep core and outer core of the wake.
Analytical and experimental results will be summarized concerning the more interesting standard geometry of a flow perpendicular to the cylinder axis.
The experimental results include turbulence intensities and the induced magnetic field at different locations in the up and downstream wakes, as well as the pressure at the cylinder surface.
 Bluff Body Wakes Dynamics and Instabilities, p. 51  54, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, Springer 1993, pp. 51  54
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1881
Publ.Id: 1881
Promotion of Renewing of District Heating Systems in Saxonia
Enkelmann, W.
In 1992 in the new Federal States of Germany the renewing of district heating plants was supported by the gouvernment. Plants for heat generation, and heat transport and distribution and customer installations were included in the renewing. In Saxonia an amount of approximately 80 million DM could be devided among the applicants. With regard to the enormous uncovered demand the gouvernment decided to continue the program from 1993 up to 1995. Based on the experiences with the 1992 promotion program some hints can be given to the user of the new program.
 Energieanwendung und Energietechnik 42 (1993) 5, S. 276
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1880
Publ.Id: 1880
Comparative Studies on Hightemperature Corrosion of ZrNb1 and Zircaloy4
Böhmert, J.; Dietrich, M.; Linek, J.
A comparative study of the oxidation behaviour of ZrNb1 and Zircaloy4 was carried out in a steam atmosphere in the temperature range from 7001100 °C. ZrNb1 and Zircaloy4 are oxidizing approximately according to similar oxidation kinetics. The oxidation rate of ZrNb1 is somewhat lower. It can be described by the equation m = 0.4873 t exp(10261/T). However, remarkable differences are observed in respect to morphology of the oxide and the Ostabilized layer, hydrogen uptake, and both the fraction and distribution of the oxygen dissolved in the metal. Above all the rapid drop in ductility by exposure to steam is of significance under safety aspects. Differences in the thermodynamic conditions for equilibrium of the ternary systems Zr0Nb and Zr0Sn may provide an appropriate explanation of these differences.
 Nuclear Engineering and Design 147 (1993), S. 53  62
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1879
Publ.Id: 1879
Material Investigation at Research Center Rossendorf Related to the Coordinated Research Programme Optimizing of Reactor Pressure Vessel Surveillance Programmes and Their Analysis Phase 3"
Viehrig, H.W.; Böhmert, J.; Bergmann, U.; Richter, H.
The paper gives results of the contribution of Research Center Rossendorf to the IAEA Coordinated Research Programme "Optimizing of Reactor Pressure Vessel Surveillance Programmes and Their Analysis  Phase 3". The report includes information about material and specimen fabrication, the irradiation conditions, and the test methods. For the unirradiated state impact energytemperature curves, dynamic J integrals for cleavage fracture, quasistatic crack resistance curves, and crack initiation J integral values are given.

Lecture (Conference)
Sixth Meeting of Participants in the Coordinated Research Programme "Optimizing of Reactor Pressure Vessel Surveillance Programmes and Their Analysis  Phase 3", Vienna, November 1993
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1878
Publ.Id: 1878
Nachbestrahlungsuntersuchungen zum Bestrahlungsprogramm Rheinsberg
Viehrig, H.W.; Böhmert, J.
The irradiation programme Rheinsberg serves to investigate the neutron embrittlement of VVER type reactor pressure vessel steel. Within this programme CharpyV (partly with fatigue crack and side grooved), CT and tensile specimes of 24 different heats from VVER 440 type and VVER 1000 type reactor pressure vessel steel (basic or weld material) were irradiated in the high flux channels of the VVER2 Rheinsberg from 1984  88. The testing and evaluation of the irradiated specimen will be done within the framework of bilateral scientifictechnical cooperation between Russia and Germany. The report gives a systematic review of all material data existing for the unirradiated initial state. Results of Charpy Vimpact tests and quasistatic 3pointbending tests are discussed in detail.

Lecture (Conference)
4. Seminar zur wissenschaftlichtechnischen Zusammenarbeit zwischen der Russischen Föderation und der Bundesrepublik Deutschland zum Thema: "Komponentensicherheit und Qualitässicherung (WWER)", St ...
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1877
Publ.Id: 1877
Experimental Investigation of Bias and Confidence of the Ordinary Coherence Function
Schumann, P.
The ordinary coherence function 2( ) defined by
Sxy( ) 2
2( ) = (1)
Sxx( ) * Syy( )
is of squared type with a positive bias depending on the number N of accumulated estimations. If the analyzed signals x(t), y(t) as well as the correlated contribution inside x(t), y(t) are normally distributed the power spectral densities Sxx, Syy are 2distributed. Then the product as well as the quotient in equ. 1 are not of a classical distribution type and the determination of the concrete type becomes difficult.
Therefore the bias and the corresponding standard deviation are investigated experimentally using uncorrelated normally distributed white noise. The result shows for estimation numbers N > 5, that the bias of 2 corresponds to the amount of 1/N. The belonging positive standard deviation
sigma ( OVERLINE { gamma SUP 2 } (f SUB i)) ~ = ~ SQRT { { Sum from { i = 1} TO M { ( OVERLINE { gamma SUP 2 } (f SUB i) ~  ~ OVERLINE { gamma SUP 2 } ) } SUP 2 } OVER {M 1 } }
(2)
for N > 5 t is in the same order of magnitude as the bias itself. That means: For the evaluation of coherences a confidence band of +(4...5) * should be used to select values of significant statistical accuracy. Only for these selected values one can be sure, that the phase values belonging the same frequency point are useful for system identification.

Lecture (Conference)
IMORN24 (Informal Meeting on Rector Noise), Oybin / Germany, 23  25 June 1993
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1876
Publ.Id: 1876
Eine Plasmaneutronenquelle für die Fusionsmaterialforschung
Noack, K.
The contents is largely covered by a the extended contribution to this annual report.

Lecture (Conference)
Institut für Strahlenschutzphysik, TU Dresden, Dresden, 27.05.1993
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1875
Publ.Id: 1875
Influence of the ATHLET Maximum Permissible Time Step Size on the Results
Lucas, D.
The maximum permissible time step size is an input parameter of the ATHLET code. In the ATHLET input data description a value of 5 s is recommended for this parameter. For first tests of the coupling of the ATHLET code with the 3D neutron kinetic code DYN3D test calculations with a simplified VVER440 data set were carried out. The results were compared with ATHLET calculations with point kinetics. The influence of the maximum permissible time step size on the results of these calculations with point kinetics is discussed for two test cases. In the first case the time points for opening and closing of safety valves are shifted for maximum permissible time steps greater than 0.5 s. In the second case there is an oscillation of power for maximum time steps of 2 s, which is removed by a maximum time step size of 0.5 s. These examples show, that the recommended value for the maximum permissible time step size is not suitable for all problems.

Lecture (Conference)
Second meeting of the ATHLET user group, Garching, 28. and 29. October 1993
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1874
Publ.Id: 1874
Neutronic Problems of a Compact 14 MeV Plasma Neutron Source
Kumpf, H.; Noack, K.; Krasnoperov, V. G.
Neutronic problems connected with the design of a compact 14MeV neutron source for fusion material research based on a plasma mirror are treated. In particular it has been demonstrated, that further construction efforts are necessary to comply with the established radiation limits for the magnetic system. Further it is not possible to raise the useful high energy flux by arranging reflectors. If one of the source areas of the machine is equipped with a moderator, a thermal neutron source with a flux of about 5·1014 n cm2 s1 can be achieved.

Lecture (Conference)
International Conference on Open Plasma Confinement Systems for Fusion, Novosibirsk, 14  18 June 1993, Proceedings p. 589 
Contribution to proceedings
International Conference on Open Plasma Confinement Systems for Fusion, Novosibirsk, 14  18 June 1993, Proceedings p. 589
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1873
Publ.Id: 1873
ISP33 Pre and Posttest Calculations in the FZR Rossendorf
Krepper, E.
Calculations relating to the OECD/NEA/CSNI International Standard Problem No. 33 were carried out with the GRS code ATHLET.This problem was a natural circulation experiment with primary coolant inventory reduced stepwise. The experiment was conducted in the PACTEL facility in Lappeenranta (Finland), which is a 1/305 volumetrically scaled, full height three loop simulator of the Russian VVER440 type reactor. The main events of the experiment could be shown and explained by the ATHLET calculations:
 After the second draining the mass flow in the loops stagnates. Simultaneously, the primary pressure increases and the pressurizer is partly refilled.
 In the periods after the third drain step the mass flow through the three loops is nonequally distributed, which could be reproduced by the ATHLET calculations at least qualitatively.

Lecture (Conference)
2nd Workshop ISP33, Lappeeranta / Finland, 17  19 May 1993, ISP33 Compasion Report, OECD/NEA in preparation
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1872
Publ.Id: 1872
A Method for Acoustic Leak Detection at Complicated Geometrical Structures
Hessel, G.; Schmitt, W.; Weiß, F.P.
A method for detecting and localizing leaks at complicated threedimensional topologies by measuring the leak induced structureborne and airborne sound and by applying pattern recognition procedures is being developed. The sound patterns necessary to train fuzzy logic classifiers and neural networks are generated with simulated leaks at the original structure. As features for characterizing the occurrence and the location of a leak, coherence values between highfrequency microphone signals and RMSvalues of acoustic emission sensors are used. The method is even applicable when localization based on propagation time differences or sound attenuation differences fail.

Lecture (Conference)
IMORN24 (Informal Meeting on Reactor Noise), Oybin / Germany, 23  25 June 1993
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1871
Publ.Id: 1871
Assessment of the Influence of a Mixing Model on a Boron Dilution Transient in the VVER440 Core by Help of the Code DYN3D/M2
Grundmann, U.; Rohde, U.
A reactivity initiated transient caused by entering a water plug with diluted boron concentration into the core during incorrect loop startup in a VVER440/W213 reactor is analyzed with the help of the code DYN3D/M2. The water with diluted boron concentration from the one loop is mixed with the water of the other loops before the core inlet. The results for the transient are influenced by three different mixing models that were investigated:
 ideal mixing: the boron concentration at all inlets of fuel assemblies is uniformly distributed,
 no mixing: the boron perturbation occurs only in the fuel elements of the sector belonging to the considered loop,
 mixing model: estimation of boron dilution at the core inlet by superposition of reference distributions, defined experimentally or precalculated by a simplified analytical model.
The results of DYN3D/M2 for these three cases presented in the paper show significant differences of the safety parameters, i. e. nuclear power, maximum fuel temperature or critical power ratio.
The asymmetric boron perturbation and the short length of the plug requires a moredimensional core model for the treatment of this transient. The code DYN3D/M2 is capable of describing the spacedependent effects of the diluted boron in the core for all three cases. The power excursion is connected with strong deformations of the neutron flux distribution and power shape as a result of the spacedependent boron perturbation. Therefore the feedback effects are also influenced by the space effects.
The different boron mixing models lead to different boron distributions in the core, which influence the power excursion and the results for the safety parameters. By using the mixing model, more severe consequences of the transient are obtained than by assuming ideal mixing. Assuming no mixing, the perturbation results in a severe accident with partial core damage. The results indicate the importance of the applied mixing model for the inv ...

Lecture (Conference)
3rd Symposium of AER, Piestany (Slovakia), 27. 09.  01.10. 1993 
Contribution to proceedings
3rd Symposium of AER, Piestany (Slovakia), 27. 09.  01.10. 1993, Proceedings p. 491
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1870
Publ.Id: 1870
Definition of the Second Benchmark of AER
Grundmann, U.; Rohde, U.
The first kinetic benchmark of AER was defined for comparison of different 3dimensional kinetic codes developed for the hexagonal geometry of fuel assemblies in a VVERreactor. The transient was assumed to be caused by ejection of nonsymetric control rod in a VVER440 reactor. Feedback effects were neglected. The positive reactivity insertion not leading to prompt criticality results in a slower power increase and was compensated by insertion of shutdown rods.
The benchmark problem No. 2 discussed on the meeting of working group D in Budapest 1993 consists also of a control rod ejection accident in a VVER440. The initial configuration is similar to benchmark No. 1. A nonsymetric control rod with a worth of 2 ßeff is ejected at hot zero power (HZP). The Doppler effect being the main feedback effect for this type of transients is the only feedback and is taken into account by an adiabatic model of fuel temperature. Therefore it is possible to calculate this type of transient with codes which do not contain a complete thermohydraulic model.
As in problem No. 1, the nuclear data are given to exclude at this step of comparison the effects caused by different nuclear data. A sharp and high power peak connected with large deformations of flux shape is expected to give a serious test for codes and methods of calculation.
The problem, the input data and the expected results which will be used for comparisons are specified.

Lecture (Conference)
3rd Symposium of AER, Pestany (Slovakia), 27th September  1st October 1993 
Contribution to proceedings
3rd Symposium of AER, Pestany (Slovakia), 27th September  1st October 1993, Proceedings p. 325
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1869
Publ.Id: 1869
3D Simulation of Reactivity Transients in Cores of VVERReactors
Grundmann, U.; Rohde, U.
Reactivity initiated accidents (RIA) have to be analyzed for safety assessment of nuclear reactors. The presented 3dimensional core simulator DYN3D/M2 describes the space dependent effects of reactivity perturbations caused by control rod motions or local changes of coolant temperature and boron concentration. The safety margin can be determined more precisely by use of 3D models than with simpler methods as point model or onedimensional kinetics. A nodal expansion method (NEM) for hexagonal geometry of VVER fuel elements was developed to reduce the numerical effort of 3dimensional neutron kinetics. The changes of thermohydraulic parameters as fuel and coolant temperatures, coolant density and poisoning are determined with the help of the thermohydraulic model FLOCAL included in the code. The feedback effects derived from the influence of the thermohydraulic parameters on the neutron physical constants. Applying DYN3D to safety calculations of reactivity transients, the code was validated by comparing its essential parts with benchmarks, other codes and experiments. An accident caused by the ejection of a single control rod in a VVER440 reactor was analyzed. The results show a very high power peak in the neighbourhood of the ejected rod. Runs with time step control indicate that the computer time can be reduced in comparison to fixed time step. Simulations with a smaller number of coolant channels were investigated for coupling the core model with codes simulating the whole coolant system of a nuclear power plant.

Lecture (Conference)
SCS Simulation MultiConference, Arlington / Virginia / USA, 29th March  1st April 1993
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1868
Publ.Id: 1868
Dispersion of Gas Bubbles in a TwoDimensional MHD Turbulence
Gerbeth, G.; Eckert, S.; Langenbrunner, H.
The dispersion of small gas bubbles in a vertical upwards liquid metal two phase flow is investigated theoretically as well as experimentally. Local void fraction measurements are presented for a vertical sodiumargon flow with and without external magnetic field. The dispersion of an initially narrow void distribution shows this behaviour clearly: There is an overall focussing effect of the magnetic field on the void distribution, but the dispersion of gas bubbles is much more suppressed parallel to the field than perpendicular to it.
The bubble transport is modelled by a simple diffusion equation. The model takes into account that bubbles represent no passive tracer of the flow field but have an own dynamics due to their relative velocity to the liquid phase. The experimental results will be analyzed in terms of the corresponding diffusion coefficients.

Lecture (Conference)
7th BeerSheva International Seminar on MHD Flows and Turbulence, Jerusalem, 14.  18. February 1993
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1867
Publ.Id: 1867
The Possibilities of the Evaluation of Radioactive Contaminated Sites Using the KnowledgeBased System XUMA
Ferse, W.
The possibilities to evaluate radioactive contaminated sites with knowledgebased methods are discussed on the basis of a knowledgebased evaluation system for nonradioactive sites. The discussion treats methodical and programming aspects.

Lecture (Conference)
Karlshors´ter Workshop, Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz, Berlin, November 1993
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1866
Publ.Id: 1866
The Application of the Expert System XUMA in Saxony
Ferse, W.
A computer system is presented which will be an effective support for the Saxonian government offices responsible for the evaluation of contaminated sites and the decision concernig the kind of remediation. This system XUMA (German synonym for expert system on environmental hazards of contaminated sites) includes a knowledge base with the principal methods for handling contaminated sites. The main features of XUMA are:
Evaluation of contaminated sites,
Creation of analysis plans,
Assessment of contaminated sites,
Knowledge acquisition tool and
Explanation capability.
Furthermore XUMA's embedding into environmental ITsystems in Saxony is described.

Lecture (Conference)
WINRE'93, 4th Workshop of Information Management in Nuclear Safety, Radiation Protection and Environmental Protection, Köln, November 1993
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1865
Publ.Id: 1865
Possibilities for DecisionAnalysis in Planing Energy Distribution Systems
Ferse, W.
A concept for the use of decisionanalysis in planning local energy distribution systems is introduced. The concept is based on the coupling of multiple independent modules, what enables the finding of a solution optimum in cost and environmental compatibility by variation of boundary conditions and input parameters. The first modul is presented.

Lecture (Conference)
Workshop "Strategic Energy Planning", ESAG Dresden, October 1993
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1864
Publ.Id: 1864
Evaluation of Environmental Problems Using DecisionAnalysis Methods and KnowledgeBased Systems
Ferse, W.
A knowlegdebased strategy for the evaluation of risks produced by contaminated sites is presented, which also gives a ranking for the temporal sequence of remediation. This strategy supports the responsible government offices. It is based on the Saxonian evaluation method for contaminated sites and is implemented in the computer programs XUMA and GEFA.

Lecture (Conference)
Workshop of the German PINProject Group (Processess of International Negotation), Rossendorf, March 1993
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1863
Publ.Id: 1863
Some Aspects of LMMHD TwoPhase Flow: MHD Generator Configuration
Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.; Thibault, J. P.; Mihalache, G.
The influence of an external magnetic field on LMMHD twophase flows in vertical rectangular ducts has been examined. The goal of the work is the construction of models being able to predict the average behaviour of the flow as well as being relatively easy to survey and to handle. Results regarding the slip ratio obtained from a bubbly flow model are compared with experimental data got from measurements at the mercuryair facility. In the case of an applied magnetic field discrepancies between model and experiment are obtained giving an indication of the imperfection of the present state of the model. The crucial point is the validation of the semiempirical closure laws involved in the LMMHD towphase flow models. In the present state of the experiments the influence of the void fraction on the apparent electrical conductivity of the twophase flow has been investigated. The results obtained from the mercuryair facility of LEGIIMG are located between the relations given by Maxwell and Petric & Lee, respectively.

Lecture (Conference)
7th International BeerSheva Seminar on MHD Flows and Turbulence, Jerusalem, February 1993 
Contribution to proceedings
7th International BeerSheva Seminar on MHD Flows and Turbulence, Jerusalem, February 1993, to be published in: American Institute of Aeronautics ans Astronautics Washington
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1862
Publ.Id: 1862
Results of Material Investigations Based on the Rheinsberg  Irradiation Programme
Böhmert, J.; Viehrig, H.W.
Neutron embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel is a critical safetyrelated problem for VVER type reactors. For a better knowledge of this problem an irradiation programme was carried out in the VVER2 reactor in Rheinsberg from 1984  89. With the programme the procedure and methods for the calculation of the transition temperature shift should be examined, the irradiationinduced change of fracture toughness should be determined and the influence of postirradiation annealing had to be investigated. 33 heats of both basic and weld material from low alloyed CrMoV and CrMoNi steels were tested. The neutron fluence amounted to (1.579) x 1018 n/cm² (E>1MeV). In the unirradiated state the VVER material shows satisfying properties of strength and toughness and is comparable with the performance of ASTM type steels. The shift of the transition temperature is not always correctly predicted by means of the normally applied trend curves.

Lecture (Conference)
Multilateral Symposium on Safety Research for VVERReactors, Cologne, September 1993
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1861
Publ.Id: 1861
Influence of the Depth Position on the Neutron Embrittlement of the VVERReactor Pressure Vessel Steel 15Cr2MoV(A)  Consequences for the Assessment of Reactor Safety
Böhmert, J.; Bergner, F.; Große, M.; Viehrig, H.W.
The dependence of the mechanical properties on the depth position in unirra diated state and after irradiation up to neutron fluences of approximately. 5 x 1018 and 70 x 1018 cm2 (E > 0.5 MeV) is tested on a forging made of VVER 440 reactor pressure vessel steel 15CrMoV. Specimens taken from a subsurface region shows a higher strength and a lower transition temperature than ones from 1/4  3/4 of the wall thickness. Increased irradiation reduces these differences. The testing of specimes from the 1/4 depth position within the surveillance programme, as normally demanded by monitoring rules for nuclear power plants, results in a conservative safety assessment against brittle fracture even in the case of EOL fluence. By taking into account fluence attenuation, the flux effect etc., the toughness increases over the wall thickness from the inside to the outside after a longer operating time of the RPV.

Lecture (Conference)
Jahrestagung Kerntechnik 1993, Köln, 25.  27. Mai 1993
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1860
Publ.Id: 1860
Thin layer studies at the material research goniometer of the ROBLCRG beamline (ESRF Grenoble)
Eichhorn, F.; Matz, W.; Prokert, F.; Betzl, M.; Reichel, P.; Schell, N.
Thin layer studies at the material research goniometer of the ROBL
CRG beamline (ESRF Grenoble)
F. Eichhorn, W.Matz, F.Prokert, M. Betzl, P. Reichel, N. Schell
Forschungszentrum Rossendorf,
Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research,
P.O.B. 510119, D  01314 Dresden, Germany
The Forschungszentrum Rossendorf installed a collaborating research
group (CRG) beamline at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility
(ESRF) in Grenoble. The main parts of the Rossendorf beamline (ROBL)
are the beam conditioning optics, a radiochemistry endstation for
the study of radioactive materials by Xray absorption spectroscopy
and a materials research endstation mainly intended for structural
studies of solids and melts by diffractometry and reflectometry.
The synchrotron Xray beam is monochromatised and focused by a
successive reflection and diffraction at a first mirror, a double
crystal monochromator and a second mirror. The whole possible
energy range extends from 5 to 35 keV with an resolution DeltaE/E = 1E4  1E5. The beam divergence can be controlled by bending the second
crystal and the second mirror.
A sixcircle goniometer is installed for materials research studies.
Two parallel circles (for the sample and the detector) each with
horizontal and vertical axes allow experiments in both scattering
planes. The sample can be adjusted by two additional axes. The
minimum angular step of all circles is 0.0001°. The sample position
can be equipped with an xyz slide. Of special interest to study
are structures in thin nearsurface regions of solids as this is the
typical modification region for samples treated by ion beam
techniques.
A survey about the experiments done so far will be given. As
examples of thin layer problems studied at this goniometer, in
detail it will be reported on phase transition studies of N
ionimplanted Ti6Al4V alloys in the paper of F. Berberich (this
school) and here on ...

Lecture (Conference)
4th Autumn School on "Xray scattering from surfaces and thin layers" Smolenice, Slovakia, 22.9.  25.9.1999
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1859
Publ.Id: 1859
Comments on Spectrum Adjustment for Reactor Pressure Vessel Dosimetry
Böhmer, B.
After a short review about the state of art of spectrum adjustment for reactor pressure vessel dosimetry and their realization in Rossendorf plans for future developments are described. The most important outstanding problem is the calculation of covariances of the theoretical input spectra.
As example for an advanced spectrum adjustment some preliminary results of a reevaluation of 1984/85 irradiation experiments in Rheinsberg were presented.
Suggestions are made for common projects in the frame of the WGRD, VVER and EWGRD, especially the development and maintenance of a common reactordosimetric database for VVER type reactors and the organization of benchmark exercises for calculations of detector cross sections and spectrum covariances.

Lecture (Conference)
Common Workshop of the EURATOM Working Group for Reactor Dosimetry and the Working Group for Reactor Dosimetry of VVERReactors on Pressure Vessel Surveillance Programmes and Their Applications, R ...
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1858
Publ.Id: 1858
Nuetronentransportberechnungen mit der Monte Carlo Methode  Möglichkeiten und Probleme
Barz, H.U.
A general survey was given about the problems and growing possibilities of the MonteCarlo method applied to particle transport.
In particular the following items were considered:
 the mathematical foundations of Monte Carlo methods
 analog games
 nonanalog games and the possibility to obtain zero variance
 equation for the variance in the analog and nonanalog case, meaning of impor tance function
 danger of miscalculation connected with nonanalog games
 "Weight Window Method" and analytical investigations to improve this method
 alternative methods to decrease the statistical errors
 possibilities to calculate optimum weights

Lecture (Conference)
Seminarvortrag, Technische Universität Dresden, Abteilung Physik, Dresden, 18. November 1993
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1857
Publ.Id: 1857
Experiences in MonteCarloCalculations for VVERPressure Vessel Fluence Monitoring
Barz, H.U.
Information was given about the Rossendorf system of Monte Carlo codes including measures for variance reduction with respect to the calculation of fluences at irradiation points within the Rheinsberg reactor. It was shown that by the used methods it was possible to obtain results with low statistical errors and therefore Monte Carlo methods are well suited for the determination of neutron fluences if applied to that part of the problem, where transport calculations are needed. The sensitivity of the obtained results against the used group sets of neutron data was considerably reduced by improving the calculation of scattering at hydrogen isotope, which is very important for this kind of calculation.

Lecture (Conference)
Multilaterales Symposium zur Sicherheitsforschung für WWERReaktoren, Köln, 28.09.  30.09. 1993
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1856
Publ.Id: 1856
Adjustment and Application of Monte Carlo Neutron Calculation with Respect to Embrittlement Problems
Barz, H.U.
Problems of the calculation of neutron fluences for reactor pressure vessel embrittlement determination were discussed. For the example of the calculation of neutron fluences of irradiated specimens within the Rheinsberg reactor (time period 19841988) it was shown, for which parts of the problem Monte Carlo methods can be very well applicated.
Some special measures were discussed, which are used for the own Monte Carlo codes (system TRAMO), especially the improved "Weight Window Method" and a proper calculation of the needed weights. Further the preparation of all needed data to take into account the history for each irradiation period was described and the influence of different neutron group data and the different handling of anisotropy of elastic scattering was considered.

Lecture (Conference)
Common Workshop of the EURATOM Working Group for Reactor Dosimentry and the Working Group for Reactor Dosimetry of VVERReactors on Pressure Vessel Surveillance Programmes and Their Applications, ...
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1855
Publ.Id: 1855
Vibration Modelling  Investigation of Mechanical Accident Sequences at a VVER440 Type Reactor
Altstadt, E.; Weiß, F.P.
During abnormal core barrel motion of a VVER440 type reactor significant phase relations and coherences between incore and excore neutron noise signals were observed. For the explanation of the phenomena a numerical algorithm based on the nonlinear equations of motion of a double pendulum was developed. In order to confirm the numerical results qualitatively additional experiments at a small setup modelling the control elements were performed. The typical signal patterns observed at the VVER440 could be shown to originate from mechanical impacts between the control elements and the neighbouring fuel cassettes.

Lecture (Conference)
International Conference on Fault Diagnosis, Toulouse / France, 05  07 April, 1993
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1854
Publ.Id: 1854
Amine group bearing '3+1' oxotechnetium(V) and oxorhenium(V) complexes: Synthesis, characterization of lipophilicity and permeation through the bloodbrain barrier
Friebe, M.; Spies, H.; Berger, R.; Syhre, R.; Papadopoulos, M.; Chiotellis, E.; Suda, K.; WunderliAllenspach, H.; Johannsen, B.
A set of technetium(V) mixedligand complexes was synthesized with different protonation constants pK_{a}, brought about by substitution. They were characterized regarding their lipophilicity and compared to the corresponding rhenium(V) complexes. Partition coefficients P, determined by reversed phase HPLC and the octanol shake flask method, were higher for the technetium than for the analogous rhenium species. Investigations were performed to assess the influence of the physicochemical molecule parameters on the biological behaviour of these compounds. The state of ionisation of the molecules had a significant influence on brain uptake in vivo. Less uptake was found for compounds with pK_{a} values around 9.5, which are fully protonated at physiological pH, than for those with pK_{a} values around 7.5, which are ionised to only about 50% at pH 7.4. transport through cells was studied with an in vitro bloodbrain barrier (BBB) model, based on the human umbilical cord cell line ECV304. The resulting in vitro permeation curves agree with the in vivo results obtained in mice and rats with short incubation times (up to 30 min).

Book (Authorship)
Technetium, Rhenium and Other Metals in Chemistry and Nuclear Medicine (Edited by Nicolini M., Mazzi U.) SGE Editoriali Padova (1999) pp. 627631
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1853
Publ.Id: 1853
Regelelementschwingungen bei anomaler Kernbehälterbewegung in einem Druckwasserreaktor vom Typ WWER440
Altstadt, E.; Weiß, F.P.
Während der anomalen Kernbehälterbewegung bei einem Reaktor vom Typ WWER440 wurden signifikante Phasen und Kohärenzbeziehungen zwischen dem Excore und dem Incoreneutronenrauschen beobachtet. Für die Erklärung der Phänomene wurde ein numerischer Algorithmus entwickelt, der auf den nichtlinearen Bewegungsgleichungen eines Doppelpendels beruht. Zur qualitativen Verifizierung der numerischen Resultate wurden außerdem Experimente an einem kleinen physischen Modell der Regelelemente durchgeführt. Es konnte nachgewiesen werden, daß die am WWER440 beobachteten typischen Signalmuster von mechanischen Anschlagvorgängen zwischen Regelelementen und benachbarten Brennstoffkassetten herrühren.

Lecture (Conference)
4. Tagung über Dynamische Probleme, Modellierung und Wirklichkeit, Universität Hannover, 07.  08. Oktober 1993
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1852
Publ.Id: 1852
Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Control Element Vibration During Abnormal Core Barrel Motion at a VVER440 Type Reactor
Altstadt, E.; Weiß, F.P.
In 1985 abnormal core barrel motion had occured at unit 2 of the Greifswald NPP indicated by extremly large neutron noise. Amplitudes of up to 4mm were estimated from the external neutron noise signals.
The coherence and phase relations between excore and incore neutron noise signals exhibited typical features from which it could be concluded that even the control elements were forced to vibrations by the moving core barrel.
To obtain principal understanding about these phenomena and to draw conclusions for the surveillance of the excore and incore neutron signals, experimental and numerical investigations were performed. An experimental setup was constructed providing all necessary displacement signals via HALL probes. This physical model, being a double pendulum with an annular channel surrounding the lower pendulum, can be operated in a linear mode (small excitation amplitudes) as well as in a nonlinear mode (larger amplitudes which cause impacts between channel and lower pendulum).
The numerical simulation algorithm is based on a mechanical system consisting of linear elements (inertia, dampers, springs) and nonlinear elements (gaps). In this way impacts between control element and neighbouring fuel cassettes which are strongly nonlinear events can be modeled. After simulating the time series, which is possible for any detector position at the control element or at the setup respectively, transfer functions, coherences, phase relations etc. can be computed.
It could be shown that the typical linear phase shifts between excore and incore neutron noise signals are due to impacts between the control elements and the neighbouring fuel cassettes. The obtained results can be used to establish a sensitive detection procedure for control element vibrations induced by abnormal core barrel motion.

Lecture (Conference)
International Simulators Conference (SIMULATORS X), Arlington / Viginia, 29th March  1st April 1993
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1851
Publ.Id: 1851
Ultraschallverfahren zur Erfassung von Rißbildung und Rißfortschritt bei quasistatischer Belastung
Kunze, R.
Es wurde ein Ultraschallverfahren zur Rißlängenmessung während des Dreipunktbiegeversuchs entwickelt, das auf der Beugung von Ultraschallwellen an der Rißspitze beruht. Die Information über Rißlänge und Rißfortschritt wird aus der Laufzeit der gebeugten Ultraschallwellen gewonnen. Das vorgestellte Verfahren ist das einzige der bisher bekannten Ultraschallverfahren, das an einer so kleinen Probenform erfolgreich angewendet wurde.

Other report
Diplomarbeit Technische Universität Dresden, Fakultät Maschinenwesen, Juli 1994 (Betreuer: Dr. Böhmert)
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1850
Publ.Id: 1850
Konfiguration und Parametrierung eines Meßsystems zur Erfassung der Wärmeflüsse in einer Wohnsiedlung
Heinze, K.
Für die Wohnsiedlung Rossendorf wurde ein Meßsystem zur Erfassung der Wärmeflüsse für Heizung und Warmwaser entworfen, realisiert und erprobt. Zum Einsatz kam ein industrielles Meßsystem mit Prozeßrechner der Firma Johnson Controls. Durch Testmessungen wurde der Nachweis der Funktionsfähigkeit der Anlage erbracht. Als kritisch erwies sich die genaue Bestimmung der Wärme bzw. Volumenströme.

Other report
Diplomarbeit Technische Universität Dresden, Institut für Energiemaschinen und Maschinenlabor, Dezember 1994 (Betreuer Dr. Naehring)
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1849
Publ.Id: 1849
Rhenium and technetium complexes with nucleic acid components
Noll, S.; Noll, B.; Knieß, T.; Kampf, G.; Spies, H.; Johannsen, B.
Re/Tc labelled nucleobases and nucleosides are developed and characterized in connection with cell uptake studies on cultured normal and tumour cells [1,2]. Stable Re and Tc complexes of nucleic acid components have been prepared where uracil derivatives are either involved in a mercaptoacetyl glycine (MAG) SN_{3} coordination sphere or are part of "3+1" mixedligand complexes. Furthermore a prelabelling method has been successfully used for coupling the nucleic acid components to a performed Re/Tc complex.
Uptake of such complexes into proliferating cultured normal and tumour cells and their crude cytosolic and nuclear fractions, including postincubation effects and the influence of the metabolic state of the cells, has been observed.

Book (Authorship)
Technetium, Rhenium and Other Metals in Chemistry and Nuclear Medicine (Edited by Nicolini M., Mazzi U.) SGE Editoriali Padova (1999) pp. 553556
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1848
Publ.Id: 1848
Auslegung des Wärmeverteilsystems einer zu errichtenden großen solarthermischen Anlage
Bemmann, T.
Für ein im Bau befindliches konventionelles Heizsystem auf Erdgasbasis wurden technische Varianten einer einzubindenden Solaranlage untersucht. Dabei stand die optimale Nutzung und Verteilung der von der Solaranlage zu liefernden Wärme im Vordergrund. Als ausschlaggebend erwiesen sich die Berücksichtigung unterschiedlicher Temperaturniveaus der verschiedenen untersuchten Abnehmer (Wohngebiet, Schule). Für 2 Varianten erfolgte eine Systemauslegung und eine Abschätzung der zu erwartenden solaren Gewinne.

Other report
Diplomarbeit Technische Universität Dresden, Institut für Thermodynamik und Technische Gebäudeausrüstung, April 1994, (Betreuer: Dr. Naehring)
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1847
Publ.Id: 1847
Zusammenhang zwischen bruchmechanischen und mechanischtechnologischen Kennwerten für Reaktordruckbehälterstähle
Viehrig, H.W.; Böhmert, J.; Bergmann, U.; Richter, H.
Im Rahmen der wissenschaftlichtechnischen Zusammenarbeit zwischen Deutschland und Rußland und einem Koordinierten Forschungsprogramm der IAEA wird das Bestrahlungsverhalten russischer und westlicher Reaktordruckbehälter(RDB)stähle untersucht. Im unbestrahlten Ausgangszustand weisen die Chargen des Grundwerkstoffes 15Ch2MFA des russischen Druckwassereaktors WWER440 eine große Streuung in den im CharpyV Test ermittelten Übergangstemperaturen und Hochlageenergien auf. Eine geringe Streuung in diesen Kennwerten haben die untersuchten Chargen des Grundwerkstoffes 15Ch2NMFA(A) des russischen Druckwasserreaktors WWER1000. Die ermittelten Übergangstemperaturen liegen niedriger als bei den ASTM RDBStählen A533B Cl. 1 und ASTM A508 Cl. 3. Die JIntegralwerte für technische (J0,2) und physikalische Rißinitiierung der untersuchten RDBStähle und der dazugehörigen Schweißgüter wurden mit den Hochlageenergien aus dem CharpyV Test und den Streckgrenzen des Zugversuches korreliert.

Lecture (Conference)
Werkstoffprüfung '94, Bad Nauenheim, 01.  02. Dezember 1994
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1846
Publ.Id: 1846
Characterization of the Initial State of the Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels of the Rheinsberg Irradiation Programme  Survey on Mechanical Testing including Fracture Mechanics and Fluence Investigation in the Research Centre Rossendorf
Viehrig, H.W.; Barz, H.U.; Bergmann, U.; Böhmert, U.; Konheiser, J.
A German/Russian irradiation programme was performed in the high flux irradiation channels of the PWR VVER2 Rheinsberg from 1984 to 1987. Within the programme CharpyV, COD, 0,5CT, XCT and 1CT specimens of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels 15Kh2MFA and 15Kh2NMFA(A) and RPV weld metal 10KhMFT, 10Kh2MFA(U) and 10KhNMA(A) were irradiated. These materials are used in the pressurized water reactor of Russian type VVER440 and VVER1000. The irradiation of one series of experiments took one year. In this paper the unirradiated initial state of the material is characterized. The mechanical properties measured at different temperatures include instrumented CharpyV notch and quasistatic fracture toughness data. Furthermore the neutronfluence of the specimens were calculated in dependence of the position in the high flux irradiation channels of the PWR VVER2 Rheinsberg.

Lecture (Conference)
5th Specialists Meeting of Scientific and Engineering Cooperation Agreement  Safety of Components, Stuttgart, 04.  07. 10. 1994
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1845
Publ.Id: 1845
Bewertung von akustischen Emissionssignalen, aufgenommen mit einer hammerfinnenintegrierten AESonde
Richter, H.
Anhand von Beispielen wurden elastische low blow's und deren komplexes akustisches Verhalten an einer ungekerbten hochfesten Stahlprobe unter Ausschluß von plastischer Deformation und Rißbildung diskutiert. Störsignale, die durch verschiedene Prozesse generiert werden, sollen somit besser verstanden und letztlich von Nutzsignal separiert werden. Die Korrelation der gemessenen Störsignale zu charakteristischen Ereignissen, wie Reibungsquellen und mechanischer Kontakt, gelang noch nicht. Deshalb wird eine zusätzliche AEInstrumentierung von Probe und Widerlager in Betrach gezogen, die bei der Störquelleninterpretation hilfreich sein wird.

Lecture (Conference)
Arbeitskreis "Instrumentierter Kerbschlagbiegeversuch" des DVM Berlin, 19. September 1994
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1844
Publ.Id: 1844
A TwoDimensional Intranodal Flux Expansion Method for Hexagonal Geometry
Grundmann, U.; Hollstein, F.
A new nodal method HEXNEM2 for hexagonal geometry is described. The method is based on a twodimensional expansion of the intranodal fluxes. Polynomials up to the second order and exponential functions are used in each group. By this method the singular terms occurring in the transverse integration methods are avoided. Side averaged and corner point values of fluxes and currents are used for the coupling of nodes. A calculation scheme for the outgoing partial currents at the sides and similar expressions for the corners from given incoming values are used in the inner iteration which gives a fast running scheme. The method is tested against 2dimensional hexagonal benchmark problems for the VVERtype reactors. The results show that the multiplication factor and nodal powers are predicted accurately. A considerable improvement can be shown of the results for the VVER1000 benchmarks compared with the method developed previously for the code DYN3D and the simpler method HEXNEM1.
Keywords: neutron diffusion equation; two energy groups; 2dimensional; nodal expansion method; hexagonal geometry; steady state; benchmarks
 Nuclear Science and Engineering 133 (1999) 201212
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1843
Publ.Id: 1843
PO3  the Best Reflector for the IBR2
Noack, K.
The pulsed fast reactor IBR.2, Dubna, is at present the most powerful pulsed neutron source used for condensed matter research. The neutron pulses are generated periodically by reactivity modulation, which is accomplished by a rotating tworeflector system. The neutron physics which has been involved in the development of various reflectors is analysed with respect to the neutron pulse length. Two new reflectors are proposed.

Lecture (Conference)
International Seminar on Advanced Pulsed Neutron Sources, Dubna, Russia, June 14  16, 1994
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1842
Publ.Id: 1842
Magnetohydrodynamic Flow Around a Circular Cylinder  Numerical Simulation up to Renolds numbers of 1000
Mutschke, G.; Gerbeth, G.

Lecture (Conference)
DFGKolloquium, Bonn, 24.06.1994
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1841
Publ.Id: 1841
MHD Research at Research Center Rossenorf  Relations to LMFBR
Gerbeth, G.
A review on R&D activities of the FZR group in the field of Liquid Metal MHD is given in this lecture. Special attention is paid to sodium related experiences (facility, experimental programme, measuring techniques) being of interest for the Breeder development. In particular, first tests of a contactless gas phase detection system are presented. This system was developed by RWTH Aachen and FZR, and tested for the first time at FZR. It allows a detection of small, even single gas bubbles independent of their acoustic activity.

Lecture (Conference)
Oarai, Japan: Oarai Engineering Center, PNC, 02.11.1994
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1840
Publ.Id: 1840
LMMHD Activities at Reearch Center Rossendorf
Gerbeth, G.
A review on R&D activities of the FZR group in the field of Liquid Metal MHD is given in this lecture. Particular emphasis is put on the measurements and theoretical results with respect to heat&mass transfer in anisotropic MHD turbelence. Corresponding models, experimental setups, and measuring techniques are described. Twophase flow measurements are presented obtained at the FZR sodium facility. The prospects of cylindrical turbulence promoters are discussed.

Lecture (Conference)
Kawasaki, Japan: Nippon Steel Corp., 31. 10. 1994 
Lecture (Conference)
Tokyo, Japan: Tokyo Institute of Technology, 31. 10.1994
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1839
Publ.Id: 1839
Contactless Control of Nonlinear Flow Phenomena in the Czochralski Crystal Growth of Silicon by Use of Magnetic Fields
Gerbeth, G.
Control of melt motions is important for most of the crystal growth technologies in order to improve the crystal quality and the yield. There were several attempts in the past to use steady magnetic fields for a damping of instabilities. Much more possibilities for flow control exist if unsteady magnetic fields are used, preferably in combination with steady fields. This new active melt control is attractive for industrial use. Principal mechanisms of this type of flow control are presented in this lecture, particularly adressed to the needs of the SiCztechnology. The research project is developed together with the institute of physics Riga and Wacker Chemitronics Ltd. Burghausen

Lecture (Conference)
Workshop Potential of Nonlinear Dynamics for Technological Applications, BMFTVDI, Frankfurt/M., 24.11.1994
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1838
Publ.Id: 1838
Evidence of Irradiation Defection VVER Steels by Small Angle Scattering Experiments  Contribution to the Analysis of Irradiation Effects
Böhmert, J.; Große, M.
Up to now there are only few investigations on the microstructural change of VVERtype reactor pressure vessel steels after neutron irradiation. Consequently, the understanding of the mechanism of neutron embrittlement is not physically but only empirically based. Apart from the modern methods of high resolution analytical electron microscopy the small angle scattering with neutrons and Xrays enables experiments to gain information on size, volume fraction and composition or structure of nanometerscale precipitates as they are typical for irradiationinduced ones. First experiments with these techniques have shown the irradiationinduced microstructural changes significantly differ from the changes which were found in ASTMtype steels. For continuing such investigations a programme of joint RussianGerman investigation is suggested.

Lecture (Conference)
5th Specialists Meeting on Scientific and Engeneering Cooperation Agreement  Safety of Components, Stuttgart, 04.  07. 10. 1994
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1837
Publ.Id: 1837
Characterisation of IrradiationInduced Precipitates in VVERType RPV Steel 15Kh2MFA by Anomalous Small Angle Ray Scattering
Böhmert, J.; Brauer, G.; Große, M.; Eichhorn, F.
Irradiationinduced precipitates are the cause for neutron embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel steels. It can be shown that for the VVERtype steel 15Kh2MFA the shift in the ductilebrittle transition temperature depends nearly linearly on the volume fraction of these precipitates.
The nature of the irradiationinduced precipitates has been investigated at the steel 15Kh2MFA. This steel differes from ASTMtype A503 and 533 steels mainly in its content of the carbide forming elements chromium, molybdenum and vanadium.
Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments using the SANS2 facility at the FRG1 reactor in Geesthacht (Germany) were employed in the past. SANS gives information about size and volume fraction of the precipitates, but hardly about the chemical composition.
In order to prove and to characterize the nature of the irradiationinduced precipi tates anomalous small angle Xray scattering (ASAXS) has been carried out at the JUSIFA facility of Hamburg synchrotron laboratory HASYLAB (Germany) at present. By the method of contrast variation, it is also possible to get information on the chemical composition.
ASAXS experiments with contrast variation at energies near the vanadiumK absorptionedge reveal the content of vanadium within the irradiationinduced precipitates. The scattering density of the precipitates is lower than the scattering density of the iron matrix. The chemical shift of the vanadium K absorptionedge shows that vanadium does not precipitate in an elementary state. Assuming, the precipitates are vanadium carbide these results can be explained. The results are in accordance with those of SANS experiments and former positron annihilation spectroscopy experiments.

Lecture (Conference)
5th Meeting of the International Group on Radiation Damage Mechanisms, Santa Barbara, May 1994
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1836
Publ.Id: 1836
High Precision Neutron Fluence Calculations, Activation Measurements and Spectrum Adjustment for the Rheinsberg Pressure Vessel Steel Irradiation Program
Barz, H.U.; Böhmer, B.; Konheiser, J.; Stephan, I.
The overall approach comprises the pure calculation part, the gamma spectrometric analyses of fluence monitors and the comparison of theoretical and experimental results using the spectrum adjustment procedure. Monte Carlo methods were used to perform the transport calculations. By application of special measures of variance reduction the statistical errors could be reduced so much that accurate 3dimensional Monte Carlo methods could be generally used in reasonable calculation time. The uncertainties of the results due to the use of different group values of neutron cross sections were assessed by testing different group sets. In that way it could be shown that the kind of group data is of minor influence.

Lecture (Conference)
Presentation to the EWGRD, WGRDVVER Meeting, Rez, Tschechien, April 18  22, 1994
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1835
Publ.Id: 1835
Aufgaben und Probleme bei der Bestimmung der Neutronenbelastung für den WWER1000
Barz, H.U.; Böhmer, B.; Konheiser, J.; Stephan, I.
Es werden Erfahrungen der auf diesem Gebiet tätigen Mitarbeiter in Rossendorf bei der Berechnung und Messung von Neutronenfluenzen sowie bei der Anwendung der Spektrumsjustierung dargelegt. An Hand dieser Erfahrungen wird auf noch offene Probleme eingegangen, die insbesondere bei neutronendosimetrischen Problemen zum Reaktor WWER1000 auftreten. Es werden Möglichkeiten zur Bewältigung dieser Probleme diskutiert und auf eigene Vorstellungen eingegangen. Insbesondere wird betont, daß man mit Hilfe moderner Verfahren der Varianzreduktion die genaue 3dimensionale MonteCarlo Methode als Standardverfahren für die Transportrechnungen anwenden kann.

Lecture (Conference)
5. DeutschRussisches WTZSeminar der Arbeitsgruppe Komponentensicherheit, Stuttgart, 03.  05. Oktober 1994
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1834
Publ.Id: 1834
Analysis of twoPhase Flow Phenomena with Conductivity Probes in Integral Reactor Safety Experiments
Weber, P.; Kusch, S.; Prasser, H.M.
The thermalhydraulic behaviour of a PWR during beyonddesignbasis accident scenarios is important for the verification and optimisation of accident management measures and code development. Analyses require integral experiments, such as PKL III at Siemens / KWU, which simulates a 1300 MWe KWUdesign PWR with scaling factor of 1:145.
The paper presents PKL III results obtained by needle shaped conductivity probes developed in the Forschungszentrum Rossendorf [1]. The probes provided local void fractions and particle frequences within an averaging period of 2s. This time resolution is sufficient to characterize slow transients. A special flow pattern map developed for the probes enabled the calculation of the length of an average bubble. The measured information was used to determine the changing flow regimes.
At first, a secondary side feedandbleed procedure was investigated. Two probes were installed in the feed water line close to the steam generators. A depressurization of the secondary side caused flashing of the feed water and discharge of twophase flow. A comparison of the measured void fraction with the density reading of a radiation densitometer installed next to the probes shows good agreement. The experimentally found flow regimes are also consistent with expected trends from flow regime maps developed by other researchers (e.g. [2]). Both show slug flow at the beginning of the secondaryside depressurization.
In the second experiment, a primaryside feedandbleed following steam generator tube rupture, four probes were installed at one location in the vertical part of the pressurizer surgeline, but at different radial positions. Another set of probes was installed in the horizontal pressurizer bleedline. Two of them were used for timeofflight measurements providing velocity values directly. Flow regimes such as stratified flow in the horizontal tube or annular flow in the vertical tube were found during the depressurization.

Contribution to proceedings
European TwoPhase Flow Group Meeting, Piacenca, Italy, June 6  8, 1994, 
Other report
Erlangen: Siemens AG, Power Generation Group (KWU), Paper I.1, 1994
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1833
Publ.Id: 1833
Acoustic Leak Detection at Complicated Topologies Using Fuzzy Classifiers and Neural Networks
Schmitt, W.; Hessel, G.; Weiß, F.P.
A method for detecting and localizing leaks at complicated threedimensional topologies by measuring the leak induced structureborne and airborne sound and by applying pattern recognition procedures is being developed. The sound patterns necessary to train fuzzy logic classifiers and neural networks are generated with simulated leaks at the original structure. As features for characterizing the occurrence and the location of a leak, coherence values between highfrequency microphone signals as well RMSvalues of acoustic emission sensors are used. The method is even applicable when localization based on propagation time differences or sound attenuation differences fail. The method is prototypically developed for a soviettype pressurized VVERreactor.

Contribution to proceedings
Proc. of the XIII IMEKO World Congress, Torino, September 05  09, 1994, pp. 1259  1264
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1832
Publ.Id: 1832
Ultrasonic TwoPhase Flow Measurements Based on Pattern Recognition Techniques
Prasser, H.M.; Hensel, F.; Schütz, P.
The stateof art of ultrasonic twophase flow measurements is characterised by a number of different approaches commonly based on the identification and characterisation of individual voids (bubbles, plugs etc.) applying the techniques of ultrasonic testing. The recorded individual events are integrated to extract parameters as void fraction or volume flow rates. The main limitation of these methods arises from the complicated structure of twophase flow at higher void fractions which leads to multiple diffractions of the sound beam. The measurement is therefore limited to low void fractions or a simple flow structure.
The main idea of the present work was to overcome these limitations by means of pattern recognition. An ultrasonic beam crossing the twophase flow is modulated by the changing structure of the voids passing by and therefore the throughtransmission signal must contain information about the parameters of the twophase flow even if information about individual flow effects cannot be derived. Therefore it was supposed that a pattern recognition algorithm trained with signals obtained at known conditions is able to identify the set of the flow parameters (flow rates, void fraction etc.) in an unknown situation.

Contribution to proceedings
From Measurement to Innovation. Proceedings of the XIII IMEKO World Congress, Vol.2, p. 1112111 
Lecture (Conference)
XIII IMEKO World Congress, Torino September 59, 1994
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1831
Publ.Id: 1831
NeutronPhysical Development of Reflectors for the Pulsed Reactor IBR2
Noack, K.
The pulsed fast reactor IBR2, Dubna, is at present the most powerful pulsed neutron source used for condensed matter research. The neutron pulses are generated periodically by reactivity modulation, which is accomplished by a rotating tworeflector system. The neutron physics which has been involved in the development of various reflectors is analysed with respect to the neutron pulse length. Two new reflectors are proposed.
 Kerntechnik 59 (1994) 6, S. 291  297, München: Hanser Verlag, 1994
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1829
Publ.Id: 1829
PostTest Calculations of the IAEASPE4
Krepper, E.; Schäfer, F.
In the Research Center Rossendorf post test calculations of the SPE4 were performed using the thermohydraulic code ATHLET. The SPE4 experiment was a small break loss of coolant accident in the cold leg with unavailable high pressure injection system. For the prevention of core damage the secondary side bleed and feed was used. The experiment was performed at the Hungarian PMK2 test facility, modelling the Paks VVER440 reactor. In the calulations different nodalizations were tested for modelling the hydroaccumulators and the horizontal steam generator. Deviations between calculation and experiment were observed especially in the primary pressure decay and consequently in the behaviour of accumulator injection. It was found, that the prediction of observed core dry out depends on the correct calculation of the low pressure injection setpoint.

Lecture (Conference)
Proc. 2. SPE4 Workshop, Budapest, May 1994 
Contribution to proceedings
Proc. 2. SPE4 Workshop, Budapest, May 1994
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1828
Publ.Id: 1828
Anwendung neuronaler Netze zur akustischen Leckortung an komplizierten Strukturen
Hessel, G.; Schmitt, W.; Weiß, F.P.
Eine Methode zur Erkennung und Ortung von Lecks an Druckanlagen komplizierter 3dimensionaler Topologie ist entwickelt worden. Sie basiert auf der Merkmalsextraktion aus dem leckinduzierten Körper und Luftschall und wendet neuronale Netze zur Mustererkennung an. Die zum Anlernen der neuronalen Netze notwendigen Schallmuster werden mit Hilfe von simulierten Lecks an einer Originalstruktur erzeugt. Als Merkmale zur Charakterisierung des Leckortes werden Kohärenzwerte zwischen hochfrequenten Mikrofonsignalen und RMSWerte von Schallemissionssensoren angewendet. Die Methode ist sogar einsatzfähig, wenn die Leckortung auf der Basis von Laufzeit oder Dämpfungsdifferenzen versagt. Die Methode wird prototypisch für einen russischen WWERDruckwasserreaktor entwickelt. Die Anwendung neuronaler Netze ermöglicht eine Adaption der Leckortungsmethode an Druckanlagen unterschiedlicher Topologie.

Contribution to proceedings
Preprint VDI/GVC Düsseldorf  Fachtagung Prozeß und Anlagensicherheit, November 1994, S. 135  146
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1827
Publ.Id: 1827
Investigations on a Boron Dilution Accident for a VVER440 Type Reactor by the Help of the Code DYN3D
Grundmann, U.; Rohde, U.
A reactivity initiated transient caused by entering a plug of water with reduced boron concentration into the core during incorrect loop startup in a VVER440/W213 reactor is analyzed . Due to the asymmetric distribution of the boron dilution, significant spacedependent effects are expected. That requires the use of a threedimensional reactor core model. The analysis was carried out with the help of the code DYN3D/M2 developed for investigations on reactivity initiated accidents in thermal reactors with hexagonal fuel elements. A semianalytical model adjusted to experimental data on coolant mixing in VVER440 type reactors is used for the estimation of boron concentration distribution at core inlet. For comparisons, the two limiting cases, ideal mixing and no mixing, are investigated.

Lecture (Conference)
Proc. ANS Topical Meeting on Advances in Reactor Physics: Reactor Physics Faces the 21st Century, Knoxville (Tennessee), 11.  15. April 1994, Vol. 3, pp. 464  471 
Contribution to proceedings
Proc. ANS Topical Meeting on Advances in Reactor Physics: Reactor Physics Faces the 21st Century, Knoxville (Tennessee), 11.  15. April 1994, Vol. 3, pp. 464  471
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1826
Publ.Id: 1826
Effective coupling of Re/TcMAG_{3} complexes with amines and nucleobases in aprotic solvents.
Kniess, T.; Noll, S.; Noll, B.; Spies, H.; Johannsen, B.
The coupling of Re and ^{99m}TcMAG_{3} complexes with amines and nucleobases was carried out with good yields using O(benzotriazol1yl)N,N,N',N'tetramethyl
uroniumtetrafluoroborate (TBTU), and base in polar aprotic solvents (NMP, DMF, DMSO). The one step reaction followed by simple gel chromatography makes the method well appropriate for preparations at the low nocarrieradded level of technetium99m.
Keywords: Re/TcMAG3; nucleobases; coupling; TBTU
 Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, 240, No. 2 (1999), 657660
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1824
Publ.Id: 1824
Synthesis and receptor binding of novel progestinrhenium complexes
Wüst, F.; Skaddan, M. B.; Carlson, K. E.; Leibnitz, P.; Katzenellenbogen, J. A.; Spies, H.; Johannsen, B.
A series of rhenium "n+1" mixedligand, thioethercarbonyl and organometallic complexes of 21substituted progesterone have been synthesized. The conjugates contain the rhenium metal at several oxidation states, being +5, +3 and +1. The complexes were used in a competitive receptorbinding assay (ratuterus, 0°C) to determine their binding to the progesterone receptor. The best affinity of 9% (RU 5020=100%) was obtained with a "3+1" mixedligand complex, containing a NMe group as the central donor atom in the tridentate ligand part.

Book (Authorship)
Technetium, Rhenium and Other Metals in Chemistry and Nuclear Medicine (Edited by Nicolini M., Mazzi U.) SGE Editoriali Padova (1999) pp. 491495
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1823
Publ.Id: 1823
Tc(V) and Re(V) complexes with Mercaptoacetylglysine (MAG_{1}
Noll, B.; Noll, S.; Leibnitz, P.; Jankowsky, R.; Spies, H.; Johannsen, B.
Mercaptoacetyl glycine (MAG_{1}) (1) forms, in the presence of appropriate monodentate ligands, tridentate/monodentate (3+1) coordinated complexes with Tc(V) and Re(V). Exchange of the chlorine by monodentate ligands in [MO(MAG_{1})Cl]^{} (2) gives access to new mixedligand complexes [MO(MAG_{1})(XR)] (3) . Some representatives have been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, ir and uv spectroscopy and EXAFS. Thiobenzoate as monodentate ligand gives the complex (4) that, after debenzoylation, reacts with halogen containing compounds under displacement of the halogen by a [MO(SNO)S] moiety.

Book (Authorship)
Technetium, Rhenium and Other Metals in Chemistry and Nuclear Medicine (Edited by Nicolini M., Mazzi U.) SGE Editoriali Padova (1999) pp. 241244
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1822
Publ.Id: 1822
Derivates of 6methyl8alphaaminoergoline: Sythesis and affinity to the dopamine D_{2} receptor
Spies, H.; Noll, B.; Noll, S.; Hilger, C. S.; Brust, P.; Syhre, R.; Johannsen, B.
Organic derivatives (2) of 6methyl8alphaaminoergoline 1 and derived complexes of rhenium (3,5) and technetium (4) have been prepared and evaluated with regard to their affinity to the dopamine D_{2} receptor. The molecular structure of the rhenium complex 3 was determined. The affinity of the benzoyl derivative 2b is comparable with that of terguride (IC_{50} values 2.7 for 2b vs. 4.8 nMol), while the affinities of the related Tc and Re complexes are in the range from 54 to 165 nMol.

Book (Authorship)
Technetium, Rhenium and Other Metals in Chemistry and Nuclear Medicine (Edited by Nicolini M., Mazzi U.) SGE Editoriali Padova (1999) pp. 237240
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1821
Publ.Id: 1821
Solution structure of technetium(V) and rhenium(V) peptide complexes as studied by EXAFS spectroscopy and capillary electrophoresis (CE)
Jankowsky, R.; Kirsch, S.; Spies, H.; Johannsen, B.
Structural investigations on rhenium and technetium peptide complexes have been carried out using Xray absorption spectroscopy (EXAFS) and capillary electrophoresis. Small cysteine containing peptides with altered amino acid sequences were used as model systems to study the metal complexation behaviour. By means of capillary electrophoresis, complex species existing over the pH range could be identified as well as protonable groups in these complexes. EXAFS measurements in solution delivered information about the complex coordination spheres. The metal complexation modes and complex stoichiometries of directly labelled metal complexes of large biologically active peptides could be elucidated.

Book (Authorship)
Technetium, Rhenium and Other Metals in Chemistry and Nuclear Medicine (Edited by Nicolini M., Mazzi, U.) SGE Editoriali Padova (1999) pp.229235
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1820
Publ.Id: 1820
A novel method to investigate ionbeaminduced defect evolution in Si
Posselt, M.

Invited lecture (Conferences)
5th International Symposium on Process Physics and Modeling in Semiconductor Device Manufacturing, 195th Meeting of the Electrochemical Society, Seattle, WA, USA, May 26, 1999 (invited lecture) 
Book (Authorship)
pp. 5874 in: Process Physics and Modeling in Semiconductor Technology (Edited by C. S. Murthy, G. R. Srinivasan, S. T. Dunham), Proceedings Volume 991, The Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ
Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ1819
Publ.Id: 1819
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