The "Actinide Thermodynamics" department is active in the field of aqueous speciation, precipitation/dissolution as well as water-solid interfaces. We use primarily NMR, IR, potentiometry, TRLFS and calorimetry to obtain complex formation constants, solubility products, and surface complexation constants, but also enthalpies and entropies. This is accompanied by the derivation of mineral characteristics and ion-ion interaction coefficients. Spectroscopic characterizations of involved species allow to formulate realistic reactions. All obtained parameters (and their uncertainties) undergo quality assurance measures and are fed into thermodynamic databases such as THEREDA
. Subsequent geochemical speciation calculations support long-term safety assessments; results from uncertainty and sensitivity analyses as well as geostatistics are also applied.