Publications Repository - Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf

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39308 Publications

Effect of carbon decoration on the absorption of 〈 100 〉 dislocation loops by dislocations in iron

Terentyev, D.; Bakaev, A.; Zhurkin, E. E.

This work closes a series of molecular dynamics studies addressing how solute/interstitial segregation at dislocation loops affects their interaction with moving dislocations in bodycentred cubic Fe-based alloys. We consider the interaction of 〈1 0 0〉 interstitial dislocation loops decorated by different numbers of carbon atoms in a wide temperature range. The results reveal clearly that the decoration affects the reaction mechanism and increases the unpinning stress, in general. The most pronounced and reproducible increase of the unpinning stress is found in the intermediate temperature range from 300 up to 600 K. The carbon-decoration effect is related to the modification of the loop–dislocation reaction and its importance at the technologically relevant neutron irradiation conditions is discussed.

Keywords: dislocation; carbon; iron; segregation

Publ.-Id: 21335

Atomistic simulation of the interaction between mobile edge dislocations and radiation-induced defects in Fe-Ni-Cr austenitic alloys

Bakaev, A.; Terent’Ev, D. A.; Grigor’Ev, P. Y.; Zhurkin, E. E.

The classical molecular dynamics method is employed to simulate the interaction of edge dislocations with interstitial Frank loops (2 and 5 nm in diameter) in the Fe-Ni10-Cr20 model alloy at the temperatures T = 300–900 K. The examined Frank loops are typical extended radiation-induced defects in austenitic steels adapted to nuclear reactors, while the chosen triple alloy (Fe-Ni10-Cr20) has the alloying element concentration maximally resembling these steels. The dislocation-defect interaction mechanisms are ascertained and classified, and their comparison with the previously published data concerning screw dislocations is carried out. The detachment stress needed for a dislocation to overcome the defect acting as an obstacle is calculated depending on the material temperature, defect size, and interaction geometry. It is revealed that edge dislocations more efficiently absorb small loops than screw ones. It is demonstrated that, in the case of small loops, the number of reactions accompanied by loop absorption increases with temperature upon interaction with both edge and screw dislocations. It is established that Frank loops are stronger obstacles to the movement of screw dislocations than to the movement of edge ones.

Keywords: classical molecular dynamics; plastic behaviour; austenitic steels; dislocations

Publ.-Id: 21334

Basic Properties of Minor Alloying Elements in High-Cr Ferritic Steels: An Ab Initio Study

Bakaev, A.; Terentyev, D.; Bonny, G.; Klaver, T. P. C.; Olsson, P.; van Neck, D.

Basic properties of minor alloying elements, namely Mo, W, Nb, Ta, V, Mn, Si entering the conventional and reduced-activation structural Fe–(9–12)Cr steels have been analyzed using ab initio calculations. The electronic structure calculations were applied to study the interaction of minor alloying elements with a number of important and well defined lattice structures, such as point defects, the 1/2<111> screw dislocation core, high angle symmetric grain boundaries and free surfaces. The studied elements were classified according to their similarities and discrepancies regarding the interaction with the above mentioned defects. The refractory alloying elements are found to follow the same trend whereas Mn and Si exhibit peculiar behavior with respect to the interaction with both point and extended lattice defects. The obtained results are discussed and compared with previously published ab initio and available experimental data.

Keywords: minor alloying elements; ferritic steels; ab initio; DFT; lattice defects

Publ.-Id: 21333

Interaction of carbon-vacancy complex with minor alloying elements of ferritic steels

Bakaev, A.; Terentyev, D.; He, X.; Zhurkin, E. E.; van Neck, D.

Interstitial carbon, dissolved in bcc matrix of ferritic steels, plays an important role in the evolution of radiation-induced microstructure since it exhibits strong interaction with vacancies. Frequent formation and break-up of carbon–vacancy pairs, occurring in the course of irradiation, affect both kinetics of the accumulation of point defect clusters and carbon spatial distribution. The interaction of typical alloying elements (Mn, Ni, Cu, Si, Cr and P) in ferritic steels used as structural materials in nuclear reactors with a carbon–vacancy complex is analyzed using ab initio techniques. It is found that all the considered solutes form stable triple clusters resulting in the increase of the total binding energy by 0.2–0.3 eV. As a result of the formation of energetically favourable solute–carbon–vacancy triplets, the dissociation energy for vacancy/carbon emission is also increased by ~0.2–0.3 eV, suggesting that the solutes enhance thermal stability of carbon–vacancy complex. Association of carbon–vacancy pairs with multiple solute clusters is found to be favorable for Ni, Cu and P. The energetic stability of solute(s)–carbon–vacancy complexes was rationalized on the basis of pairwise interaction data and by analyzing the variation of local magnetic moments on atoms constituting the clusters.

Keywords: ferritic steels; carbon; solute-rich clusters; ab initio; DFT

Publ.-Id: 21332

Synergetic Effects of Mn and Si in the Interaction with Point Defects in bcc Fe

Bakaev, A.; Terentyev, D.; He, X.; Van Neck, D.

The interaction of Mn, Si and Cr with a vacancy and self-interstitial defects in BCC Fe has been analyzed using ab initio calculations. While the interaction of the considered solute clusters with a single vacancy is linearly additive, there is a considerable synergetic effect in the case of self-interstitial atoms, found to bind strongly with Mn–Si pairs. The latter therefore act as deep trapping configurations for self-interstitials. At the same time, the presence of the point defects nearby weakly attractive Mn–Si pairs significantly enhances the solute–solute binding. The revealed effects are rationalized on the basis of charge density and local magnetic moment distributions.

Keywords: solute clusters; bcc Fe; ab initio; DFT

Publ.-Id: 21331

Three-feature dispersed barrier hardening model applied to Cu-bearing low-Ni RPV steels

Bergner, F.; Gillemot, F.; Hernandez-Mayoral, M.; Serrano, M.; Ulbricht, A.

The three-feature dispersed-barrier hardening model was successfully applied to neutron-irradiated RPV steels. Estimated values of the obstacle strength of loops, nanovoids and Cu-rich precipitates are largely consistent with reported estimates. For fluences representative of less than 60 years of operation (VVER440 base metal) nanovoids can be ignored, that means a two-feature version is sufficient.

Keywords: RPV steels; neutron irradiation; hardening

  • Lecture (Conference)
    18th Meeting of the International Group on Radiation Damage Mechanisms in Pressure Vessel Steels (IGRDM-18), 23.-28.11.2014, Miyazaki, Japan

Publ.-Id: 21330

Effect of neutron flux on the solute cluster characteristics and hardening in RPV steels

Bergner, F.; Chaouadi, R.; Dohi, K.; Hein, H.; Serrano, M.; Soneda, N.; Wagner, A.

Flux is an important variable of RPV steel embrittlement because of several reasons including the consideration of surveillance samples vs. RPV wall material, MTR vs. PWR/BWR irradiations and ions as a neutron substitute in the lab. The approach relies on the reasonable assumption that the flux effect on the mechanical properties is mediated by the flux-dependent evolutiooon of the irradiation-induced nanofeatures. In order to separate flux effects from the effect of the neutron fluence, pairs of samples of one and the same material irradiated at as different as possible flux up to about the same fluence are selected. These pairs of samples were fully characterized with respect to both mechanical property changes and the characteristics of irradiation-induced solute clusters. The results indicate that there is a pronounced effect of flux on cluster size, that there are minor flux effects on number density, volume fraction and composition of clusters and that SANS and APT provide consistent results on size and number density of clusters. The classical dispersed-barrier hardening model combined with deterministic growth and irradiation-enhanced diffusion describes the flux effect on the mechanical properties well.

Keywords: RPV steel; neutron irradiation; flux effect; SANS; APT

  • Lecture (Conference)
    18th Meeting of the International Group on Radiation Damage Mechanisms in Pressure Vessel Steels (IGRDM-18), 23.-28.11.2014, Miyazaki, Japan

Publ.-Id: 21329

Reverse epitaxy on Ge surfaces

Ou, X.; Keller, A.; Helm, M.; Fassbender, J.; Facsko, S.

Arrays of semiconductor nanostructures have the potential for nanoelectronic and optoelectronic applications. Besides the conventional low efficiency lithographic techniques broad ion beam irradiation is a simple and mass productive technique to fabricate nanostructure patterns on semiconductor surfaces.[1] Based on a “self-organized” erosion process, periodic ripple, hole, or dot arrays can be produced on various semiconductor surfaces.
However, the main drawback of this method is that the irradiated semiconductor surfaces are amorphized. [1, 2] For device fabrication, a crystalline surface of high quality is indispensable. In this work we report the recent discovery of single crystal Ge nanopattern formation based on a “reverse epitaxy” process.[3] The low energy ion irradiation is performed in a defined temperature window. Vacancies created during ion beam irradiation distribute according to the crystallographic anisotropy, which results in an orientation-dependent pattern formation on single crystal Ge surface. This process shows nicely the equivalence of epitaxy with deposited adatoms and “reverse epitaxy” with ion induced surface vacancies on semiconductors. The formation of these patterns is interpreted as the result of a surface instability due to an Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier for ion induced surface vacancies. The simulation of the pattern formation is performed by a continuum equation accounting for the effective surface currents.
The formation mechanism of these patterns is quite general and can be extended to other semiconductors, e.g. Si and compound semiconductors. Thus our work establishes an entirely new and complementary epitaxial method for the fabrication of high-quality faceted semiconductor nanostructures. A physical model for nanopatterning of crystalline semiconductor surfaces with ion beam irradiation will be demonstrated based on comparison between experimental results and computer simulations.

[1] Stefan Facsko et al., Science 285, 1551 (1999).
[2] Xin Ou et al., AIP Advances, 1, 042174 (2011).
[3] Xin Ou et al., Physical Review Letters 111, 016101 (2013).

Keywords: Ge and ion irradiation

Related publications

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    23rd Conference on Application of Accelerators in Research and Industry, 25.-30.05.2014, San Antonio, USA

Publ.-Id: 21328

Reverse Epitaxy on Semiconductor Surfaces

Ou, X.; Hübner, R.; Helm, M.; Fassbender, J.; Facsko, S.

Arrays of semiconductor nanostructures are emerging as building blocks for next generation of electronic and optoelectronic nanodevices. In molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) the continuous deposition of atoms can lead to growth of self-organized 3D nanostructures. One of the possible surface instabilities, which is responsible for this kind of growth, is caused by the Ehrlich-Schwoebel (ES) barrier, i.e. an additional diffusion barrier for ad-atoms to cross terrace steps [1]. The arriving atoms are trapped on terraces and can again nucleate to form new terraces. This mechanism leads to the growth of pyramidal mounds on the surface with facets corresponding to energetically favored crystal planes. An analogous mechanism is also observed on ion irradiated surfaces. However, ion sputtering leads to the erosion of the surfaces and at room temperature semiconductor surfaces become amorphous. At these conditions various periodic patterns are observed. [2] For device fabrication, a crystalline surface of high quality is indispensable.
In this talk, we demonstrate single crystal elemental (Si and Ge) and compound semiconductor (III-V) nanostructure pattern formation (Figure 1) based on a “reverse epitaxy” process. [3] Vacancies created during ion beam irradiation at elevated temperature distribute according to the crystallographic anisotropy, which results in an orientation-dependent pattern formation on single crystal semiconductor surfaces. This process shows nicely the equivalence of epitaxy with deposited adatoms and “reverse epitaxy” with ion induced surface vacancies on semiconductors. The formation of these patterns is interpreted as the result of a surface instability due to an Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier for ion induced surface vacancies. The simulation of the pattern formation is performed by a continuum equation accounting for the effective surface currents. Our work establishes an entirely new and complementary epitaxial method for the fabrication of high-quality faceted semiconductor nanostructures. The potential application of reverse epitaxy on fabrication of quantum devices and optical components will be discussed.
*email address:

Keywords: ion sputtering

Related publications

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    The 10th international ESPS-NIS workshop, 20.-23.07.2014, Traunkirchen, Austria

Publ.-Id: 21327

Loaded and Unlocked - Accelerating OpenSource Plasma Physics

Bussmann, M.; Burau, H.; Cowan, T. E.; Debus, A.; Garten, M.; Helm, A.; Huebl, A.; Juckeland, G.; Kluge, T.; Pausch, R.; Schmitt, F.; Schneider, B.; Schramm, U.; Steiniger, K.; Widera, R.

PIConGPU is a fully relativistic 3D3V particle-in-cell (PIC) code for studying laser-plasma interactions. Todays graphics processing units (GPUs) are massively-parallel accelerators for scientific computing, pushing the limits for a new era of in situ plasma simulations.

During the last decades PIC codes became the workhorses for theoretical studies in laser-particle acceleration. Besides the ongoing demand for faster and more realistic simulations, interaction with the simulation and handling of peta-bytes of generated data per simulation are two of the challenging topics in high performance computing.

Moreover, we present a general explicit scheme to load charged relativistic particle beams in the PIC cycle. Taking care of the particle shape in combination with a discretization-dependent potential solver for one-time initialization allows for ab-initio conservation of Gauss' law.

PIConGPU is among the 2013 ACM Gordon Bell finalists, reaching the highest performance of a PIC simulation ever reported with 8 PFlop/s mixed precision. Utilizing the world's #2 supercomputer Titan (Oak Ridge National Lab), we present performance benchmarks up to 18,000 GPUs, scaling to a total of 50 million multi-processors.

PIConGPU is developed as open source by the Junior Group for Computational Radiation Physics at the Institute for Radiation Physics at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf (HZDR) in close collaboration with the Center for Information Services and High Performance Computing (ZIH) of the Technical University Dresden (TUD).

Keywords: PIConGPU; LPA; OpenSource; GPU; HPC; Laser-Plasma

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Séminaire LOA, 30.01.2014, Paris, France

Publ.-Id: 21326

Bigger, Better, Uncut - On New Accelerator Concepts And Next-Generation HPC Simulations at HZDR

Huebl, A.; Widera, R.; Burau, H.; Schmitt, F.; Eckert, C.; Zenker, E.; Knespel, M.; Garten, M.; Schneider, B.; Pausch, R.; Steiniger, K.; Huang, L.; Debus, A.; Kluge, T.; Couperus, J. P.; Koehler, A.; Jochmann, A.; Irman, A.; Metzkes, J.; Obst, L.; Schlenvoigt, H.-P.; Zeil, K.; Kraft, S.; Juckeland, G.; Cowan, T.; Schramm, U.; Bussmann, M.

The German national labs in the Helmholtz Association push the development of alternative acceleration schemes in large scale programs to overcome the limits set by conventional accelerators. Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf (HZDR) hosts high-power (PW), ultra-short (fs), high-repetition rate (Hz) lasers that are capable to pave the way to provide reliable, controlled laser-plasma sources.

Besides improving ion plasma-accelerators with techniques such as enhanced TNSA, cone targets and mass reduced targets, experiments successfully conducted at HZDR include new light sources from heads-on Thomson scattering with the synchronized linear accelerator ELBE and laser-wakefield electron acceleration. Upcoming large-scale international experiments such as solid-target, pump-probe science in strong-fields at the European XFEL (HIBEF) are coordinated by HZDR, uniting more than 350 scientists and 300 PhD students from 16 countries.

In the highly non-linear domain of plasma-based accelerators, many challenges today occur due to the missing control over arising instabilities, neglected effects in theoretical plasma models or strongly varying experimental parameters such as the driving laser pulses. In the same way as experiments evolve from best-shot practices, simulations have to evolve to full-scale, multi-physics parameter studies including extensive in-situ diagnostics. As shown in
this talk, even interactive live simulations on the biggest clusters of the US and Europe are possible today to drive exploration.

PIConGPU is a fully relativistic 3D3V particle-in-cell (PIC) code for studying laser-plasma interactions. Today's graphics processing units (GPUs) are massively-parallel accelerators for scientific computing, pushing the limits for a new era of in-situ plasma simulations. HZDR drives its development in an open source community effort, providing the horsepower that is required to approach the foremost mentioned challenges.


Related publications

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Special CBP-Bella Center Seminar, 05.12.2014, Berkeley, USA

Publ.-Id: 21325

Ferromagnetic GaMnP Prepared by Ion Implantation and Pulsed Laser Annealing

Yuan, Y.; Wang, Y.; Khalid, M.; Gao, K.; Prucnal, S.; Gordan, O. D.; Salvan, G.; Zahn, D. T.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.; Zhou, S.

We present the magnetic, transport, and structural properties of GaMnP with different Mn concentrations prepared by ion implantation and pulsed laser annealing. The Curie temperature increases with Mn concentration and the samples show in-plane magnetic anisotropy due to the in-plane compressive strain in the GaMnP layer. Anomalous Hall effect and negative magnetoresistance are observed, indicating the carrier mediated nature of the ferromagnetism in GaMnP. According to the micro-Raman spectroscopy data after pulsed laser annealing, the implanted layer has been fully recrystallized and the carrier concentration (hole) increases with Mn concentration.

Keywords: Dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS); GaMnP; ion implantation; pulsed laser annealing

Related publications

Publ.-Id: 21324

Electrochemical deposition of magnetic ions at electrodes which are exposed to small-scale gradients of the magnetic field

Mutschke, G.; Fröhlich, J.

The mechanism responsible for the spatially inhomogeneous thickness of metal layers obtained by electrochemical deposition in magnetic gradient fields at small scale is controversially discussed in the literature. The paper presents the results of numerical simulations which support the concept that local convection at the electrode, driven by the curl of the magnetic gradient force, is responsible for the effects observed. The deposition of paramagnetic and of diamagnetic ions is discussed, and the influence of electrically inert magnetic ions present in the electrolyte is highlighted.

Keywords: Electrochemistry; electrolysis; metal deposition; magnetic field; magnetic gradient force; numerical simulation; spatially-structured deposition

  • Poster
    Strömungstechnische Tagung 2014 anlässlich des 100. Geburtstages von Werner Albring, 10.10.2014, Dresden, Deutschland
  • Book chapter
    J. Fröhlich, S. Odenbach, K. Vogeler: Strömungstechnische Tagung 2014 - Tagung anlässlich des 100. Geburtstages von Werner Albring; Schriftenreihe aus dem Institut für Strömungsmechanik, Band 10, TU Dresden., Dresden: TUDpress Verlag der Wissenschaften GmbH, 2014, 978-3-944331-78-2, 373-376

Publ.-Id: 21323

New data on the quasi-free np -> npπ+π- and np ->ppπ-π0 reactions at 1.25 GeV with HADES

Kurilkin, A. K.; Admaczewski-Musch, J.; Arnold, O.; Atomssa, E. T.; Behnke, C.; Belyaev, A.; Berger-Chen, J. C.; Biernat, J.; Blanco, A.; Blume, C.; Böhmer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Chernenko, S.; Deveaux, C.; Dybczak, A.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O.; Fonte, P.; Franco, C.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzón, J. A.; Gill, K.; Golubeva, M.; González-Díaz, D.; Guber, F.; Gumberidze, M.; Harabasz, S.; Hennino, T.; Höhne, C.; Holzmann, R.; Ierusalimov, A.; Ivashkin, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Kämpfer, B.; Karavicheva, T.; Kardan, K.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kolb, B. W.; Korcyl, G.; Kornakov, G.; Kotte, R.; Krása, A.; Krebs, E.; Krizek, F.; Kuc, H.; Kugler, A.; Kunz, T.; Kurepin, A.; Kurilkin, P.; Ladygin, V.; Lalik, R.; Lang, S.; Lapidus, K.; Lebedev, A.; Lopes, L.; Lorenz, M.; Maier, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Markert, J.; Metag, V.; Michel, J.; Müntz, C.; Münzer, R.; Naumann, L.; Palka, M.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Petousis, V.; Pietraszko, J.; Przygoda, W.; Ramstein, B.; Rehnisch, L.; Reshetin, A.; Rost, A.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Salabura, P.; Scheib, T.; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, K.; Schuldes, H.; Sellheim, P.; Siebenson, J.; Silva, L.; Sobolev, Y. G.; Spataro, S.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Strzempek, P.; Sturm, C.; Svoboda, O.; Tarantola, A.; Teilab, K.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Tsertos, H.; Vasiliev, T.; Wagner, V.; Wendisch, C.; Wirth, J.; Wüstenfeld, J.; Yurevich, S.; Zanevsky, Y.; Zumbruch, P.

The results on double-pion production in tagged quasi-free np collisions at a deutron incident beam energy of 1.25 GeV/c measured with the High-Acceptance Di-Electron Spectrometer (HADES) installed at GSI are presented. The specific acceptance of HADES allowed for the first time to obtain high-precision data on p+p􀀀 and p􀀀p0 production in np collisions in a region corresponding to large transverse momenta of the secondary particles. The obtained differential cross section data provide strong constraints on the production mechanisms and on the various baryon resonance contributions (DD, N(1440), N(1520), D(1600)). The invariant mass and angular distributions from the np!npp+p􀀀 and np! ppp􀀀p0 reactions are compared with different theoretical model predictions.

  • Open Access Logo Proceedings of Science (2015), PoS(Baldin ISHEPP XXII)120


Publ.-Id: 21322

Säulenversuche zur Adsorption von MCPA an künstlichen Bodenmineralmischungen

Stuhlfauth, C.

Diese Diplomarbeit beschäftigt sich mit dem Transportverhalten von 2-Methyl-4-chlorphenoxyessigsäure (MCPA) in Wechselwirkung mit Goethit. Zur Untersuchung des Prozesses wurden eigens Säulenversuche im sauren Bereich unter definierten Bedingungen (pH-Wert, Konzentration der Lösungen) durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse wurden mit einem zur Verfügung gestellten PHREEQC Modell (CD-MUSIC) model-liert. Die experimentell ermittelten MCPA-Durchbruchskurven konnten mit dem Mo-dell nachgezeichnet werden, in dem das PHREEQC-Modell wurde hinsichtlich der Oberflächenkomplexe an Goethit mittels Verwendung aktueller Werte ergänzt wurde (KERSTEN et al. 2014). Damit bestätigten die Ergebnisse der Säulenversuche die im Batchversuch beobachteten Sorptionsreaktionen aus KERSTEN et al. (2014) zwischen Goethit und dem transportierten MCPA auch für das Fließsystem.

  • Diploma thesis
    Johannes-Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, 2014
    Mentor: Dr. H. Lippold
    132 Seiten

Publ.-Id: 21321

“High resolution Positron Emission Tomography for quantitative, spatio-temporal process visualization in geological material (GeoPET)”

Kulenkampff, J.; Lippmann-Pipke, J.

Es ist kein Abstract vorhanden.

  • Lecture (others)
    GeoCT Kick off Workhop Hannover, Nationaler Workshop von Forschungseinrichtungen mit tomographischen Methoden in den Geowissenschaften, 19.02.2014, Hannover, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 21320

Quantification of permeability and porosity changes of cement/clay materials by means of GeoPET.

Lippmann-Pipke, J.; Kulenkampff, J.

Es ist kein Abstract vorhanden.

  • Lecture (others)
    Cebama Proposal Consortium Meeting, 11.03.2014, Karlsruhe, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 21319

Quantifying bioleaching kinetics and efficiency: (3D+t)-visualization of Cu transport through dump material by means of PET - First results from HZDR-IRE (11/2014).

Barthen, R.; Lippmann-Pipke, J.

Es ist kein Abstract vorhanden.

  • Lecture (others)
    Ecometals Meeting 2014, 18.-19.11.2014, Orléans, France

Publ.-Id: 21318

Abschlussbericht des DFG-Vorhabens "Imaging and image simulation of organic target compound migration between different biogeochemical interfaces of a soil horizon using positron emission tomography and the lattice Boltzmann equation approach" im Schwerpunktprogramm 1315

Kersten, M.; Lippmann-Pipke, J.

Es ist kein Abstract vorhanden.

  • Other report
    Rossendorf: HZDR, 2014
    7 Seiten

Publ.-Id: 21317

HPV16 DNA status is a strong prognosticator of loco-regional control after postoperative radiochemotherapy of locally advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma: Results from a multicentre explorative study of the German Cancer Consortium Radiation Oncology Group (DKTK-ROG).

Lohaus, F.; Linge, A.; Tinhofer, I.; Budach, V.; Gkika, E.; Stuschke, M.; Balermpas, P.; Rödel, C.; Avlar, M.; Grosu, A.; Abdollahi, A.; Debus, J.; Bayer, C.; Belka, C.; Pigorsch, S.; Combs, S.; Mönnich, D.; Zips, D.; von Neubeck, C.; Baretton, C.; Löck, S.; Thames, H.; Krause, M.; Baumann, M.


To investigate the impact of HPV status in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), who received surgery and cisplatin-based postoperative radiochemotherapy.

For 221 patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the hypopharynx, oropharynx or oral cavity treated at the 8 partner sites of the German Cancer Consortium, the impact of HPV DNA, p16 overexpression and p53 expression on outcome were retrospectively analysed. The primary endpoint was loco-regional tumour control; secondary endpoints were distant metastases and overall survival.

In the total patient population, univariate analyses revealed a significant impact of HPV16 DNA positivity, p16 overexpression, p53 positivity and tumour site on loco-regional tumour control. Multivariate analysis stratified for tumour site showed that positive HPV 16 DNA status correlated with loco-regional tumour control in patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma (p=0.02) but not in the oral cavity carcinoma group. Multivariate evaluation of the secondary endpoints in the total population revealed a significant association of HPV16 DNA positivity with overall survival (p<0.01) but not with distant metastases.

HPV16 DNA status appears to be a strong prognosticator of loco-regional tumour control after postoperative cisplatin-based radiochemotherapy of locally advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma and is now being explored in a prospective validation trial.

Keywords: DKTK-ROG; HNSCC; HPV; Postoperative radiochemotherapy; p16; p53

Publ.-Id: 21314

Effect of combined irradiation and EGFR/Erb-B inhibition with BIBW 2992 on proliferation and tumour cure in cell lines and xenografts.

Gurtner, K.; Ebert, N.; Pfitzmann, D.; Eicheler, W.; Zips, D.; Baumann, M.; Krause, M.

Background and purposeIn previous experiments an enhanced anti-proliterative effect of the EGFR/ErbB tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) BIBW 2992 with single dose irradiation was observed in FaDu tumour xenografts. Aim of the present experiment was to determine if this effect can also be seen in combination with a fractionated radiotherapy. Secondly we investigate the efficacy of BIBW 2992 on local tumour control for UT-SCC-15.Material and methodsTumour pieces of FaDu, UT-SCC-14, A431, UT-SCC-15 (squamous cell carcinomas) and A7 (glioma) tumour models were transplanted onto the right hind leg of NMRI (nu/nu) nude mice. For evaluation of tumour growth mice were either treated daily orally with BIBW 2992 (30 mg/kg body weight), or carrier up to a final tumour size of 15 mm or with a fractionated radiotherapy (15f/15d, 30 Gy) with simultaneous application of BIBW 2992 or carrier. For local tumour control UT-SCC-15 tumours were treated with a fractionated radiotherapy (30f/6weeks) or received 30f/6 weeks in combination with daily orally BIBW 2992 (22.5 mg/kg b.w.) during RT.ResultsA significant effect on tumour growth time was observed in all tumour models for BIBW 2992 application alone. However, substantial intertumoural heterogeneity could be seen. In the UT-SCC-14, UT-SCC-15 and A431 tumour models a total regression of the tumours and no recurrence during treatment time (73 days) were determined where as for the A7 tumour only a slight effect was noticeable. For the combined treatment of fractionated radiotherapy (15f/15d) and BIBW 2992 administration a significant effect on tumour growth time was seen compared to irradiation alone for A7, UT-SCC-15 and A431 (ER 1.2 ¿ 3.7), this advantage could not be demonstrated for FaDu and UT-SCC-14. However, the local tumour control was not altered for the UT-SCC-15 tumour model when adding BIBW 2992 to fractionated irradiation (30f/6weeks).ConclusionA heterogeneous effect on tumour growth time of BIBW 2992 alone as well as in combination with fractionated irradiation could be demonstrated for all tumour models. However, the significant effect on tumour growth time did not translate into an improvement of local tumour control for the UT-SCC-15 tumour model.

Publ.-Id: 21313

Creating a data exchange strategy for radiotherapy research: Towards federated databases and anonymised public datasets.

Skripcak, T.; Belka, C.; Bosch, W.; Brink, C.; Brunner, T.; Budach, V.; Büttner, D.; Debus, J.; Dekker, A.; Grau, C.; Gulliford, S.; Hurkmans, C.; Just, U.; Krause, M.; Lambin, P.; Langendijk, J.; Lewensohn, R.; Lühr, A.; Maingon, P.; Masucci, M.; Niyazi, M.; Poortmans, P.; Simon, M.; Schmidberger, H.; Spezi, E.; Stuschke, M.; Valentini, V.; Verheij, M.; Whitfield, G.; Zackrisson, B.; Zips, D.; Baumann, M.

Disconnected cancer research data management and lack of information exchange about planned and ongoing research are complicating the utilisation of internationally collected medical information for improving cancer patient care. Rapidly collecting/pooling data can accelerate translational research in radiation therapy and oncology. The exchange of study data is one of the fundamental principles behind data aggregation and data mining. The possibilities of reproducing the original study results, performing further analyses on existing research data to generate new hypotheses or developing computational models to support medical decisions (e.g. risk/benefit analysis of treatment options) represent just a fraction of the potential benefits of medical data-pooling. Distributed machine learning and knowledge exchange from federated databases can be considered as one beyond other attractive approaches for knowledge generation within "Big Data". Data interoperability between research institutions should be the major concern behind a wider collaboration. Information captured in electronic patient records (EPRs) and study case report forms (eCRFs), linked together with medical imaging and treatment planning data, are deemed to be fundamental elements for large multi-centre studies in the field of radiation therapy and oncology. To fully utilise the captured medical information, the study data have to be more than just an electronic version of a traditional (un-modifiable) paper CRF. Challenges that have to be addressed are data interoperability, utilisation of standards, data quality and privacy concerns, data ownership, rights to publish, data pooling architecture and storage. This paper discusses a framework for conceptual packages of ideas focused on a strategic development for international research data exchange in the field of radiation therapy and oncology.

Keywords: Data exchange; Data pooling; Interoperability; Large scale studies; Public data; Radiotherapy

Publ.-Id: 21312

Pre-clinical research in small animals using radiotherapy technology - a bidirectional translational approach.

Tillner, F.; Thute, P.; Bütof, R.; Krause, M.; Enghardt, W.

For translational cancer research, pre-clinical in-vivo studies using small animals have become indispensable in bridging the gap between in-vitro cell experiments and clinical implementation. When setting up such small animal experiments, various biological, technical and methodical aspects have to be considered. In this work we present a comprehensive topical review based on relevant publications on irradiation techniques used for pre-clinical cancer research in mice and rats. Clinical radiotherapy treatment devices for the application of external beam radiotherapy and brachytherapy as well as dedicated research irradiation devices are feasible for small animal irradiation depending on the animal model and the experimental goals. In this work, appropriate solutions for the technological transfer of human radiation oncology to small animal radiation research are summarised. Additionally, important information concerning the experimental design is provided such that reliable and clinically relevant results can be attained.

Keywords: Kleintiere; Krebsforschung; Pre-clinical research; Präklinische Forschung; bildgeführte Strahlentherapie (IGRT); cancer research; image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT); small animals; translational research; translationale Forschung

Publ.-Id: 21311

Be smart against cancer! A school-based program covering cancer-related risk behavior.

Stölzel, F.; Seidel, N.; Uhmann, S.; Baumann, M.; Berth, H.; Hoyer, J.; Ehninger, G.


Several studies suggest that most school-age children are poorly informed about cancer risk factors. This study examines the effectiveness of the 'Be smart against cancer' (BSAC) program in promoting cancer awareness and intentions to engage in health-promoting behavior.


235 seventh-grade students were randomized to either the intervention (N = 152) or the wait-control group (N = 83). The intervention included the modules: "What is cancer?," "Sun protection," "Non smoking," and "Physical activity, Healthy nutrition, and Limited alcohol consumption." Outcomes measured at baseline and at the end of the one week BSAC program included knowledge of cancer and its behavioral risk factors, health-promoting intentions, and reported risk behavior.


BSAC was effective in increasing knowledge about cancer and risk factors for cancer (p < .001), as well as in increasing intentions to engage in health-promoting behavior (p < .001), independent of a student's risk profile. Knowledge did not serve as a mediator for intention building.


The BSAC is an effective school-based program for raising awareness of cancer, associated risk factors and intentions to engage in cancer-preventive behavior. The results indicate that the effectiveness of BSAC is independent of a student's risk profile. Therefore, it holds considerable promise as a broadly applicable program to raise cancer awareness and promote healthy behavior intentions.

Publ.-Id: 21307

Application of organ tolerance dose-constraints in clinical studies in radiation oncology.

Dörr, W.; Herrmann, T.; Baumann, M.

In modern radiation oncology, tolerance dose-constraints for organs at risk (OAR) must be considered for treatment planning, but particularly in order to design clinical studies. Tolerance dose tables, however, only address one aspect of the therapeutic ratio of any clinical study, i.e., the limitation of adverse events, but not the desired potential improvement in the tumor effect of a novel treatment strategy. A sensible application of "tolerance doses" in a clinical situation requires consideration of various critical aspects addressed here: definition of tolerance dose, specification of an endpoint/symptom, consideration of radiation quality and irradiation protocol, exposed volume and dose distribution, and patient-related factors of radiosensitivity. The currently most comprehensive estimates of OAR radiation tolerance are in the QUANTEC compilations (2010). However, these tolerance dose values must only be regarded as a rough orientation and cannot answer the relevant question for the patients, i.e., if the study can achieve a therapeutic advantage; this can obviously be answered only by the final scientific analysis of the study results. Despite all limitations, the design of clinical studies should currently refer to the QUANTEC values for appreciation of the risk of complications, if needed supplemented by one's own data or further information from the literature. The implementation of a consensus on the safety interests of the patients and on an application and approval process committed to progress in medicine, with transparent quality-assuring requirements with regard to the structural safeguarding of the study activities, plays a central role in clinical research in radiation oncology.

Publ.-Id: 21305

Radiosynthesis, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of 8-[4-(2-[18F]fluoroethoxy)benzyl]-1,4-dioxa-8-azaspiro[4.5]decane, a spirocyclic σ1 receptor ligand for tumor targeting

Kniess, T.; Bergmann, R.; Xie, F.; Jia, H.; Deuther-Conrad, W.; Steinbach, J.; Pietzsch, J.

Aim: Sigma (σ) receptors have a characteristic distribution in the brain and are implicated in many diseases of the central nervous system. In the past years a number of PET and SPECT radiotracers for visualization of σ‐receptors in the brain have been developed. In addition, σ‐receptors are up‐regulated in various tumor cells motivating us to develop a series of novel spirocyclic receptor ligands showing high affinity and good selectivity for σ1. One candidate was radiolabeled with fluorine‐18 as potential radiotracer for tumor targeting.
Methods: Six novel spirocyclic σ1 receptor ligands were designed, synthesized, and characterized. The affinity to σ1 and σ2 receptors was tested, one derivative, 8‐[4‐(2‐[18F]fluoroethoxy)benzyl]‐1,4‐dioxa‐8‐azaspiro[4.5]decane, was chosen for radiolabeling with fluorine‐18. The stability of the radiotracer in vitro and in vivo was evaluated, the logP value was determined. Biodistribution studies in rats and mice as well as dynamic small animal PET studies in nude mice xenografted with DU145 human prostate tumors were performed.
Results: The Ki values of the spirocyclic ligands were determined to be in the range 3.26‐11.2 nM for σ1 and 164.4‐312.2 nM for σ2. The radiotracer was prepared by 18F‐fluoroethylation of the corresponding hydroxyl precursor via a two‐step automated procedure in 20% yield and 99% radiochemical purity with a specific activity about 45 GBq/μmol. The logP value was determined 0.81 ± 0.13, and it was found to be stable in vitro in saline, ethanol, and human plasma. Biodistribution in normal mice and Wistar rats showed radiotracer uptake in σ1‐rich regions like brain and pancreas that could be blocked by pre‐administration of haloperidol. In mice fast degradation of the radiotracer
resulting in four metabolites was observed. However, PET studies in mouse tumor models showed tumor uptake of about 0.77+/‐0.45 (SUV, 1 h p.i.), which likewise could be substantially blocked by haloperidol.
Conclusion: We have developed an 18F‐labeled spirocyclic receptor ligand with high selectivity for σ1 and excellent hydrophilicity. We demonstrated by successful PET imaging in mice bearing σ1‐expressing DU‐145 tumors the principle of targeting tumors with radiolabeled σ‐ligands. However, the unfavorable in vivo stability of this spirocyclic derivative limits a broader application as an imaging agent.

  • Poster
    Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM), 18.-22.10.2014, Gothenburg, Sweden
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging 41(2014), S416
    DOI: 10.1007/s00259-014-2901-9

Publ.-Id: 21303

Focal adhesion signaling and therapy resistance in cancer.

Eke, I.; Cordes, N.

Interlocking gene mutations, epigenetic alterations and microenvironmental features perpetuate tumor development, growth, infiltration and spread. Consequently, intrinsic and acquired therapy resistance arises and presents one of the major goals to solve in oncologic research today. Among the myriad of microenvironmental factors impacting on cancer cell resistance, cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) has recently been identified as key determinant. Despite the differentiation between cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance (CAMDR) and cell adhesion-mediated radioresistance (CAMRR), the underlying mechanisms share great overlap in integrin and focal adhesion hub signaling and differ further downstream in the complexity of signaling networks between tumor entities. Intriguingly, cell adhesion to ECM is per se also essential for cancer cells similar to their normal counterparts. However, based on the overexpression of focal adhesion hub signaling receptors and proteins and a distinct addiction to particular integrin receptors, targeting of focal adhesion proteins has been shown to potently sensitize cancer cells to different treatment regimes including radiotherapy, chemotherapy and novel molecular therapeutics. In this review, we will give insight into the role of integrins in carcinogenesis, tumor progression and metastasis. Additionally, literature and data about the function of focal adhesion molecules including integrins, integrin-associated proteins and growth factor receptors in tumor cell resistance to radio- and chemotherapy will be elucidated and discussed.

Keywords: Extracellular matrix; Focal adhesion; Integrins; Small molecules; Targeted therapy

Publ.-Id: 21302

Detection of Radiation-Induced Changes in Healthy Mouse Brain Using Diffusion-weighted MRI and 18F-FDG-PET

Máthé, D.; Kovács, N.; Szigeti, K.; Bergmann, R.

Aim: To evaluate in vivo longitudinal PET and MRI parameter changes in images can be sensitively read out with radiation‐induced tissue changes in healthy mouse brain.
Materials and Methods: We irradiated a group of c57bl6 mice (n=6) with 5 Gy and another (n=6) with 20 Gy in the left hemisphere using an X‐ray tube (Yxlon Maxishot). Animals were imaged before, and 3‐7‐30 and 60 days post irradiation. For 18F‐Fluoro‐Deoxy‐Glucose (FDG) PET we injected 10 to 15 MBq FDG iv. PET and MR imaging was performed subsequently with a Mediso nanoScan PET/CT and a Bruker Biospec 7T MRI system. Arterial spin labeling (ASL) was probed using a FAIR‐EPI sequence. For DWI, a SE EPI‐based sequence was used. Standardized brain FDG‐PET uptake (SUV) values were determined for righ/left hemispheres and cerebellum using Rover software. ASL data and water apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) were read out using a Matlab code after atlas coregistration. We determined statistical differences between readout results in both groups and between the time points in the same groups in these regions.
Results: There was no significant difference in ASL values neither in ADC values in the 5 Gy group compared to baseline or between time points. If both hemisphere’s respective VOI data were taken into account we could observe significant ADC differences between early (3 days) and late (30 to 60 days) changes in almost all VOIs of the brains. Using hemisphere VOI PET data we see a change at 7 days and 60 days both compared to baseline and all other time points in both groups by a decrease in SUVs of both hemispheres at Day 7 and and an increase at Day 60.
Conclusion: In our study ASL had no readout value on radiation‐induced changes. Using ADC maps, as early as 3 days and after one month post irradiation the late changes are visible throughout the brain. FDG‐PET provided us with a readable change at day 7. The direction of increased metabolism in the hemisphere 60 days read out with PET coregisters with the increase in ADC values at Day 60. These late changes are possibly due to second‐phase neuro‐inflammation and cell content increase in accordance with PET imaging results. Combined DWI MR/FDG PET is a promising means for radiation therapy side effect follow‐up.
This research reading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme FP7/2007‐2013 under grant agreement n° 305311/INSERT.

  • Poster
    Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM), 18.-22.10.2014, Gothenburg, Sweden
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging 41(2014), S415
    DOI: 10.1007/s00259-014-2901-9

Publ.-Id: 21301

The Role of Phospholipid Headgroup Composition and Trehalose in the Desiccation Tolerance of Caenorhabditis elegans

Abusharkh, S. E.; Erkut, C.; Oertel, J.; Kurzchalia, T. V.; Fahmy, K.

Anhydrobiotic organisms have the remarkable ability to lose extensive amounts of body water and survive in an ametabolic state. Distributed to various taxa of life, these organisms have developed strategies to efficiently protect their cell membranes and proteins against extreme water loss. Recently, we showed that the dauer larva of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is anhydrobiotic and accumulates high amounts of trehalose during preparation to harsh desiccation
(preconditioning). Here, we have used this genetic model to study the biophysical manifestations of anhydrobiosis and show that, in addition to trehalose accumulation, dauer larvae dramatically reduce their phosphatidylcholine (PC) content. The chemical composition of the phospholipids (PLs) has key consequences not only for their interaction with trehalose, as we demonstrate with Langmuir−Blodgett monolayers, but also, the kinetic response of PLs to hydration transients is strongly influenced as evidenced by time-resolved FTIR spectroscopy. PLs from preconditioned larvae with reduced PC content exhibit a higher trehalose affinity, a stronger hydration-induced gain in acyl chain free volume, and a wider spread of structural relaxation rates of their lyotropic transitions and sub-headgroup H-bond interactions. The different hydration properties of PC and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) headgroups are crucial for the hydration-dependent rearrangement of the trehalose-mediated H-bond network. As a consequence, the compressibility modulus of PLs from preconditioned larvae is about 2.6-fold smaller than that from non-preconditioned ones. Thus, the biological relevance of reducing the PC:PE ratio by PL headgroup adaptation should be the preservation of plasma membrane integrity by relieving mechanical strain from desiccated trehalose-containing cells during fast rehydration.

Keywords: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; biomembrane; preservation; hydration

Publ.-Id: 21300

In-situ investigations of ion implantation at ROBL-MRH

Baehtz, C.; Grenzer, J.; von Borany, J.; Posselt, M.

The Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) operates since 1998 a bending magnet beamline with two end stations at the ESRF, Grenoble. In 2011 the complete beamline optics was renewed with new focusing mirrors and a double crystal monochromator equipped with3 pairs of differently oriented Si-crystals and two sets of multilayers. The Materials Research Station is focusing on in-situ measurements using different scattering techniques like XRR, GISAXS, HRXRD or GIXRD that can be combined with spectroscopy measurements. In the center of interest are the CVD growth of graphite materials, phase change materials under operation and hydrogen storage materials. Additionally the syntheses of various nano-structured materials by magnetron sputtering were explored. A similar sample environment is used to investigate in-operando the He and Ar-ion implantation processes on single crystalline Si and Al2O3. Ions were provided by an ion gun operated at 5 keV, an additional potential of up to 20keV on the sample was applied to accelerate the ions further. Using a Mythen detector, a series of reciprocal space maps were recorded with duration of less than 1 minute per map. The crystal truncation rod vanished within the first seconds of He-ion bombardment. In the following the Si (004) reflection broadens, forming a layer peak that give clearly a hint of increasing strain in the material. After 50 minutes a steadystate that correspond to a heavily damaged or amorphized Si layer is reached

Keywords: Synchrotron radiation; in-Situ investigation; magnetron sputtering; ion implantation

Related publications

  • Poster
    Deutsche Tagung für Forschung mit Synchrotronstrahlung, Neutronen und Ionenstrahlen an Großgeräten 2014, 21.-23.09.2014, Bonn, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 21299

Synthese neuartiger Vesamicolanaloga als potentielle Liganden für den vesikulären Acetylcholintransporter

Lindemann, M.

Es ist kein Abstract vorhanden.

  • Master thesis
    Universität Leipzig, Fakultät für Chemie und Mineralogie, 2014
    Mentor: Dr. Barbara Wenzel
    94 Seiten

Publ.-Id: 21298

Pretherapeutic scan time-normalized tumor to blood standard uptake ratio (SUR) is superior to SUV as a prognostic factor in patients with esophageal carcinoma

Hofheinz, F.; Bütof, R.; Zöphel, K.; Schütze, C.; Löck, S.; Steffen, I. G.; Stadelmann, T.; Kotzerke, J.; Baumann, M.; van den Hoff, J.

Aim: Determination of tumor SUV is widely used for quantitative assessment of tumor metabolism in FDG PET and its potential for therapy outcome prediction in various cancer diseases is under scrutiny. However, the SUV approach has several well known limitations compromising its ability to act as a surrogate parameter of glucose consumption. Recently, we have shown that SUR overcomes most of these limitations as long as FDG kinetics in the target structure can be considered irreversible [1,2]. The aim of this work was to evaluate the prognostic value of SUR in comparison to SUV in patients with esophageal carcinoma.
Methods: FDG-PET/CT was performed in 97 consecutive patients ((64+/-10)y, 83 males) with newly diagnosed esophageal cancer prior to definitive radiochemotherapy. In the PET images the metabolic active volume (MTV) of the primary tumor was delineated with an adaptive threshold method. For determination of the blood SUV the aorta was delineated manually in the attenuation CT. The aorta ROI was transferred to the PET image. Blood SUV was computed as the mean value of the aorta ROI. SUR values were computed as ratio of tumor SUV and blood SUV. SUR values were scan-time-normalized to 60 min p.i. as described in [2]. Univariate Cox regression with respect to overall survival (OS), locoregional control (LRC), and distant-metastases-free survival (DM) was performed for SUVmax, SURmax and clinically relevant parameters. Additionally, a multivariate Cox regression including N stage and smoking status (univariate significant) as confounding parameters was performed.
Results: Both, SUVmax and SURmax, were prognostic factors for OS and DM, but not for LRC. With respect to OS a univariate Cox regression showed a slightly increased hazard ratio (HR) for SURmax (HR=2.3, p=0.001) compared to SUVmax (HR=2.1, p=0.001). With respect to DM HR of SURmax was notably larger than HR of SUVmax (HR=5.7, p=0.005 compared to 3.1, p=0.006). Moreover, in a multivariate Cox regression the prognostic value of SUR was slightly higher for OS and notably higher for DM.
Conclusion: Our results indicate an increased prognostic value if lesion uptake is characterized by time-normalized SUR instead of SUV in pretherapeutic FDG PET of patients with esophageal carcinoma. More comprehensive investigations are necessary to confirm these results.
Literature: [1] van den Hoff et al, EJNMMI Res 2013, 3:77 [2] van den Hoff et al, EJNMMI Res 2014, 4:18

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Annual Congress of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM), 18.-22.10.2014, Gothenburg, Sweden
  • Abstract in refereed journal
    European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging 41(2014), S232-S233
    DOI: 10.1007/s00259-014-2901-9

Publ.-Id: 21297

Capability of X-ray diffraction for the study of microstructure of metastable thin films

Rafaja, D.; Wüstefeld, C.; Dopita, M.; Motylenko, M.; Baehtz, C.

Metastable phases are often used to design materials with outstanding properties, which cannot be achieved with thermodynamically stable compounds. In many cases, the metastable phases are employed as precursors for controlled formation of nanocomposites. This contribution shows how the microstructure of crystalline metastable phases and the formation of nanocomposites can be concluded from X-ray diffraction experiments by taking advantage of the high sensitivity of X-ray diffraction to macroscopic and microscopic lattice deformations and to the dependence of the lattice deformations on the crystallographic direction. The lattice deformations were determined from the positions and from the widths of the diffraction lines, the dependence of the lattice deformations on the crystallographic direction from the anisotropy of the line shift and the line broadening. As an example of the metastable system, the supersaturated solid solution of titanium nitride and aluminium nitride was investigated, which was prepared in the form of thin films by using cathodic arc evaporation of titanium and aluminium in a nitrogen atmosphere. The microstructure of the (Ti,Al)N samples under study was tailored by modifying the [Al]/[Ti] ratio in the thin films and the surface mobility of the deposited species.

Keywords: metastable thin films; microstructure; X-ray diffraction

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Publ.-Id: 21296

Crystallography of phase transitions in metastable titanium aluminium nitride nanocomposites

Rafaja, D.; Wüstefeld, C.; Dopita, M.; Motylenkoa, M.; Baehtz, C.; Michotte, C.; Kathrein, M.

The isostructural decomposition of the titanium aluminium nitride supersaturated solid solution crystallising in the face centred cubic (fcc) crystal structure into the titanium-rich fcc-(Ti,Al)N and almost titanium-free fcc-(Al, Ti)N and the transformation of metastable fcc-(Ti,Al)N into the wurtzitic aluminium nitride are discussed from the crystallographic point of view by taking the observed orientation relationships between the adjacent phases into account. It is shown that the isostructural decomposition of fcc-(Ti,Al)N into Ti-rich fcc-(Ti,Al)N and fcc-(Al, Ti)N and the transformation of themetastable fcc-(Ti,Al)N into the thermodynamically stablewurtzitic phase are concurrent processes, which are controlled not only by the thermodynamic stability of the respective compound and by the diffusivity of Al and Ti, but also by the local lattice strains. A part of the local lattice strains is regarded to result from the lattice misfit at the interfaces between the titanium aluminium nitrides having different [Al]/ [Ti] concentration ratios and, in the case of the fcc/wurtzite-type interface, also having different crystal structures. The phase transition of the fcc-(Ti,Al)N to thewurtzitic onewas predicted to be facilitated by stacking faults. The results of crystallographic considerations were verified experimentally by using in situ high-temperature synchrotron diffraction experiments that were performed on cathodic arc evaporated (Ti,Al)N thin films containing titanium and aluminium in different amounts.

Keywords: Ti–Al–N; Cathodic arc evaporation; X-ray diffraction; Phase transformation; Stacking faults; High-resolution transmission electron; microscopy

Related publications

Publ.-Id: 21295

Density change upon crystallization of Ga-Sb films

Putero, M.; Coulet, M.-V.; Muller, C.; Cohen, G.; Hopstaken, M.; Baehtz, C.; Raoux, S.

Besides crystallization time and temperature, the mass density change upon crystallization is a key parameter governing the reliability of phase change random access memory. Indeed, few percentages density change induces considerable mechanical stress in memory cells, leading to film delamination with subsequent electrical failures. This letter presents an extensive study of density change upon crystallization in a series of Ga-Sb thin films with various antimony contents. The mass density of the films is precisely determined by x-ray reflectivity in both their amorphous and crystalline states. The variations of the density in crystalline and amorphous films according to the Sb content found to cross with a zero-density change for 70 at. % Sb. The peculiar behavior of Ga-Sb thin films upon crystallization may be linked to their stress state and mechanical properties.

Keywords: phase change material; x-ray; diffraction; reflectivity

Related publications

Publ.-Id: 21294

Nitrogen controlled iron catalyst phase during carbon nanotube growth

Bayer, B. C.; Baehtz, C.; Kidambi, P. R.; Weatherup, R. S.; Mangler, C.; Kotakoski, J.; Goddard, C. J. L.; Caneva, S.; Cabrero-Vilatela, A.; Meyer, J. C.; Hofmann, S.

Close control over the active catalyst phase and hence carbon nanotube structure remains challenging in catalytic chemical vapor deposition since multiple competing active catalyst phases typically co-exist under realistic synthesis conditions. Here, using in-situ X-ray diffractometry, we show that the phase of supported iron catalyst particles can be reliably controlled via the addition of NH3 during nanotube synthesis. Unlike polydisperse catalyst phase mixtures during H2 diluted nanotube growth, nitrogen addition controllably leads to phase-pure c-Fe during pre-treatment and to phase-pure Fe3C during growth. We rationalize these findings in the context of ternary Fe-C-N phase diagram calculations and, thus, highlight the use of pre-treatment- and add-gases as a key parameter towards controlled carbon nanotube growth.

Keywords: Carbon nano tubes; x-ray diffraction; xps

Related publications

Publ.-Id: 21293

In Situ Phase Evolution of Ni/Ti Reactive Multilayers

Cavaleiro, A. J.; Ramos, A. S.; Martins, R. M. S.; Baehtz, C.; Vieira, M. T.; Braz Fernandes, F. M.

Joining shape-memory alloys (SMA) to other materials is strongly required in order to enlarge their fields of application. Fusion welding induces strong compositional and microstructural changes that significantly affect the shape-memory effect and the superelastic behavior of these alloys. The exothermic and in some cases self-propagating character of some nano-multilayer reactions is explored in this study as an alternative for joining SMA. To follow these very fast reactions, high brilliance sources, such as synchrotron radiation, are required. In situ high-resolution x-ray diffraction data, giving the phase evolution sequence with temperature of the Ni/Ti multilayer thin films under study, are presented. A correlation between the multilayer design and the tendency for the sequence of phase formation is established.

Keywords: advanced characterization; intermetallic; x-ray

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Publ.-Id: 21292

Influence of a passivation layer on strain relaxation and lattice disorder in thin nano-crystalline Pt films during in-situ annealing

Gruber, W.; Rahn, J.; Baehtz, C.; Horisberger, M.; Geckle, U.; Schmidt, H.

In this work we compared the relaxation of strain and lattice disorder in thin nano-crystalline Pt films for samples covered with a Si3N4 layer and samples without a cover layer, respectively.We measured thickness and interplanar distance of the Pt film by X-ray reflectometry and X-ray diffractometry during insitu annealing using synchrotron radiation. The results show that strain and lattice disorder relaxation are impeded if the Pt film is sealed with a cover layer to suppress the creation of vacancies at the Pt surface. This emphasizes the postulated important role of the generation of vacancies at the free surface of thin metal films for strain relaxation during isothermal annealing.

Keywords: Nano-crystalline platinum; Thin films; Strain relaxation; Vacancy creation

Related publications

Publ.-Id: 21291

An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron as metal vapour supply for electron cyclotron resonance ion sources

Weichsel, T.; Hartung, U.; Kopte, T.; Zschornack, G.; Kreller, M.; Silze, A.

An inverted cylindrical sputter magnetron device has been developed. The magnetron is acting as a metal vapor supply for an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. FEM simulation of magnetic flux density was used to ensure that there is no critical interaction between both magnetic fields of magnetron and ECR ion source. Spatially resolved double Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy measurements show an increase in electron density by one order of magnitude from 1 × 1010 cm−3 to 1 × 1011 cm−3, when the magnetron plasma is exposed to the magnetic mirror field of the ECR ion source. Electron density enhancement is also indicated by magnetron plasma emission photography with a CCD camera. Furthermore, photographs visualize the formation of a localized loss-cone - area, when the magnetron is operated at magnetic mirror field conditions. The inverted cylindrical magnetron supplies a metal atom load rate of R > 1 × 1018 atoms/s for aluminum, which meets the demand for the production of a milliampere Al+ ion beam.

Related publications

Publ.-Id: 21290

IMALION – Creation and low energy transportation of a milliampere metal ion beam

Weichsel, T.; Hartung, U.; Kopte, T.; Zschornack, G.; Kreller, M.; Silze, A.

IMALION - which stands for IMplantation of ALuminum IONs - is a facility designed for high-current metal ion beam implantation and surface modification such as in semiconductor, medical or optical industry. IMALION is a newly developed 30 kV metal ion wide area implantation platform, which is suitable for the irradiation of a target width of 200 mm to produce homogeneous implantation profiles over the entire surface. Electrostatic and magnetic beamline elements such as a deflector as well as analyzing and parallelizationmagnetswere designed for precision guiding of a milliampere metal ion beam. The implanter is fed by a novel ECR metal ion source, which is equipped with an integrated cylindrical sputter magnetron as metal vapor supply. Stable operation of the sputter magnetron under ECR magnetic mirror conditions was proven by optical emission spectroscopy and Langmuir probe measurements.

Related publications

  • Open Access Logo Contribution to proceedings
    5th International Particle Accelerator Conference, 15.06.2014, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 21288

Ridge waveguides in Nd:ABC3O7 disordered crystals produced by swift C5+ ion irradiation and precise diamond dicing: Broad band guidance and spectroscopic properties

Chen, C.; Luan, Q.; He, R.; Cheng, C.; Akhmadaliev, S.; Zhou, S.; Yu, H.; Zhang, H.; Chen, F.

Optical ridge waveguides have been manufactured in the crystals of Nd:SrLaGa3O7 and Nd:SrGdGa3O7 by combining techniques of swift carbon ion irradiation with precise diamond blade dicing. The guiding properties of the waveguides are investigated at broadband (at wavelength of 633 nm, 1064 nm, and 4 µm). After annealing treatment at 200 °C for 1 h, the propagation losses of ridge waveguides could be reduced to as low as 1 dB/cm. The confocal microfluorescence emission spectra confirm that the fluorescence properties of Nd3+ ions are almost unchanged after the ion irradiation processing, showing promising potentials as application of miniature light sources in integrated optics.

Keywords: Optical ridge waveguides; Swift heavy ion irradiation; Diamond saw dicing

Related publications

Publ.-Id: 21287

Beiträge zur Methodik und Anwendung der kontaktlosen induktiven Strömungstomographie

Wondrak, T.

Den Strömungszustand von Metall- oder Halbleiterschmelzen auch nur ungefähr zu kennen, wäre bei vielen technischen Anwendungen, wie z. B. beim kontinuierlichen Stranggießen von Stahl oder bei verschiedenen Kristallzüchtungsverfahren in der Halbleiterindustrie, von großem Wert. Die Messung der Strömung stellt aufgrund der hohen Temperaturen von oft mehr als 1000 ◦ C und aufgrund der Intransparenz der Schmelzen besonders hohe Anforderungen an die Messtechnik. Am Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) wurde ein auf der Induktion in bewegten Leitern basierendes kontaktloses Messverfahren, die kontaktlose induktive Strömungstomographie (contactless inductive flow tomography (CIFT)), entwickelt, die aus der Messung der durch die Strömung verzerrten angelegten Magnetfelder ein dreidimensionales Geschwindigkeitsfeld in der Schmelze rekonstruiert.
In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird untersucht, ob sich CIFT auch bei industriell relevanten Anwendungen wie beim kontinuierlichen Stranggießen oder beim Ziehen von monokristallinen Siliziumkristallen einsetzen lässt. Dazu wurde CIFT für ein Modell einer Stranggießanlage adaptiert und ein Messsystem mit 14 Magnetfeldsensoren entwickelt, das es ermöglicht die dominierende zweidimensionale Strömung in der Kokille für das Brammengießen mit einer zeitlichen Auflösung von 1 Hz zu rekonstruieren. In einer Versuchsreihe mit einer Zweiphasenströmung konnten bei hohen Gasdurchflüssen Übergänge zwischen unterschiedlichen Strömungsregimen visualisiert werden. Begleitende Ultraschall-Doppler Geschwindigkeitsmessungen wurden für die Validierung der von CIFT rekonstruierten Geschwindigkeitsverteilung herangezogen. Für die Anwendung von CIFT in einer industriell relevanten Umgebung wurde CIFT dahingehend erweitert, dass Gradientensonden, ein Wechselfeld als Messfeld und Tiegel mit leitfähigen Wänden eingesetzt werden können. Ein weiterer Schwerpunkt dieser Arbeit waren erste Magnetfeldmessungen für CIFT an einer in der Industrie eingesetzten Czochralski-Ziehanlage. Dabei konnte gezeigt werden, dass trotz des großen Abstands zwischen Tiegel und Magnetfeldsensor das durch die Strömung induzierte Magnetfeld außerhalb der Anlage detektierbar ist. Diese Arbeit belegt, dass trotz der typischerweise sehr kleinen zu messenden induzierten Magnetfelder CIFT ein großes Potential für den Einsatz in industriell relevanten Anwendungen hat, insbesondere für die permanente Überwachung der Strömungsverhältnisse im Stahlguss.

Keywords: contactless inductive flow tomography

  • Doctoral thesis
    Reihe Maxwell, Hans Georg Krauthäuser und Ralf Theo Jacobs, 2014
    Mentor: Professor Hans Georg Krauthäuser und Dr. Frank Stefani
    172 Seiten

Publ.-Id: 21286

Electron spin resonance study in the chiral ferromagnet Cu2OSeO3 using pulsed magnetic fields up to 64 T and terahertz free electron laser

Ozerov, M.

The recent discovery of skyrmions in Cu2OSeO3 has established a new platform to create and manipulate skyrmionic spin textures. We use high-field electorn spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy combining a terahertz free electron laser and pulsed magnetic fields up to 64 T to probe and quantify ist microscopic spin-spin interactions. Besides providing direct access to the long-wavelength Goldstone mode, this technique probes also the high-energy part of the excitation spectrum which is inaccessible by Standard low-frequency ESR. Fitting the behavior of the observed modes in magnetic field to a theroretical Framework establishes experimentally that the fundamental magnetic building blocks of this skyrmionic magnet are rigid, highly entangled and weakly coupled tetrahedra.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Science at FEL, 15.08.2014, Villligen, Switzerland

Publ.-Id: 21285

Quantum spin chains with frustration due to Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions

Hälg, M.; Lorenz, W. E. A.; Povarov, K. Y.; Mansson, M.; Skourski, Y.; Zheludev, A.

The properties of two quantum spin chain materials, K2CuSO4Cl2 and K2CuSO42, are studied by a variety of experimental techniques, including bulk measurements, neutron spectroscopy, and electron spin resonance. The hierarchy of relevant terms in the magnetic Hamiltonian is established. It is shown that these two compounds feature substantial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions that are uniform within each chain, but antiparallel in adjacent chains. The result is a peculiar type of frustration of interchain interactions, which leads to an unusual fielderature phase diagram.

Publ.-Id: 21284

Materials Research at the Dresden High Magnetic Field Laboratory

Wosnitza, J.

es hat kein Abstract vorgelegen

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Functionalized Molecule-Based Magnetic Materials, 24.-27.11.2014, Bielefeld, Deutschland
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Institutskolloquium des Instituts für Technische Physik am KIT, 02.07.2015, Karlsruhe, Deutschland
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Seminar at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, 19.01.2016, Tokyo, Japan
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Seminar at the International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures, 14.04.2016, Wroclaw, Poland

Publ.-Id: 21283

The Tesla Race - Materials Research in Very High Magnetic Fields

Wosnitza, J.

es hat kein Abstract vorgelegen

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    International Conference "Materials Science and Engineering", 23.-25.09.2014, Darmstadt, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 21282

Performance study of high bandwidth pickups installed at FLASH and ELBE for femtosecond-precision arrival time monitors

Czwalinna, M. K.; Gerth, C.; Schlarb, H.; Sydlo, C.; Angelovski, A.; Jakoby, R.; Penirschke, A.; Kuntzsch, M.; Gensch, M.

At today’s free-electron lasers, high-resolution electron bunch arrival time measurements become increasingly more important in fast feedback systems for a timing jitter reduction down to the femtosecond level as well as for time-resolved pump-probe experiments. This is fulfilled by arrival time monitors which employ an electro-optical detection scheme by means of synchronised ultrashort laser pulses. Even more, at FLASH and the European XFEL the measurement has to cover a wide range of bunch charges from 1 nC down to 20 pC with equally sub-10fs resolution. To meet these requirements, recently a high bandwidth pickup electrode with a cut-off frequency above 40 GHz has been developed. These pickups are installed at the free-electron laser FLASH and at the continuous wave electron accelerator ELBE. In this paper we present an evaluation of the pickup performance by direct signal measurements with high bandwidth oscilloscopes. The integration of these pickups into the arrival time monitor system is described.

Keywords: FLASH ELBE BAM Diagnostic CW

Related publications

  • Open Access Logo Contribution to proceedings
    Free Electron Laser Conference 2014 - FEL 2014, 25.-29.08.2014, Basel, Schweiz
  • Poster
    Free Electron Laser Conference 2014 - FEL 2014, 25.-29.08.2014, Basel, Schweiz

Publ.-Id: 21281

Spin dynamics in triangular-lattice antiferromagnets Cs2CuBr4 and Cs2CuCl4: high-field ESR studies

Zvyagin, S.

A spin-1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet (AF) on a triangular lattice is the paradigmatic model in quantum magnetism, which was intensively studied. In spite of numerous theoretical studies (which predict a rich variety of grounds states, ranging from a gapless spin liquid to Néel order), many important details of the phase diagram of triangular-lattice AFs remain controversial or even missing. In order to test the theory experimentally, a precise information on the spin-Hamiltonian parameters for the materials of interest is highly demanded. Here, we present results of high-field electron spin resonance (ESR) studies of spin-1/2 Heisenberg AFs Cs2CuCl4 and Cs2CuBr4 with distorted triangular-lattice structures in magnetic fields up to 50 T. In the magnetically saturated phase (H > Hsat), quantum fluctuations are fully suppressed, and the spin dynamics is defined by ordinary magnons. This allows us to accurately describe the magnetic excitation spectra in both materials and, using the harmonic spin-wave theory, to determine their exchange parameters. The viability of the proposed method was first proven by applying it to Cs2CuCl4, revealing good agreement with inelastic neutron-scattering results. For the isostructural Cs2CuBr4 we obtain J/kB = 14.9(7) K, J'/kB = 6.1(3) K, [J'/J ~ 0.41], providing exact and conclusive information on the exchange coupling parameters in this frustrated spin system. The approach has a broader impact and can be potentially used for any quantum magnet with reduced (e.g., by the staggered Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction) translational symmetry, resulting, as predicted, in emergence of a new exchange mode above Hsat

  • Lecture (Conference)
    From Exotic Excitations to Novel Transport and Non-Equilibrium Phenomena, 01.-05.09.2014, Dresden, Deutschland
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    NHMFL Users Committee Meeting, 15.10.2015, Tallahassee, USA

Publ.-Id: 21280

Effect of Single-Ruler Electromagnetic Braking (EMBr) Location on Transient Flow in Continuous Casting

Thomas, B. G.; Singh, R.; Vanka, S. P.; Timmel, K.; Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.

Ultrasonic Doppler Velocimetry measurements and Large Eddy Simulations were conducted on a laboratory-scale physical model of a steel continuous slab caster with a low-melting alloy, both with and without an applied single-ruler magnetic field in one of two different vertical orientations. The computational model agreed very closely with the measurements in all respects, including time-average flow, velocity profiles, and transient velocity histories at specific locations. The magnetic field altered both the classic double-roll flow pattern and the flow stability. Lowering the magnetic field below the nozzle caused: steeper downward jet angles, lower surface velocities, lower turbulent kinetic energy at the surface, and better flow stability, especially towards the surface, and at higher frequencies. The experimental and computational results both show that the electromagnetic field should not be placed with its maximum directly across the nozzle ports, where it may aggravate unstable flow.

Keywords: liquid metal model; contactless inductive flow tomography; ultrasonic doppler velocimetry; large eddy simulations; two-phase flow; electromagnetic flow control

  • Lecture (Conference)
    2015 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition, 15.-19.03.2015, Orlando, USA
  • Journal for Manufacturing Science and Production 15(2015)1, 93-104
    Online First (2015) DOI: 10.1515/jmsp-2014-0047
    ISSN: 2191-0375

Publ.-Id: 21279

Steel casting characterisation: contactless inductive flow tomography and mutual inductance tomography

Wondrak, T.; Peyton, A. J.

Monitoring the steel flow through the submerged entry nozzle (SEN) and in the mould during continuous casting presents a challenge for the instrumentation system because of the high temperature environment and the opaqueness of the liquid steel. In this article we describe the development of two complimentary electromagnetic instrumentation systems which are able to visualise the steel flow profile in the SEN by means of Mutual Inductance Tomography (MIT) and the mean 2D/3D flow structure in the mould by means of Contactless Inductive Flow Tomography (CIFT). The flow structure in both sites is crucial for the quality of steel in respect of cleanliness and surface quality. The article will cover the development of both techniques from first principles and initial tests on a scaled (approx. 1:10) laboratory model of the continuous casting process. The experiments were performed with argon gas and GaInSn as an analogue for liquid steel, which has similar conductive properties as molten steel and allows the measurements at room temperature. The article will close with describing hot tests and subsequent plant tests.

Keywords: contactless inductive flow tomography; mutual inductance tomography; flow measurement; continuous casting; steel flow; tomography

  • Book chapter
    Rafael Colás, George E. Totten: Encyclopedia of Iron, Steel, and Their Alloys, New York: Taylor & Francis Group,, 2016, 978-1-4665-1104-0, 3320-3332

Publ.-Id: 21278

Flow visualization by means of contactless inductive flow tomography in the presence of a magnetic brake

Ratajczak, M.; Wondrak, T.; Timmel, K.; Stefani, F.; Eckert, S.

In continuous casting DC magnetic fields perpendicular to the wide faces of the mold are used to control the flow in the mold. Especially in this case, even a rough knowledge of the flow structure in the mold would be highly desirable. The contactless inductive flow tomography (CIFT) allows to reconstruct the dominating two-dimensional flow structure in a slab casting mold by applying one external magnetic field and by measuring the flow induced magnetic fields outside the mold. For a physical model of a mold with a cross section of 140 mm × 35 mm we present preliminary measurements of the flow field in the mold in the presence of a magnetic brake. In addition, we show first reconstructions of the flow field in a mold with the cross section of 400 mm × 100 mm demonstrating the upward scalability of CIFT.

Keywords: continuous casting; contactless inductive flow tomography; flow measurement

  • Journal for Manufacturing Science and Production 15(2015)1, 41-48
    DOI: 10.1515/jmsp-2014-0037
    ISSN: 2191-4184
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    TMS 2015 144th annual meeting & exhibition, 15.-19.03.2015, Orlando, United States of America

Publ.-Id: 21277

Europium(III)-Calcite study with site-selective TRLFS

Peschel, S.; Schmidt, M.; Stumpf, T.

Calcite is an important mineral that plays a significant role in nuclear waste disposal concerning the safety and performance in geological formations. At these sites it can be found in the near field as a secondary phase (weathering of the geochemical barrier) and as a rock-forming mineral in the surrounding rocks. Geochemically, calcite has the potential to adsorb as well as incorporate guest ions with a similar ionic radius, such as europium and curium, for calcium in the host lattice. Because of the long half-lives of actinides like curium and americium, they and their lanthanide homologues (i.e., europium) are the subject of recent research.
Calcite samples were doped with Eu(III) in batch experiments. Calcium carbonate powder was contacted with a Eu(III) solution (5 x 10-7 M) in a calcium carbonate saturated solution with a NaCl (10 mM) background electrolyte solution. Batch samples were analyzed at varying contact times to understand the step-by-step kinetic and mechanistic behavior of incorporation of Eu(III) into the solid phase. After the contact period, the supernatant was investigated with ICP-MS. The Eu(III) concentration in solution varies from 0.1 to 3.2 % of the initial concentration, which indicates that almost all Eu(III) is adsorbed.
The calcite powder was examined with site-selective TRLFS at temperatures below 20 K. The direct excitation of the 7F0 →5D0 transition in the range of 576-581 nm and the integration of the respective emission spectra yields a characteristic excitation spectrum. These excitation spectra show only one broad peak with a maximum at ~579.2 nm, independent of the sorption time (up to 31 days). This behavior is dissimilar to that determined by Stumpf and Fanghänel [1] who investigated Cm(III) sorption on calcite with NaClO4 as background electrolyte and found 2 peaks, which change over time. Lifetime measurements of our samples exhibit biexponential decay indicative of two species. The first specie has a lifetime of 460 to 985 µs and the second 2155 to 4577 µs. Using Horrock´s equation[2] the number of coordinating water molecules in the first sphere surrounding the Eu(III) can be determined. This value corresponds to its location (surface sorbed vs incorporated) on or within the calcite lattice. Therefore, calculated values of 0.5 to 1.7 indicate the formation of an inner sphere sorption species whereas a value of 0 is indicative of incorporation of the Eu(III) within the calcite. The emission spectrum shows a threefold splitting of the 7F1 band.This indicates a ligand field with low symmetry. To better understand these surface species, future measurements with CTR and RAXR will be performed.

[1] Stumpf, T. and T. Fanghanel (2002). J. of Colloid and Interface Science 249(1), 119-122.
[2] Horrocks (1979) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 101, 334.

Keywords: site-selective TRLFS; Europium; Calcite

  • Poster
    Advanced Techniques in Actinide Spectroscopy 2014 (ATAS 2014), 03.-07.11.2014, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 21276

Sorption of (trivalent) actinides and lanthanides

Hellebrandt, S.; Schmidt, M.; Stumpf, T.

The study of trivalent actinides is of particular importance for the safety assessment of nuclear waste disposal sites due to the predominance of this valence in deep geological formations. In particular, studying the solution-solid interface chemistry of these trivalent radioelements in the aqueous phase with a mineral is fundamental for better understanding their interactions at or within the surface of a host phase in a repository. As a relevant near field material (geotechnical barrier) for nuclear waste disposal sites, clay minerals are very important due to their retardation properties. Muscovite, a phyllosilicate material of aluminum and potassium, is very similar to clay minerals but less complex, so we are able to assign results from muscovite to clay minerals. Additionally, investigations concerning trace concentration of actinides appearing in the far field of a nuclear waste disposal are also of interest. Site-Selective Time-Resolved Laser Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLFS) is a characterizational technique that can probe the behavior of low concentrated actinides on a molecular level. As a complementary technique resonant anomalous x-ray reflectivity (RAXR) will be used to get a deeper insight and a verification of the TRLFS results.

TRLFS, the main tool
The aim of this study focuses on understanding the surface interactions of muscovite with aqueous trivalent actinides and lanthanides using Eu(III) and Cm(III), and characterization of the solid and aqueous phase species using TRLFS. Europium (III) is used as a non-radioactive homologue for trivalent actinides due to its similar chemical behavior and its spectroscopic properties as a probe for TRLFS. Direct excitation of the 7F05D0 electron transition and consecutive integration of the respective emission generates information pertaining to the chemical coordination and environment of the Eu(III). First investigations in the muscovite-europium system show that there appears one poorly defined species (broad excitation peak) present at one site. Lifetime measurements of the luminescence are used in accordance with the Horrocks equation (europium) [1] and the number of coordinated waters can be determined. The lifetimes between 208 and 230 µs indicates 4 to 5 coordinated water ligands in the inner sphere. As a consequence of this the europium species is interpreted as inner-sphere sorption on the surface of muscovite.

[1] Horrocks, W.D. and Sudnick, D.R. (1979) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 101, 334-340.

  • Poster
    2nd International Workshop on Advanced Techniques in Actinide Spectroscopy (ATAS 2014), 03.-07.11.2014, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 21275

AER Working Group D on VVER safety analysis – report of the 2014 meeting

Kliem, S.

The AER Working Group D on VVER reactor safety analysis held its 23th meeting in Garching, Germany, during the period 12-13 May, 2014. The meeting was hosted by the GRS Garching and was held in conjunction with the eighth workshop on the OECD Benchmark for Uncertainty Analysis in Best-Estimate Modelling (UAM) for Design, Operation and Safety Analysis of LWRs. Altogether 21 participants attended the meeting of the working group D, 19 from AER member organizations and 2 guests from non-member organization. The co-ordinator of the working group, Mr. S. Kliem, served as chairman of the meeting.
The meeting started with a general information exchange about the recent activities in the participating organizations.
The given presentations and the discussions can be attributed to the following topics:

  • Safety analyses methods and results
  • Code development and benchmarking including the calculation of the OECD/NEA Benchmark for the Kalinin-3 VVER-1000 NPP and 7th AER Dynamic Benchmark
  • Future activities
A list of the participants and a list of the handouts distributed at the meeting are attached to the report. The corresponding PDF-files of the handouts can be obtained from the chairman.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    24th Symposium of AER on VVER Reactor Physics and Reactor Safety, 14.-18.10.2014, Sochi, Russian Federation
  • Contribution to proceedings
    24th Symposium of AER on VVER Reactor Physics and Reactor Safety, 14.-18.10.2014, Sochi, Russian Federation
    Proceedings of the 24th Symposium of AER on VVER Reactor Physics and Reactor Safety, Budapest: MTA Energoatom, 415-420

Publ.-Id: 21274

Recent developments in (H)LM measurement techniques

Wondrak, T.; Eckert, S.; Franke, S.; Shevchenko, N.; Buchenau, D.; Stefani, F.; Gerbeth, G.

In the field of advanced heavy-liquid-metal (HLM) cooled systems the knowledge of flow properties of the liquid metal is important for the design, the operation and the safety of such systems. The measurement of the flow properties is usually hampered by the high temperature and the opaqueness of liquid melts. We will give an overview of the recent developments of measurement techniques which can be used for model experiments as wells as for instrumenting a HLM cooled system. This includes ultrasound Doppler velocimetry, x-ray radioscopy and several inductive techniques like inductive flow meters and the contacless inductive flow tomography.

Keywords: liquid metal; flow measurement

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    SEARCH/MAXSIMA 2014 International Workshop, 07.-10.10.2014, Karlsruhe, Germany

Publ.-Id: 21272

Measurement techniques for the flow in a model of a continuous caster

Wondrak, T.; Timmel, K.; Stefani, F.; Eckert, S.; Shevchenko, N.; Röder, M.

In order to examine the flow structure in a continuous casting mold which is important for the quality of the produced steel, at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) three different models of a continuous caster are available to study the flow in a continuous casting mold. Those cold liquid metal models which use metallic alloys with low melting point e.g. up to 200 °C offer the application of different measurement techniques like ultrasound doppler velocimetry, x-ray and potential probes for flow investigation. Second, these models can be used to study the influence of magnetic actuators to the flow due to their high conductivity, contrary to water models. Third, these models can be used to develop new measurement techniques which can be applied in a real caster.
We will give a short overview of the measurement techniques available for those models. Additionally we will present the newly developed Contactless Inductive Flow Tomography which can reconstruct the flow in the mold by measuring the flow induced perturbation of an applied magnetic field. This technique has the ability to be deployed in a real caster.

Keywords: liquid metal model; measurement techniques; contactless inductive flow tomography

  • Contribution to proceedings
    8th European Continuous Casting Conference, 23.-26.06.2014, Graz, Österreich
    Proceedings of the 8th eccc
  • Lecture (Conference)
    8th European Continuous Casting Conference, 23.-26.06.2014, Graz, Österreich


Publ.-Id: 21270

Source Terms, Shielding Calculations and Soil Activation for a Medical Cyclotron

Konheiser, J.; Naumann, B.; Ferrari, A.; Brachem, C.; Müller, S.

Calculations of the shielding and estimates of soil activation for a medical cyclotron are presented in this work. Based on the neutron source term from the 18O(p,n)18F reaction produced by a 28 MeV proton beam, neutron and gamma dose rates outside the building were estimated with the Monte Carlo code MCNP6(1). The neutron source term was calculated with the MCNP6 code and FLUKA(2) code as well as with supplied data by the manufacturer. Soil activation was performed using the FLUKA code.
The estimated dose rate in the public area is about 0.035 μSv/h and thus significantly below the reference value of 0.5 μSv/h(3). After 5 years of continuous beam operation and a subsequent decay time of 30 days, the activity concentration of the soil is about 0.34 Bq/g. Significant discrepancies between the manufacturer supplied data for the neutron source term and the calculations done using the MCNP6 and FLUKA codes were found.

Keywords: radiation shielding; cyclotron; soil activation; Monte Carlo; 18F production; dose rate


Publ.-Id: 21269

Quantitative assessment of the asphericity of pretherapeutic FDG uptake as an independent predictor of outcome in NSCLC.

Apostolova, I.; Rogasch, J.; Buchert, R.; Wertzel, H.; Achenbach, H. J.; Schreiber, J.; Riedel, S.; Furth, C.; Lougovski, A.; Schramm, G.; Hofheinz, F.; Amthauer, H.; Steffen, I. G.


The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predictive value of a novel quantitative measure for the spatial heterogeneity of FDG uptake, the asphericity (ASP) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).


FDG-PET/CT had been performed in 60 patients (15 women, 45 men; median age, 65.5 years) with newly diagnosed NSCLC prior to therapy. The FDG-PET image of the primary tumor was segmented using the ROVER 3D segmentation tool based on thresholding at the volume-reproducing intensity threshold after subtraction of local background. ASP was defined as the relative deviation of the tumor's shape from a sphere. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression as well as Kaplan-Meier (KM) analysis and log-rank test with respect to overall
(OAS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were performed for clinical variables, SUVmax/mean, metabolically active tumor volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), ASP and "solidity", another measure of shape irregularity.


ASP, solidity and "primary surgical treatment" were significant independent predictors of PFS in multivariate Cox regression with binarized parameters (HR, 3.66; p < 0.001, HR, 2.11; p = 0.05 and HR, 2.09; p = 0.05), ASP and "primary surgical treatment" of OAS (HR, 3.19; p = 0.02 and HR, 3.78; p = 0.01, respectively). None of the other semi-quantitative PET parameters showed significant predictive value with respect to OAS or PFS. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a probability of 2-year PFS of 52% in patients with low ASP compared to 12% in patients with high ASP (p < 0.001). Furthermore, it showed a higher OAS rate in the case of low versus high ASP (1-year-OAS, 91% vs. 67%: p = 0.02).


The novel parameter asphericity of pretherapeutic FDG uptake seems to provide better prognostic value for PFS and OAS in NCSLC compared to SUV, metabolic tumor volume, total lesion glycolysis and solidity.

Publ.-Id: 21268

Abschlussbericht zum BMBF-Verbundprojekt Partitioning II: Multifunktionelle Komplexbildner mit N, O, S-Donorliganden für d- und f-Elemente - Synthese, Komplexbildung, Struktur und Transportverhalten

Günther, A.; Mansel, A.; Schulz, K.; Paulik, S.; Poetsch, M.; Bernhard, G.

Hauptziel des Verbundprojektes war es, die Wechselwirkung von neu synthetisierten supramolekularen Komplexbildnern mit N,O,S-Donorfunktionen gegenüber d- und f-Elementen zu untersuchen. Dabei standen für das HZDR im Teilprojekt 1 die Komplexierung von N,O-Donorliganden insbesondere mit den Aktiniden U(VI) und Cm(III) und den Lanthaniden Eu(III), Ce(III) und Yb(III) in wässriger und erstmalig in organischer Lösung in Abhängigkeit vom pH-Wert bzw. Redoxspannung im Mittelpunkt. Es wurden die entsprechenden Komplexstöchiometrien und die spektroskopischen Eigenschaften der gebildeten Komplexe mittels UV-Vis-Spektroskopie, verschiedener laserinduzierter Methoden als auch IR-Spektroskopie bestimmt. Durch Anwendung der NMR-und EXAFS-Spektroskopie konnten strukturelle Aussagen zu den Metallkomplexen in Lösung gemacht werden. Mit Hilfe von UV-Vis Daten war es möglich, reproduzierbare Komplexbildungskonstanten von Aktinid- bzw.- Lanthanidkomplexen mit verschiedenen ß-Diketonen sowie Schiffschen Basen in Lösung zu bestimmen. Ergebnisse der Arbeiten des HZDR im Teilprojekt 2 zeigten, dass die Wechselwirkung von wasserlöslichen Calixarenen mit Radionuklidmetallionen sowie das Adsorptionsverhalten von Calixarenen an Geomatrizes unter naturnahen Bedingungen (pH 4 - 9) vernachlässigbar sind. Für die Flüssig-Flüssig-Extraktion von divalenten Metallionen mittels Radiotracertechnik wurden wasserunlösliche Calixarene ermittelt, die elementselektiv die Radionuklide 85Sr, 56Co, 64Cu und 65Zn aus der wässrigen Phase separieren können. Für Strontium eignet sich Bis-Salicyliden-diamino-calixaren, welches sich unter milden Bedingungen rückextrahieren lässt. Dicarboxy-calixaren extrahiert die d-Elemente quantitativ. Diese Extraktion ist nicht vollständig reversibel. Für die gebildeten Calixaren-Komplexe wurden spektroskopische Daten ermittelt. Die Extraktionsverfahren wurden für vier natürliche Wässer erfolgreich angewendet. Festphasenfixierte Calixarene sorbieren die Radionuklide quantitativ, jedoch ist eine vollständige Desorption nicht realisierbar.

Keywords: radionuclide; actinide; lanthanide; Schiff base; ß-diketone; calixarene; complexation; spectroscopy; extraction; radiotracer technique

Related publications

  • Other report
    Dresden-Rossendorf: HZDR, 2014
    128 Seiten

Publ.-Id: 21265

Feasibility and limitations of laser-driven proton therapy: A treatment planning study.

Hofmann, K.; Masood, U.; Pawelke, J.; Wilkens, J.

Laser-acceleration of particles may offer a cost- and spaceefficient alternative for future radiation therapy with particles. Laser-driven particle beams are pulsed with very short bunch times, and a high number of particles is delivered within one laser shot which cannot be portioned or modulated during irradiation. The goal of this study was to examine whether good treatment plans can be produced for laser-driven proton beams and to investigate the feasibility of a laser-driven treatment unit.

An exponentially decaying proton spectrum was tracked through a gantry and energy selection beam line design to produce multiple proton spectra with different energy widths centered on various nominal energies. These spectra were fed into a treatment planning system to calculate spot scanning proton plans using different lateral widths of the beam and different numbers of protons contained in the initial spectrum. The clinical feasibility of the resulting plans was analyzed in terms of dosimetric quality and the required number of laser shots as an estimation of the overall treatment time.

We were able to produce treatment plans with plan qualities of clinical relevance for a maximum initial proton number per laser shot of 6*108. However, the associated minimum number of laser shots was in the order of 104, indicating a long delivery time in the order of at least 15 minutes, when assuming an optimistic repetition rate of the laser system of 10 Hz.

With the simulated beam line and the assumed shape of the proton spectrum it was impossible to produce clinically acceptable treatment plans that can be delivered in a reasonable time. The situation can be improved by a method or a device in the beam line which can modulate the number of protons from shot to shot.

  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Medical Physics 41(2014), 112-112
    DOI: 10.1118/1.4887876
  • Lecture (Conference)
    American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) 56th Annual Meeting, 20.-24.07.2014, Austin, Texas, USA

Publ.-Id: 21264

Realizing a laser-driven electron source applicable for radiobiological tumor irradiation

Nicolai, M.; Sävert, A.; Reuter, M.; Schnell, M.; Polz, J.; Jäckel, O.; Karsch, L.; Schürer, M.; Oppelt, M.; Pawelke, J.; Kaluza, M.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    41st IOP Plasma Physics Conference, 14.-17.04.2014, London, UK
  • Contribution to proceedings
    41st IOP Plasma Physics Conference, 14.-17.04.2014, London, UK
    Book of Abstracts (2014) 18
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Frühjahrstagung des Fachverbandes Plasmaphysik der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft, 17.-21.03.2014, Berlin, Deutschland
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Frühjahrstagung des Fachverbandes Plasmaphysik der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft, 17.-21.03.2014, Berlin, Deutschland
    Verhandl. DPG 49,2 (VI) (2014) P26.3

Publ.-Id: 21262

Source and shielding calculations at a PET cyclotron and possible activation in the soil

Konheiser, J.; Ferrari, A.; Naumann, B.; Müller, S.; Brachem, C.

This presentation summarizes the results of the Monte Carlo simulation of the shielding calculations and estimates of the soil activation for the new cyclotron of the HZDR (Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf). The dose values were determined on base of the resulting neutron flux at the 18F production. The calculations were carried out with the Monte Carlo code MCNP5. The neutron source was used both calculated with ALICE-91 code (manufacturer) and calculated with MCNP6. The comparison of the sources shows that ALICE-91 produced significantly fewer neutrons. The calculation of the soil activations was performed with FLUKA. In addition the effects of the energy increasing of the protons from 24 to 28 MeV were evaluated.
It could be shown that the expected total dose rate in the public area is about 0.1 mSv/h and thus significantly below the permissible value of 0.5 microSv/h. The activities generated in the soil are mainly determined by radionuclides with short half-life. After 5 years of continuous beam operation and a subsequent decay time of 30 days, the allowable value is used up only to 0.2%.

Keywords: Monte Carlo simulation; cyclotron; 18F production; dose rate; neutron soure

  • Lecture (others)
    14. AAA Workshop, 01.12.2014, Garching, Germany

Publ.-Id: 21261

New systematically modified vesamicol analogs and their affinity and selectivity for the vesicular acetylcholine transporter – A critical examination of the lead structure.

Barthel, C.; Sorger, D.; Deuther-Conrad, W.; Scheunemann, M.; Schweiger, S.; Jäckel, P.; Roghani, A.; Steinbach, J.; Schüürmann, G.; Sabri, O.; Brust, P.; Wenzel, B.

To verify vesamicol as lead structure in the development of radioligands for imaging of VAChT in the brain by PET, we systematically modified this molecule and investigated five different groups of derivatives. Structural changes were conducted in all three ring systems A, B, and C resulting in a library of 67 different vesamicol analogs. Based on their in vitro binding affinity toward VAChT as well as σ1 and σ2 receptors, we performed an extensive structure-affinity relationship (SAR) study regarding both affinity and selectivity. The compounds possessed VAChT affinities in the range of 1.32 nM (benzovesamicol) to > 10 µM and selectivity factors from 0.1 to 73 regarding σ1 and σ2 receptors, respectively. We could confirm the exceptional position of benzovesamicols as most affine VAChT ligands. However, we also observed that most of the compounds with high VAChT affinity demonstrated considerable affinity in particular to the σ1 receptor. Finally, none of the various vesamicol analogs in all five groups showed an in vitro binding profile suitable for specific VAChT imaging in the brain.

Keywords: VAChT; Vesamicol; PET; Sigma receptors

Publ.-Id: 21260

Development of laser-driven proton radiotherapy

Pawelke, J.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    4th University Cancer Center Discussion Platform on Radiation Research in Oncology, 30.04.2014, Dresden, Germany

Publ.-Id: 21259

Charge Exchange and energy loss of slow highly charged ions in 1nm thick carbon nanomembranes

Wilhelm, R. A.; Gruber, E.; Ritter, R.; Heller, R.; Facsko, S.; Aumayr, F.

It has been demonstrated in recent years that slow highly charged ions can be used as an efficient tool for nano-structure formation on in- sulating solid surfaces mainly by deposition of their potential energy. By reducing the solid thickness into the nano-meter range a limit is reached where on the one hand the ion may not be completely neutralized in the solid membrane and on the other hand dissipation of the deposited energy may be limited to two spacial dimensions. To investigate the energy deposition and neutralization processes in 2D- materials by slow highly charged ions we performed charge exchange and energy loss measurements of slow highly charged Xe ions transmitted through ultra thin polymeric carbon membranes. Surprisingly, two distinct exit charge state distributions accompanied by charge ex- change dependent kinetic energy losses are observed. The energy loss for ions exhibiting large charge loss shows a quadratic dependency on the incident charge state, indicating that equilibrium stopping force values do not apply in this case. The combination of charge transfer and kinetic energy loss measurements allows us to link the two differ- ent exit charge state distributions to ion trajectories through distinct local electron densities distributions in the membrane.

Related publications

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Frühjahrestagung der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft - Sektion Festkörperphysik, 31.03.-04.04.2014, Dresden, Deutschland
  • Poster
    73th IUVSTA Workshop on Nanostructures on two-dimensional solids, 22.-26.09.2014, Eisenerz, Österreich
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Ionenstrahlworkshop 2014, 20.-22.07.2014, Paderborn, Deutschland
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Physics on a Boat, 03.-05.06.2014, Helsinki, Finnland

Publ.-Id: 21258

Ion beam synthesis for hybrid nanoelectronics: beyond silicon limits

Prucnal, S.; Lugstein, A.; Glaser, M.; Helm, M.; Zhou, S.; Skorupa, W.

A key milestone for the next generation of high-performance nanoelectronic devices is the monolithic integration of III-V compound semiconductor materials with silicon technology. The incorporation of different functional III-V nano- and optoelectronic elements on a single chip enables performance progress, which can overcome the downsizing limit in silicon technology. Conventionally, the integration of III-V semiconductors with Si is based on the heteroepitaxial growth of multi-layered structures on Si or a variety of wafer bonding techniques. Devices based on such structures combine the high carrier mobility and high luminescence efficiency of III-V semiconductors with the advantages of well-developed silicon technology. We have shown that the ion beam implantation technique (fluences of 1x1016 ion/cm2 to 4x1016 ion/cm2) followed by millisecond-range flash lamp annealing can be successfully utilised for the fabrication of different Si/III-V heterojunctions on bulk Si and SOI substrates [1-3]. Recently, we have extended the application of ion beam implantation followed by ms liquid-phase processing into the fabrication of hybrid 1D materials. We have demonstrated axial heteronanowires consisting of III-V compound semiconductor and Si using advanced processing steps of silicon technology [4]. The clou of this approach is the phase formation within milliseconds via the liquid phase leading to excellent crystalline properties in the volume and at the interface of the nanocrystals. This paves the way for a hybrid 1D nano-/optoelectronics with high-mobility and optically active materials, compatible to standard Si technology. Moreover, this kind of processing on the nanoscale could lead to a renewed interest in the field of ion beam synthesis. 1. S. Prucnal, et al., Nano Lett. 11, 2814 (2011). 2. S. Prucnal, et al., Nanotechnology 23, 485204 (2012). 3. S. Prucnal, et al., J. Appl. Phys. 115, 074306 (2014). 4. S. Prucnal, et al., Nano Research, submitted (2014).

Keywords: III-V; ion implantation; liquid-phase processing; FLA

Related publications

  • Lecture (Conference)
    19th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials (IBMM 2014), 14.-19.09.2014, Leuven, Belgium

Publ.-Id: 21257

OFOCell concept for low cost silicon photovoltaics

Prucnal, S.; Skorupa, W.

The incredible growth rates of the PV solar industry have allowed manufacturing efficiencies that are unheard of in other industries. Nowadays in the solar cells industry the main effort is directed to the cost reduction of the solar panels fabrication which will decrease the average price per kWh from presence 0.20 €/kWh down to 0.07 €/kWh in 2020. Generally it is realized by using much cheaper polycrystalline wafers, reduction of the overall wafer thickness and/or simplification of the production complexity. We propose the simplification of the production process of silicon solar cells using only one step millisecond annealing for the whole solar cell processing and replacing standard phosphorous thermal diffusion by plasma immersion ion implantation. Our technology can be directly transferred to an in-line production process leading to significant cost reduction and decreasing the amount of chemicals used during solar cell manufacturing. Due to one step millisecond range flash lamp annealing (FLA) the overall thermal budget needed for the solar cell fabrication is significantly reduced. Moreover the emitter formed by ion implantation and FLA is clean and allows the precise control of the dopant concentration and width of the p-n junction.

Keywords: FLA; solar cells; silicon

Related publications

  • Poster
    E-MRS 2014 SPRING MEETING, 26.-30.05.2014, Lille, France

Publ.-Id: 21256

Purification of SoG silicon by millisecond range internal gettering of metal impurities

Prucnal, S.; Bregolin, F. L.; Krockert, K.; Wiesenhütter, U.; Skorupa, W.

Cost reduction is the overall goal in the further development of the photovoltaic technologies. The solar-grade (SoG) mc-Si produced by upgrading metallurgical-grade silicon is an attractive material for low-cost solar cells. The remaining impurities after the purification process, mainly transition metals, are the main obstacle towards highly efficient solar cells, effectively limiting the minority carrier lifetime. Here we propose a novel method for the purification of SoG silicon by a millisecond range low thermal budget internal gettering process. The solar cells were produced by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation of phosphorous using PH3 gas source and millisecond range Flash Lamp Annealing (ms-FLA). To study the metal distribution during ms-FLA, Cz-Silicon wafer were intentionally doped with iron. An influence of different thermal treatments on the diffusion of iron and the optoelectronic properties of metal contaminated silicon wafers were investigated by RBS, cross-section TEM, Raman spectroscopy, photoluminescence and surface photovoltage spectroscopy. We have shown that diffusion of metal impurities into the space charge region can be avoided by an one step ms-FLA step, only. It will be presented that the implanted phosphorous is electrically activated and all defects introduced into silicon during the ion implantation process are removed while metal impurities are kept far away from the p-n junction region. The effect of hydrogen co-implanted with phosphorous on the redistribution of iron will be explored. ms-FLA is demonstrated here as a very promising technique for the emitter formation in SoG silicon using an low thermal budget, only.

Keywords: Si; solar cells; FLA; photovoltaics

Related publications

  • Lecture (Conference)
    E-MRS 2014 SPRING MEETING, 26.-30.05.2014, Lille, France

Publ.-Id: 21255

Improved SoG silicon substrates produced by internal gettering of metal impurities induced by millisecond-range flash lamp annealing

Bregolin, F. L.; Prucnal, S.; Krockert, K.; Mathey, A.; Wiesenhütter, U.; Skorupa, W.

The research highlights for the further development of silicon based solar cell technologies focus on the cost reduction by applying inexpensive materials such as Solar Grade Multicrystalline Silicon (SoG mc-Si) and/or the simplification of the production process. Replacement of standard diffusion based doping by ion implantation reduces two of the solar cell production steps: elimination of the phosphosilicate glass (PSG) cleaning and edge isolation steps. Although ion implantation doping got very recently distinct consideration for doping of monocrystalline solar material, efficient doping of multicrystalline solar material remains the main challenge to reduce the costs. The usefulness of the plasma immersion ion implantation system (PIII) combined with advanced flash lamp annealing (FLA) was already validated. We have shown that within the millisecond annealing time, implanted phosphorous is electrically activated and silicon is recrystallized. Simultaneously, the diffusion of metal impurities and their activation is suppressed.

Keywords: Multicrystalline Silicon; flash lamp annealing; plasma immersion ion implantation

Related publications

  • Lecture (Conference)
    X-th International Conference Ion Implantation and other Applications of Ions and Electrons, 23.-26.06.2014, Kazimierz Dolny, Poland

Publ.-Id: 21254

Hyperdoping of semiconductors by ion implantation and ultrafast annealing: solid vs. liquid phase epitaxy

Prucnal, S.; Gao, K.; Skorupa, I.; Liu, F.; Skorupa, W.; Zhou, S.

Hyperdoped semiconductors exhibit exotic physical properties opening new routes for the fabrication of highly-sensitive photodetectors, intermediate band solar cells and ultra-fast nanoelectronics. The engineering of the electronic band structure in semiconductors by hyperdoping allows the strong enhancement of the below-band-gap photocurrent generation, insulator-to-metal transition (IMT) or creation of new magneto-optoelectronic devices. Hyperdoping requires an incorporation of foreign elements into the lattice side of the semiconductor far above the solid solubility limits. To this day the hyperdoping was realised either by the low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy or by the femtosecond or nanosecond liquid phase epitaxy during laser annealing. Here, we propose the novel millisecond range solid phase epitaxy performed by the flash lamp annealing (FLA) technique with a time range in between rapid thermal annealing and laser melting. The FLA was successfully utilised to fabricate ferromagnetic GaMnAs alloys with excellent optical properties, an IMT in the chalcogen doped Si with a substitutional rate higher than 70% or highly-conductive TCO (aluminium doped ZnO). Experimental data show that ion implantation followed by the millisecond range FLA is a cost-effective and high-throughput alternative for the processing of the hyperdoped semiconductors with outstanding properties.

Keywords: Hyperdoping; Si; GaAs; insulator-to-metal transition

Related publications

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    ION 2014 - X-th International Conference on Ion Implantation and Other Applications of Ions and Electrons, 23.-26.06.2014, Kazimierz Dolny, Poland

Publ.-Id: 21253

Utilization of flash lamp annealing for processing of low-cost TCO layers

Mathey, A.; Prucnal, S.; Wiesenhütter, K.; Vines, L.; Lindberg, P.; Svensson, B.; Bregolin, F. L.; Skorupa, W.

Aluminum-doped zinc oxide (AZO) is one of the most promising transparent conductive oxides (TCO) characterized by low resistivity, high transparency and most of all, by low cost of fabrication. AZO thin-films were deposited on p-type Si wafers via r.f. magnetron sputtering either at room temperature or at 400 oC and subsequently annealed in the millisecond-range, utilizing flash lamp annealing (FLA). Here, we have investigated the influence of the deposition parameters and post-deposition FLA treatment on the optoelectronic properties of the AZO layer. It is shown that the millisecond range flash lamp annealing significantly enhances the electrical activation of Al and suppresses secondary phase formation during post-deposition annealing. Moreover, the optoelectronic and microstructural properties of the FLA treated samples are independent on the deposition temperature. This, in turn opens the possibility for a further, highly-desired cost reduction of the overall fabrication process. The FLA technique is cost-effective and a high-throughput alternative for processing of AZO films.

Keywords: AZO; flash lamp annealing; magnetron sputtering

Related publications

  • Poster
    ION 2014 X-th International Conference on Ion Implantation and Other Applications of Ions and Electrons, 23.-26.06.2014, Kazimierz Dolny, Poland

Publ.-Id: 21252

Influence of Flash Lamp Annealing on the Optical Properties of CIGS Layer

Prucnal, S.; Jiao, F.; Reichel, D.; Zhao, K.; Cornelius, S.; Turek, M.; Pyszniak, K.; Drozdziel, A.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.; Zhou, S.

Copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) becomes more significant for solar cell applications as an alternative to silicon. The quality of the layer has a critical impact on the final efficiency of the solar cell. An influence of the post-deposition millisecond range flash lamp annealing on the optical and microstructural properties of the GIGS films was investigated. Based on the Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy, it is shown that flash lamp annealing reduces the defect concentration and leads to an increase of the photoluminescence intensity by a factor of six compared to the nonannealed sample. Moreover, after flash lamp annealing the degradation of the photoluminescence is significantly suppressed and the absolute absorption in the wavelength range of 200-1200 nm increases by 25%.

Keywords: CIGS; flash lamp annealing; solar cells; photoluminescence

Related publications

Publ.-Id: 21251

III–V semiconductor nanocrystal formation in silicon nanowires via liquid-phase epitaxy

Prucnal, S.; Glaser, M.; Lugstein, A.; Bertagnolli, E.; Stöger-Pollach, M.; Zhou, S.; Helm, M.; Reichel, D.; Rebohle, L.; Turek, M.; Zuk, J.; Skorupa, W.

Direct integration of high-mobility III-V compound semiconductors with existing Si based CMOS processing platforms presents a main challenge to increase the CMOS performance and the scaling trend. Silicon hetero-nanowires with integrated III-V segments are one of the most promising candidates for advanced nano-optoelectronics as first demonstrated using molecular beam epitaxy techniques. Here we demonstrate a novel route for InAs/Si hybrid nanowire fabrication via millisecond range liquid-phase epitaxy regrowth using sequential ion beam implantation and flash-lamp annealing. We show that such highly mismatched systems can be monolithically integrated within a single nanowire. Optical and microstructural investigations confirm the high quality hetero-nanowire fabrication coupled with the formation of atomically sharp interface between Si and InAs segments. Such hybrid systems open new routes for future high-speed and multifunctional nanoelectronic devices on a single chip.

Keywords: liquid phase epitaxy; InAs; heteronanowires; silicon; ion implantation

Related publications

Publ.-Id: 21250

Optoelectronic properties of ZnO film on silicon after SF6 plasma treatment and milliseconds annealing

Prucnal, S.; Gao, K.; Zhou, S.; Wu, J.; Cai, H.; Gordan, O. D.; Zahn, D. R. T.; Larkin, G.; Helm, M.; Skorupa, W.

Zinc oxide thin film is one of the most promising candidates for the transparent conductive layer in microelectronic and photovoltaic applications, due to its low resistivity and high transmittance in the visible spectral range. In this letter we present optoelectronic and structural properties of fluorine doped ZnO films deposited at low temperature on a silicon substrate. The fluorine doping was made by post-deposition SF6 plasma treatment and activation by the millisecond range flash lamp annealing. Both the microstructural and optical investigations confirm the formation of a high-quality, highly-doped n-type ZnO layer. The current-voltage characteristics show a heterojunction between n++-ZnO and Si. Moreover, it is shown that the SF6 plasma treatment efficiently passivates the surface state and bulk defects in the ZnO film.

Keywords: ZnO; plasma immersion ion implantation; pulsed laser deposition; flash lamp annealing; SF6

Related publications

Publ.-Id: 21249

The influence of different signal-to-background ratios on spatial resolution and F18-FDG-PET quantification using point spread function and time-of-flight reconstruction

Rogasch, J. M. M.; Hofheinz, F.; Lougovski, A.; Furth, C.; Ruf, J.; Großer, O. S.; Mohnike, K.; Hass, P.; Walke, M.; Amthauer, H.; Steffen, I. G.


F18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (FDG-PET) reconstruction algorithms can have substantial influence on quantitative image data used, e.g., for therapy planning or monitoring in oncology. We analyzed radial activity concentration profiles of differently reconstructed FDG-PET images to determine the influence of varying signal-to-background ratios (SBRs) on the respective spatial resolution, activity concentration distribution, and quantification (standardized uptake value [SUV], metabolic tumor volume [MTV]).


Measurements were performed on a Siemens Biograph mCT 64 using a cylindrical phantom containing four spheres (diameter, 30 to 70 mm) filled with F18-FDG applying three SBRs (SBR1, 16:1; SBR2, 6:1; SBR3, 2:1). Images were reconstructed employing six algorithms (filtered backprojection [FBP], FBP + time-of-flight analysis [FBP + TOF], 3D-ordered subset expectation maximization [3D-OSEM], 3D-OSEM + TOF, point spread function [PSF], PSF + TOF). Spatial resolution was determined by fitting the convolution of the object geometry with a Gaussian point spread function to radial activity concentration profiles. MTV delineation was performed using fixed thresholds and semiautomatic background-adapted thresholding (ROVER, ABX, Radeberg, Germany).


The pairwise Wilcoxon test revealed significantly higher spatial resolutions for PSF + TOF (up to 4.0 mm) compared to PSF, FBP, FBP + TOF, 3D-OSEM, and 3D-OSEM + TOF at all SBRs (each P < 0.05) with the highest differences for SBR1 decreasing to the lowest for SBR3. Edge elevations in radial activity profiles (Gibbs artifacts) were highest for PSF and PSF + TOF declining with decreasing SBR (PSF + TOF largest sphere; SBR1, 6.3%; SBR3, 2.7%). These artifacts induce substantial SUVmax overestimation compared to the reference SUV for PSF algorithms at SBR1 and SBR2 leading to substantial MTV underestimation in threshold-based segmentation. In contrast, both PSF algorithms provided the lowest deviation of SUVmean from reference SUV at SBR1 and SBR2.


At high contrast, the PSF algorithms provided the highest spatial resolution and lowest SUVmean deviation from the reference SUV. In contrast, both algorithms showed the highest deviations in SUVmax and threshold-based MTV definition. At low contrast, all investigated reconstruction algorithms performed approximately equally. The use of PSF algorithms for quantitative PET data, e.g., for target volume definition or in serial PET studies, should be performed with caution

  • especially if comparing SUV of lesions with high and low contrasts.

Keywords: FDG-PET/CT reconstruction; PSF; TOF; Spatial resolution; Metabolic tumor volume delineation; Signal-to-background ratio; Radial activity concentration profile; Gibbs artifact; Ringing artifact; Gibbs phenomenon

Publ.-Id: 21247

Spin coated targets for filamentation studies

Kraft, S.

In our presentation we report on the experimental observation of spatially modulated proton beams.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Targert Fabrication Workshop 5, 06.-11.07.2014, St. Andrews, Great Britain

Publ.-Id: 21246

Status of laser ion acceleration at HZDR

Kraft, S.

Within the last years, numerous activities in laser particle acceleration have been taken place at the 100TW ultra-short pulse Laser system Draco at HZDR. Special emphasis was laid on developing an ion beam suitable for applications. In order to achieve high proton energies various approaches such as mass limited targets and active pre-plasma formation have been tested.

Recently, the laser is upgraded to a dual beam system delivering 30f pulses with 100TW as well as synchronized 1PW pulses. The talk will give an overview over the particle acceleration activities focussing on Laser ion acceleration as well as a current status of the laser upgrade in Dresden.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Seminar der Plasmaphysik, 12.11.2014, Darmstadt, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 21245

Development of a compact particle therapy facility with laser driven ion beams via novel pulse powered gantry systems

Masood, U.; Baumann, M.; Bussmann, M.; Cowan, T.; Enghardt, W.; Hermannsdörfer, T.; Hofmann, K.; Kaluza, M.; Karsch, L.; Kroll, F.; Schramm, U.; Schürer, M.; Wilkens, J.; Pawelke, J.

  • Contribution to proceedings
    53th Particle Therapy Cooperative Group (PTCOG) Meeting, 08.-14.06.2014, Shanghai, China, 299

Publ.-Id: 21244

Fast measurement of 3-d dose distributions

Pawelke, J.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    29th Conference on Clinical and Experimental Research in Radiation Oncology (CERRO 29), 18.-25.01.2014, Les Menuires, France

Publ.-Id: 21243

Entwicklung von Elektromagneten mit kurzen, hohen Strompulsen für die Laser basierte Protonentherapie

Schürer, M.; Hermannsdörfer, T.; Karsch, L.; Kroll, F.; Masood, U.; Pawelke, J.

Related publications

  • Lecture (Conference)
    7. Tagung Feinwerktechnische Konstruktion, 05.-06.11.2013, Dresden, Deutschland
  • Contribution to proceedings
    7. Tagung Feinwerktechnische Konstruktion, 05.-06.11.2013, Dresden, Deutschland
    In: T. Nagel (Ed.): Trends in der Feinwerktechnik. Mechatronik 5, München: IGT Verlag, 13-14

Publ.-Id: 21242

Uranium sorption on montmorillonite at high ionic strengths: Surface complexation modelling

Fritsch, K.; Schmeide, K.

The current results of surface complexation modelling of U(VI) complexes on montmorillonite in NaCl and a NaCl/CaCl2/MgCl2 mixed electrolyte of high ionic strength are presented.

Keywords: uranium sorption; argillaceous rock; clay; uranium; montmorillonite; high ionic strength; surface complexation modelling

  • Lecture (others)
    7. Workshop des Verbundprojekts „Rückhaltung endlagerrelevanter Radionuklide im natürlichen Tongestein und in salinaren Systemen“, 28.-29.10.2014, Saarbrücken, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 21240

Simulations of precessing flows in cylindrical geometry

Giesecke, A.

no abstract available

Keywords: Precession; DRESDYN; DYNAMO

  • Lecture (Conference)
    MHD Days 2014, 02.-03.12.2014, Potsdam, Germany

Publ.-Id: 21239

Radiolabelling of colloids for highly sensitive detection in transport studies Vortrag im Rahmen des BELBaR WP2 und WP4 Projekttreffens, 30.-31. Oktober, Prag

Hildebrand, H.; Schymura, S.; Kulenkampff, J.; Lippmann-Pipke, J.; Franke, K.

In dem Vortrag wurde für einen Teil des BELBaR Konsortiums ein Überblick über am HZDR/FSL vorhandene Radiomarkierungsmöglichkeiten für Kolloide bzw. Nanopartikel gegeben.

  • Lecture (others)
    Joined meeting of WP2 and WP4 within the EC project BELBaR, 30.-31.10.2014, Prag, Tschechische Republik

Publ.-Id: 21238

Cyclopeptides containing the DEKS motif as conformationally restricted collagen telopeptide analogues: synthesis and conformational analysis

Wodtke, R.; Ruiz-Gómez, G.; Kuchar, M.; Pisabarro, M. T.; Novotná, P.; Urbanová, M.; Steinbach, J.; Pietzsch, J.; Löser, R.

The collagen telopeptides play an important role for lysyl oxidase-mediated crosslinking, a process which is deregulated during tumour progression. The DEKS motif which is located within the N-terminal telopeptide of the α1 chain of type I collagen has been suggested to adopt a βI-turn conformation upon docking to its triple-helical receptor domain, which seems to be critical for lysyl oxidase-catalysed deamination and subsequent crosslinking by Schiff-base formation. Herein, the design and synthesis of cyclic peptides which constrain the DEKS sequence in a β-turn conformation will be described. Lysine-side chain attachment to 2-chlorotrityl chloride-modified polystyrene resin followed by microwave-assisted solid-phase peptide synthesis and on-resin cyclisation allowed for an efficient access to head-to-tail cyclised DEKS-derived cyclic penta- and hexapeptides. An Nε-(4-fluorobenzoyl)lysine residue was included in the cyclopeptides to allow their potential radiolabelling with fluorine-18 for PET imaging of lysyl oxidase. Conformational analysis by 1H NMR and chiroptical (electronic and vibrational CD) spectroscopy together with MD simulations demonstrated that the concomitant incorporation of a D-proline and an additional lysine for potential radiolabel attachment accounts for a reliable induction of the desired βI-turn structure in the DEKS motif in both DMSO and water as solvents. The stabilised conformation of the cyclohexapetide is further reflected by its resistance to trypsin-mediated degradation. In addition, the deaminated analogue containing allysine in place of lysine has been synthesised via the corresponding ε-hydroxynorleucine containing cyclohexapeptide. Both ε-hydroxynorleucine and allysine containing cyclic hexapeptides have been subjected to conformational analysis in the same manner as the lysine-based parent structure. Thus, both a conformationally restricted lysyl oxidase substrate and product have been synthetically accessed, which will enable their potential use for molecular imaging of these important enzymes.

Publ.-Id: 21237

Colloidal Probe Atomic Force Microscopy to determine the Floatability of Minerals in Ores

Rudolph, M.

Flotation is without a doubt one of the major processes for the separation of fine minerals and it has been applied for more than a century. A key task of a successful flotation separation is to find the proper chemical treatment to selectively hydrophobize and thus float a certain mineral phase using molecules or ions referred to as collectors, depressants, regulators and frothers. Commonly floatability is determined by microflotation tests using the Hallimond tube with pure mineral phases. This method however requires the pure mineral phase which is very often not even taken from the same deposit which is going to be processed. In this paper we present a new approach to in-situ determine and even map the floatability of finely disseminated mineral phases within cross-sections of an ore. It is based on measuring hydrophobic effects using colloidal probe atomic force microscopy with a hydrophobic polystyrene probe based on force spectroscopy with a lateral resolution of only a few nanometers. Coupled confocal Raman spectroscopy on the same locality enables the identification of the mineral phase. We present the working principles of the method and show which signals in the force spectra characteristic for hydrophobic interactions can be used to define floatability and which can then be mapped as single quantities, e.g. jump-into-contact events due to nanobubble occurrence or parameters of the long range interaction curves most probably due to capillary effects.
A finely grained silicate ore containing the valuable rare earth mineral eudialyte from southern Sweden as well as pure samples of magnetite are presented as substrates to demonstrate the capability of this new approach.
This method will not only help to find the proper flotation chemistry but it can furthermore help in researching and unravelling problems of floatability within similar mineral phases.

  • Contribution to proceedings
    International Mineral Processing Congress 2014, 20.-24.10.2014, Santiago de Chile, Chile
    Proceedings of the XXVII International Mineral Processing Congress – IMPC 2014

Publ.-Id: 21236

Subcritical bifurcation to turbulence in precessing flow

Gundrum, T.; Herault, J.; Steglich, C.; Giesecke, A.; Stefani, F.; Gerbeth, G.

Subcritical bifurcation to turbulence in precessing flow in the water mockup for the DRESDYN Experiment

Keywords: Precession driven dynamo; Subcritical bifurcation; metastable transition

  • Lecture (Conference)
    MHD Days 2014, 02.-03.12.2014, Potsdam, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 21235

Supernova-Produced 26Al and 60Fe in Deep-Sea Sediments

Feige, J.; Wallner, A.; Fifield, L. K.; Merchel, S.; Rugel, G.; Steier, P.; Tims, S.; Winkler, S. R.; Golser, R.

Massive stars, which end their lives in a supernova (SN) explosion, eject freshly produced nuclides into the surrounding interstellar medium. Among them long-lived radionuclides, that can be deposited into terrestrial archives, if such an event occurs close to the Solar System.
About 100 samples of four deep-sea sediment cores originating from the Indian Ocean were analyzed for their content in the isotopes 26Al and 60Fe for the time range of 2-3 Myr. These nuclides are produced in SNe and the time range corresponds to an 60Fe enhancement observed in a deep-ocean crust sample (Knie et al., 2004). The method used for analysis is accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), a very sensitive technique for the detection of long-lived radionuclides.
A clear signal of 60Fe throughout the whole measured time period was observed. This observation is in contrast to a narrow peak if originating from a direct input from a single SN. Further, no 60Fe was detected in much older or younger sediment samples. A concurring SN-signal of 26Al is, however, hidden underneath a dominant terrestrial background from continuous atmospheric and in-situ production. The resulting limits on the ratios of 60Fe/26Al were compared to nucleosynthesis models.

Keywords: AMS; supernova; radionuclide

Related publications

  • Lecture (Conference)
    DPG Frühjahrstagung des Arbeitskreises Atome, Moleküle, Quantenoptik und Plasmen (AMOP), 23.-27.03.2015, Heidelberg, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 21234

High-energy diode-pumped D2O-cooled multislab Yb:YAG and Yb:QX-glass lasers

Siebold, M.; Loeser, M.; Röser, F.; Albach, D.; Schramm, U.

We investigated the performance of multislab Yb:QX and Yb:YAG laser amplifiers using low absorption heavy-water (D2O) as coolant. We demonstrated a pulse energy of 1 J at a repetition rate of up to 10 Hz.

Keywords: Laser amplifiers; Laser cooling; Lasers, diode-pumped; Lasers, ytterbium

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Advanced Solid State Lasers (ASSL) Conference, 16.-21.11.2014, Shanghai, China
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Advanced Solid State Lasers (ASSL) Conference, 16.-21.11.2014, Shanghai, China
    Advanced Solid State Lasers 2014, OSA Technical Digest, 978-1-55752-822-3

Publ.-Id: 21233

Broadband, diode-pumped Yb-doped fused bulk silica laser

Röser, F.; Loeser, M.; Albach, D.; Siebold, M.; Schramm, U.; Grimm, S.; Brand, D.; Langner, A.; Schötz, G.; Schönfeld, D.

We successfully demonstrated cw lasing of ytterbium-doped fused bulk silica glass. We achieved a highly polarized output with a slope efficiency of 52% and a wavelength tuning range from 1005-1110 nm.

Keywords: Lasers, diode-pumped; Lasers, ytterbium; Lasers, solid-state; Laser materials

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Advanced Solid State Lasers (ASSL) Conference, 16.-21.11.2014, Shanghai, China
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Advanced Solid State Lasers (ASSL) Conference, 16.-21.11.2014, Shanghai, China
    Advanced Solid State Lasers 2014, OSA Technical Digest, 978-1-55752-822-3

Publ.-Id: 21232

Interaction of uranium with isolated microorganisms of the former uranium mine Königstein (Saxony, Germany)

Gerber, U.; Krawczyk-Bärsch, E.; Arnold, T.; Stumpf, T.

The uranium waste mine Königstein (Saxony, Germany) is heavily polluted with heavy metals, especially with uranium. Despite the high concentrations of heavy metals, the mine is a reservoir for many different microorganisms that have evolved special strategies to survive in these extreme environments. Their ubiquitous occurrence is of fundamental interest to understand the migration behavior of radionuclides within the biosphere. Furthermore, microorganisms are the beginning of the food chain, and therefore the transfer of bound uranium along this food chain could rise to a serious threat to human health. Biosorption of radionuclides especially uranium by microorganisms regulates the mobility of the metal in the environment. Thus, microorganisms could be used to clean-up contaminated soils, sediments, and waters by removing uranium and other radionuclides, due to bioremediation processes.

Keywords: Uranium; Königstein; Interaction; Microorganisms

  • Poster
    Projekttreffen TransAqua, 25.-27.11.2014, Karlsruhe, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 21230

Kontaminationsfreie Injektion von Radiotracern für die Prozesstomographie von Transportprozessen in Geomaterialien

Kulenkampff, J.

Prozessverständnis und Modellierung von Transport in natürlichen geklüfteten oder porösen Geomaterialien (Böden, Gesteine) sind aufgrund der komplizierten geometrischen Randbedingungen auf der Mikroskala und der heterogenen Struktur und Zusammensetzung des Materials besonders schwierige Aufgaben. Gewöhnlich werden wie in weniger komplexen technischen Materialien, wie Filtern oder Reaktoren, einfache Modelle zur Beschreibung der Porzesse angewendet, die nur eine grobe Beschreibung der Prozesse erlauben und außerhalb ihres begrenzten Gültigkeitsbereichs versagen. Bei einer solchen Parametrisierung anhand von Durchbruchkurven wird das Material als Blackbox betrachtet und mit wenigen Parametern beschrieben (Abb. 1). Die Nutzung von Radioisotopen als Tracer für den mobilen Stoff ermöglicht Einblicke in den räumlich-zeitlichen Verlauf des Transports im Innern des opaken Versuchskörpers mit höchster Sensitivität und ohne chemische oder physikalische Rückwirkung auf den Prozess. Außerdem ist die einfache und selektive Detektierbarkeit geringster Konzentrationen von Radiotracern oft vorteilhaft. Präferentielle Transportwege, die Verzögerung des Transports durch Wechselwirkungen und gegebenenfalls auch die Immobilisierung der beobachteten Spezies im Versuchskörper können so erfasst werden (Abb. 2).
Es werden zylindrische Probekörper hergestellt (Durchmesser bis 30-100 mm, Länge 50-300 mm), mit Fluidanschlüssen an den Stirnflächen. Im Transportversuch wird kontinuierlich eine Trägerlösung mit Fließraten von 5 µL/min bis 5 mL/min injiziert. In Abhängigkeit vom Probenvolumen wird der Trägerlösung ein Tracerpuls (1-5 mL) hinzugefügt. Dieser Tracerpuls wird mit Positronen-Emissions-Tomographie quantitativ in seinem räumlich-zeitlichen Verlauf mit einer räumlichen Auflösung im Bereich von 1 mm erfasst. Für den Tracerpuls eingesetzte Aktivitäten betragen zwischen 1 MBq und 500 MBq. Sie werden mit einer Empfindlichkeit von 10 – 100 Bq/µL erfasst, was einer Sensitivität im picomolaren Bereich entspricht. Geeignete Radionuklide sind z. B. 18F, 124I, 64Cu, 58Co, 22Na mit Halbwertszeiten von Stunden bis Jahren. Mögliche Beobachtungszeiten sind etwa 10 Halbwertszeiten – also Tage bis Jahrzehnte.
Positronen-Emissions-Tomographie (PET) (Abb. 3) ist als höchst sensitive Methode der funktionellen medizinischen Diagnostik bekannt und wird vor allem in der Krebsdiagnostik und der biomedizinischen Forschung angewendet. Wegen des hohen Aufwandes gibt es wenige examplarische Anwendungen auf technischen Gebieten. Insbesondere wird PET in der Forschungsstelle Leipzig des HZDR seit über 10 Jahren erfolgreich für die Untersuchung von Prozessen in Geomaterialien eingesetzt (s. Literaturangaben).
Eine wichtige Rolle nimmt die zuverlässige Injektion des Tracers ein. Dabei sind Sicherheits- und Strahlenschutzaspekte zu berücksichtigen. Je nach Untersuchungsaufgabe werden unterschiedliche Pumpen eingesetzt (Schlauchpumpen, einfache Spritzenpumpen mit handelsüblichen Injektionsspritzen, HPLC-Pumpen, ISCO-Spritzenpumpen). Bei den zwei letzteren kann die Kontamination der Pumpe durch die Nutzung von Injektionsschleifen für den Radiotracer vermieden werden. Insbesondere bei langlebigen Tracern (58Co, 22Na) ist dabei aber besondere Vorsicht geboten.
Ergbebnis der Untersuchung sind zeitlich aufgelöste tomographische Darstellungen der Tracerkonzentration (Abb. 4). Hieraus lassen sich

  • lokale Tracerverteilungen
  • prozessabhängiges effektives Volumen
  • effektiv wirksamer Anteil innere Oberfläche (bei Wechselwirkungen)
  • Geschwindigkeitsverteilung
bestimmen. Gegenüber der Parametrisierung von Transportuntersuchungen durch Modellanpassung an Durchbruchkurven ergeben sich so verlässlichere real gemessenen Parametersätze und gleichzeitig eine bisher nicht erreichbare Verbesserung des Prozessverständnisses.
Richter, M., Gruendig, M., Zieger, K., Seese, A. and Sabri, O., 2005. Positron emission tomography for modelling of geochemical transport processes in clay. Radiochimica Acta, 93: 643-651.
Kulenkampff, J., Gründig, M., Richter, M. and Enzmann, F., 2008. Evaluation of positron-emission-tomography for visualisation of migration processes in geomaterials. Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, 33(14–16): 937-942.
Wolf, M.; Kulenkampff, J.; Enzmann, F.; Gründig, M.; Richter, M.; Lippmann-Pipke, J.; Mittmann, H., 2010. 3D-Visualisierung und Quantifizierung von Fluidströmungen in Salinargestein mittels Positronen-Emissions-Tomographie. EDGG Exkursionsführer & Tagungspublikationen 244(2010), Hannover: Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften e.V.
Kulenkampff, J.; Gründig, M.; Korn, N.; Zakhnini, A.; Barth, T.; Lippmann-Pipke, J., 2013. Application of high-resolution positron-emission-tomography for quantitative spatiotemporal process monitoring in dense material. 7. World Congress on Industrial Process Tomography, 02.-05.09.2013, Krakow, Poland.
Bittner, L.; Kulenkampff, J.; Gründig, M.; Lippmann-Pipke, J.; Enzmann, F. , 2014. Direct Observation of Waterglass Impregnation of Fractured Salt Rock with Positron Emission Tomography. International Conference on the Performance of Engineered Barriers: Backfill, Plugs & Seals, 06.-07.02.2014, Hannover, Deutschland
  • Lecture (others)
    ISCO-Anwendertreffen, 09.12.2014, Potsdam, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 21229

Refined reconstruction of liquid-gas interface structures for stratified two-phase flow using wire-mesh sensor

Schleicher, E.; Aydin, T. B.; Vieira, R. E.; Torres, C. F.; Pereyra, E.; Sarica, C.; Hampel, U.

Wire-mesh sensors (WMS), developed at HZDR [11], [2], are widely used to visualize two-phase flows and measure flow parameters, such as phase fraction distributions or gas phase velocities quantitatively and with a very high temporal resolution. They have been extensively applied to a wide range of two-phase gas-liquid flow problems with conducting and non-conducting liquids. However, for very low liquid loadings, the state of the art data analysis algorithms for WMS data suffer from the comparably low spatial resolution of measurements and from boundary effects, caused by e.g. flange rings - especially in the case of capacitance type WMS. In the recent past, diverse studies have been performed on two-phase liquid-gas stratified flow with low liquid loading conditions in horizontal pipes at the University of Tulsa. These tests cover oil-air flow in a 6-inch ID pipe and water-air flow in a 3-inch ID pipe employing dual WMS with 32x32 and 16x16 wires, respectively. For oil-air flow experiments, the superficial liquid and gas velocities vary between 9.2 m/s ≤ νSG ≤ 15 m/s and 0.01 m/s ≤ νSL ≤ 0.02 m/s, respectively [1]. In water-air experiments, the superficial liquid and gas velocities vary between 9.1 m/s ≤ νSG ≤ 33.5 m/s and 0.03 m/s ≤ νSL ≤ 0.2 m/s, respectively [14], [15]. In order to understand the stratified wavy structure of the flow, the reconstruction of the liquid-gas interface is essential. Due to the relatively low spatial resolution in the WMS measurements of approximately 5 mm, the liquid-gas interface recognition has always an unknown uncertainty level. In this work a novel algorithm for refined liquid-gas interface reconstruction is introduced for flow conditions where entrainment is negligible.

Keywords: Keywords Wire-mesh sensor; two-phase flow; stratified flow; liquid-gas interface recognition

Publ.-Id: 21228

Accumulation of plutonium in mammalian wildlife tissues following dispersal by accidental-release tests

Johansen, M. P.; Child, D. P.; Caffrey, E. A.; Davis, E.; Harrison, J. J.; Hotchkis, M. A. C.; Payne, T. E.; Ikeda-Ohno, A.; Thiruvoth, S.; Twining, J. R.; Beresford, N. A.

We examined the distribution of plutonium (Pu) in the tissues of mammalian wildlife inhabiting the relatively undisturbed, semi-arid former Taranaki weapons test site, Maralinga, Australia. The accumulation of absorbed Pu was highest in the skeleton, followed by muscle, liver, kidneys, and blood. Pu activity concentrations in lung tissues were elevated relative to the body average. Foetal transfer was higher in the wildlife data than in previous laboratory studies. The amount of Pu in the gastrointestinal tract was highly elevated relative to that absorbed within the body, potentially increasing transfer of Pu to wildlife and human consumers that may ingest gastrointestinal tract organs. The Pu distribution in the Maralinga mammalian wildlife generally aligns with previous studies related to environmental exposure (e.g. Pu in humans from worldwide fallout), but contrasts with the partitioning models that have traditionally been used for human worker-protection purposes (approximately equal deposition in bone and liver) which appear to under-predict the skeletal accumulation in environmental exposure conditions.

Keywords: actinides; plutonium; nuclear debris; accumulation; wildlife; radio ecology

Publ.-Id: 21227

Undesired air entrainment by vortex formation - experimental investigations on the resulting phase fraction distributions in a centrifugal pump using gamma-ray computed tomography

Schäfer, T.; Bieberle, A.; Neumann, M.; Hampel, U.

Air entrainment may occur in situations, where water is conveyed from a reservoir. There hollow vortices may form as a consequence of low liquid level and pre-existing fluid swirling. Particularly, such a situation may be prevailing in nuclear power plants, e.g. when emergency cooling water is taken from a liquid reservoir, like the condensation chamber. Presence of gas in pumps may lead to abrasion at impeller blades, strong vibrations with damaging of bearings and loss of cooling for shaft and bearings and early fatigue as a consequence. At least it will lead to decreasing pump performance even to the point of abrupt collapse of flow rate. The presented work contributes quantitative measurements, visualizations and analyses of gas-liquid phase distributions to the fundamental understanding of the effects of air entrainment in centrifugal pumps. Advanced tomographic measuring methods with high spatial resolution were applied to investigate the two-phase distribution in the impeller region of an industrial centrifugal pump.

Keywords: gamma-ray computed tomography; centrifugal pump; gas entrainment; two-phase flow

  • Poster
    East German Centre of Competence in Nuclear Technology Workshop of Doctoral Candidates, 04.12.2014, Zittau, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 21226

Application of gamma-ray computed tomography for the analysis of gas holdup distributions in centrifugal pumps

Schäfer, T.; Bieberle, A.; Neumann, M.; Hampel, U.

In this work, gas-liquid distributions in an industrial centrifugal pump operated at various steady state conditions have been quantitatively determined. Therefore, high-resolution gamma-ray computed tomography (HireCT) has been applied, operated in time-averaging rotation-synchronized CT scanning mode. Detailed studies have been performed on a hydraulic test facility providing authentic operating conditions for industrial centrifugal pumps. The gas distribution in the centrifugal pump has been studied at defined inlet gas volumetric flow rates between 0% and 5% and for two different inlet flow regimes, namely disperse and swirling gas-liquid two-phase flow. In this way, the influence of the inlet flow boundary conditions on the performance as well as gas fraction distributions and gas holdup distribution within the impeller region could be successfully determined.

Keywords: gamma-ray computed tomography; centrifugal pump; gas entrainment; two-phase flow

Publ.-Id: 21225

Obtaining magnitude-cumulative frequency curves from rockfall scar size distribution using cosmogenic chlorine-36 in the Montsec area (Eastern Pyrenees, Spain)

Domènech, G.; Mavrouli, O.; Corominas, J.; Abellán, A.; Merchel, S.; Pavetich, S.; Rugel, G.

Magnitude-cumulative frequency (MCF) relations are commonly used components for assessing the rockfall hazard using databases of recorded events. However, in some cases, data are lacking or incomplete. To overcome this restriction, the volume distribution of the rockfall scars has been used instead. The latter may yield the temporal probability of occurrence if the time span required to generate the scars is known.
The Montsec range, located in the Eastern Pyrenees, Spain, was chosen as a pilot study area for investigating MCF distributions. This cliff, which is composed of limestones from Upper Cretaceous age, shows distinct evidences of rockfall activity, including large recent rockfall scars. These areas are identifiable by their orange colour, which contrasts in front of the greyish old stable (reference) surface of the cliff face. We present a procedure to obtain the MCF of the rockfall scars by dating an old reference cliff surface and measuring the total volume released since then. The reference cliff surface was dated using the terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) chlorine-36 (Merchel et al., 2013). We used the Rockfall Scar Size Distribution (RSSD) obtained in Domènech et al. (2014) that considers several rockfall pattern scenarios. Scenario 1 allows for, mostly, large rockfall scar volumes, scenario 2 considers smaller occurrences and scenario 3 suggests that rockfall scars can be the result of one or several rockfall events, and thus contemplating a wider range of scar volumes.
The main steps of the methodology are: a) Obtaining the RSSD, b) Volume calculation of material lost, c) Calculation of time (T0) elapsed for the cliff to retreat (age of the old reference surface), and d) generation of the MCF curve from the RSSD. A total volume of material lost of 78900 m3 was obtained as well as an elapsed period of time of 15350 years.
The MCF curves for different rockfall scenarios are found to be well fitted by a power law with exponents -1.7, -1.1 and -1 for scenarios 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Frequencies about 0.17, 0.43 and 0.27 events/year were calculated for scenario 1, 2 and 3, respectively, considering rockfall scar volumes greater - or equal to - 0.5 m3.
Domènech G., Mavrouli O., Corominas J. and Abellán A. (2014): Calculation of the rockfall scar volume distribution using a Terrestrial Laser Scanner in the Montsec Area (Eastern Pyrenees, Spain). Geophysical Research Abstracts 16. EGU General Assembly. Vienna.
Merchel S., Braucher R., Alfimov V., Bichler M., Bourlès D.L., Reitner J.M. (2013): The potential of historic rock avalanches and man-made structures as chlorine-36 production rate calibration sites. Quat. Geochron. 18, 54-62.

Keywords: AMS; TCN; cosmogenic nuclide; hazard; rockfall

Related publications

  • Lecture (Conference)
    European Geosciences Union (EGU) General Assembly, 12.-17.04.2015, Wien, Österreich

Publ.-Id: 21224

Neutron-induced fission measurements at the time-of-flight facility nELBE

Kögler, T.; Beyer, R.; Junghans, A. R.; Massarczyk, R.; Schwengner, R.; Wagner, A.

Neutron-induced fission of 242 Pu was studied at the photoneutron source nELBE. The fast neutron fission cross section was determined using actinide fission chambers in a time-of-flight experiment. Whereas the absolute normalization is missing so far, a good agreement to the present nuclear data and evaluations has been achieved in the range of 100 keV to 10 MeV.

Keywords: Neutron-induced fission; parallel plate fission ionization chambers

Related publications

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Scientific Workshop on Nuclear Fission dynmaics and the Emission of Prompt Neutrons and Gamma Rays, THEORY-3, 16.-18.09.2014, Opatija, Kroatien
  • Open Access Logo Contribution to proceedings
    Scientific Workshop on Nuclear Fission Dynamics and the Emission of Prompt Neutrons and Gamma-Rays, THEORY-3, 16.-18.09.2014, Opatija, Kroatien
    Physics Procedia, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 150-155
    DOI: 10.1016/j.phpro.2015.04.020
    Cited 2 times in Scopus

Publ.-Id: 21223

3d cfd simulation of flashing flows in a converging-diverging nozzle

Liao, Y.; Lucas, D.

Flashing of initially sub-cooled water in a converging-diverging nozzle is simulated with two-fluid model incorporating drag and non-drag forces. Phase change is assumed to be induced by interphase heat transfer. Comparison with experimental data is performed for 14 test runs under different temperature and pressure conditions. Good agreement is achieved for mass flow rate and cross-section averaged parameters. The reliability of the CFD predictions is obviously better than the ones obtained in 1D code. The transversal (radial) distribution of void fraction is however not satisfyingly reproduced. It is mainly caused by the neglect of nucleation as well as other uncertainties related to the prediction of mean bubble diameter. A poly-disperse approach with consideration of all relevant bubble dynamics is recommended for further work. For this purpose, reliable closure models and experimental data of bubble size information is required. In addition, cases characterised with large pressure-undershoot exhibit significant mechanical non-equilibrium.

Keywords: Flashing; Nozzle Flow; CFD Simulation; Two-Fluid Model

Publ.-Id: 21222

P1313 - Magnetisierbare Halbleiter und Oxide mit permanenter Magnetisierung, deren Herstellung und Verwendung

Schmidt, H.; Kaspar, T.; Bürger, D.; Skorupa, I.; Fiedler, J.

Die Erfindung beschreibt die Herstellung und den Aufbau einer Anordnung mit mindestens einer Raumladungszone, bei der sich im Bereich der Raumladungszone magnetische Polaronen stabil ausbilden. Weiterhin beschreibt die Erfindung, die Integration und die Verwendung der Anordnung in einem Spin-FET, in einem Spin-Ventil und in einer Spin-LED.

Related publications

  • Patent
    DE102013209278 - Offenlegung 20.11.2014, Erteilung 18.02.2016, Nachanmeldung: WO

Publ.-Id: 21221

Baseline model for bubbly flows: Simulation of monodisperse flow in pipes of different diameters

Kriebitzsch, S.; Rzehak, R.

CFD simulations of the multiphase flow in technical equipment can provide a detailed insight into the local flow field and hence potentially be a valuable optimisation and design tool. Such simulations are feasible within the framework of interpenetrating continua, the so-called two-fluid modelling. Within this framework the interfacial transfer processes need to be modelled by suitable closure relations, many of which have been proposed in the literature. Predictions with multiphase CFD are only possible if a fixed set of closures is available that has been validated for a wide range of flow conditions and can therefore reliably be used also for unknown flow problems. To this end, a baseline model, which is applicable for adiabatic bubbly flow, has been specified recently (e.g. Rzehak and Krepper, 2013) and has been implemented into OpenFOAM (Rzehak and Kriebitzsch, 2015).
In this work we compare simulation results obtained using the baseline model with three different sets of experimental data for dispersed gas-liquid pipe flow given by Liu (1998), Shawkat et al. (2008), and Hosokawa and Tomiyama (2009). Air and water under similar flow conditions have been used in the different experiments, so that the main difference between the experiments is the variation of the pipe diameter from 25 mm to 200 mm. Overall all three experimental data sets are reasonably well reproduced by the simulation results, in particular in the bulk of the flow. The need for improved modelling of multiphase turbulence as well as wall effects manifests itself through larger differences with the experimental data in the near-wall region of the pipes.

Keywords: dispersed gas liquid multiphase flow; Euler-Euler two-fluid model; closure relations; CFD simulation; model validation; OpenFOAM

Publ.-Id: 21220

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