Publications Repository - Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf

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35175 Publications

Are two-dimensional materials radiation tolerant?

Krasheninnikov, A.

Two-dimensional (2D) materials have many unique properties, which can be exploited in various applications. In particular, electronic devices based on 2D materials should ideally be suited for the operation in outer cosmic space due to their low weight, small size and low power consump- tion. This brings about the issue of their radiation hardness, or tolerance, which has recently been addressed in a number of studies. The results of these investigations are somewhat counterintu- itive: although one can naively expect that atomically thin structures should easily be destroyed by the beams of energetic particles, the devices made from 2D materials were reported to exhibit extraordinary radiation hardness. In this Focus article, an overview of the recent studies on the subject is given, followed by the discussion of the origin of the reported high tolerance, which is inherently related to the response of 2D materials, the systems with the reduced dimensionality, to irradiation. The analysis of the experimental and theoretical data on the behavior of 2D systems under irradiation indicates that although free-standing 2D materials can indeed be referred to as radiation resilient systems under irradiation conditions corresponding to the outer space, this is generally not the case, as the environment, e.g., the substrate, can strongly influence the radiation tolerance of 2D materials and devices based on these systems.

Keywords: 2D materials; irradiation; radiation tolerance

Downloads:

  • Secondary publication expected from 18.09.2021

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31650
Publ.-Id: 31650


Influence of chemical zoning on sandstone calcite cement dissolution: The case of manganese and iron

Trindade Pedrosa, E.; Fischer, C.; Morales, L. F.; Rohlfs, R. D.; Luttge, A.

Chemical zoning of crystals is often found in nature. Crystal zoning can play a role in a mineral's thermodynamic stability and in its kinetic response in the presence of fluids. Dissolution experiments at far-from-equilibrium conditions were performed using a sandstone sample containing calcite cement crystal patches. The surface normal retreat of the calcite crystals was obtained by vertical scanning interferometry (VSI) in their natural position in the rock. Dissolution rate maps showed contrasting surface dissolution areas within the crystals, in the same locations where electron microprobe (EMP) maps showed the presence of manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) substitutions for calcium in the calcite structure. Iron zoning was only identified in combination with manganese. Maximum registered manganese contents were 1.9(9) wt% and iron were 2(1) wt%. Manganese zoning of only 0.9(5) wt% resulted in around 40% lower dissolution rates than the adjacent pure calcite zones. The combination of both Mn and Fe cation substitutions resulted in one order of magnitude lower dissolution rates compared to pure calcite in the same sample. These results show that mineral zoning can significantly affect reaction rates, a parameter that needs better understanding for the improvement of kinetic geochemical models at the pore scale.

Keywords: Sandstone; Calcite; Dissolution; Zoning; Manganese; Iron

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31649
Publ.-Id: 31649


Dyke apertures record stress accumulation during sustained volcanism

Thiele, S. T.; Cruden, A. R.; Micklethwaite, S.; Köpping, J.; Bunger, A. P.

The feedback between dyke and sill intrusions and the evolution of stresses within volcanic systems is poorly understood, despite its importance for magma transport and volcano instability. Long-lived ocean island volcanoes are crosscut by thousands of dykes, which must be accommodated through a combination of flank slip and visco-elastic deformation. Flank slip is dominant in some volcanoes (e.g., Kilauea), but how intrusions are accommodated in other volcanic systems remains unknown. Here we apply digital mapping techniques to collect > 400,000 orientation and aperture measurements from 519 sheet intrusions within Volcán Taburiente (La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain) and investigate their emplacement and accommodation. We show that vertically ascending dykes were deflected to propagate laterally as they approached the surface of the volcano, forming a radial dyke swarm, and propose a visco-elastic model for their accommodation. Our model reproduces the measured dyke-aperture distribution and predicts that stress accumulates within densely intruded regions of the volcano, blocking subsequent dykes and causing eruptive activity to migrate. These results have significant implications for the organisation of magma transport within volcanic edifices, and the evolution and stability of long-lived volcanic systems.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31648
Publ.-Id: 31648


High Performance Computing: ISC High Performance 2020 International Workshops

Jagode, H.; Anzt, H.; Juckeland, G.; Ltaief, H.

This book constitutes the refereed post-conference proceedings of 10 workshops held at the 35th International ISC High Performance 2020 Conference, in Frankfurt, Germany, in June 2020:
First Workshop on Compiler-assisted Correctness Checking and Performance Optimization for HPC (C3PO); First International Workshop on the Application of Machine Learning Techniques to Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations and Analysis (CFDML); HPC I/O in the Data Center Workshop (HPC-IODC); First Workshop \Machine Learning on HPC Systems" (MLHPCS); First International Workshop on Monitoring and Data Analytics (MODA); 15th Workshop on Virtualization in High-Performance Cloud Computing (VHPC).

The 25 full papers included in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected. They cover all aspects of research, development, and application of large-scale, high performance experimental and commercial systems. Topics include high-performance computing (HPC), computer architecture and hardware, programming models, system software, performance analysis and modeling, compiler analysis and optimization techniques, software sustainability, scientific applications, deep learning.

Keywords: artificial intelligence; computer hardware; computer networks; computer science; computer systems; distributed computer systems; distributed systems; education; HPC; parallel architectures

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31647
Publ.-Id: 31647


The resource potential of mine waste – More than metal concentrations

Büttner, P.; Nühlen, J.; Engelhardt, J.

In the last decade, several national and European funding programs addressed the resource potential of mine wastes (including tailings and metallurgical slag dumps), with a clear focus on the development of new sources for critical raw materials (CRM). The European Commission defined CRMs as highly important for the European high tech industry. European and national resource strategies refer to this definition and include the development of new CRM sources as one of their main objectives. The German Federal Ministry for Research and Education (BMBF) funded the program “r3 –strategic metals and minerals – innovative technologies for resource efficiency” that started in 2012. The aim of the program was to ensure the domestic supply of strategically significant metals and minerals. Suitable projects had to act in the fields of recycling and substitution of raw materials as well as in the field of reduced material consumption. Urban mining and the evaluation of resource efficiency were further topics that suited the program. The Helmholtz Institute Freiberg for Resource Technology (HIF) and the Fraunhofer Institute for Environmental, Safety, and Energy Technology (UMSICHT) worked already together in different projects about mine waste characterization and resource extraction in r3.
The Helmholtz Institute Freiberg for Resource Technology pursues the objective of developing innovative technologies for the economy so that mineral and metalliferous raw materials become more available, undergo highly efficient processes and recycle in an environmentally
friendly manner. As a part of the national strategy for raw materials in 2011, the German government initiated the HIF. It is a constituent part of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and works in close collaboration with TU Bergakademie Freiberg. The HIF is a core member of the European EIT RawMaterials network, having played a decisive role in its establishment. Fraunhofer UMSICHT is a pioneer for sustainable energy and raw materials management by supplying and transferring scientific results into companies, society and politics. The dedicated UMSICHT team researches and develops, together with partners, sustainable products, processes and services. Together with industry and public partners, such as the Geological Survey of Germany (BGR), UMSICHT and HIF founded the r³-mine-waste-cluster in order to determine a realistic mine waste
potential for Germany and give a reliable resource estimation for secondary raw materials. Nowadays, however, there is a political and public interest beyond the potential of valuable metals from mine wastes. After the catastrophic tailings accident in Vales Corrego do Feijão mine, Brazil, the social pressure to lower these risks raised on the mining industry, on the mine waste owners (e.g. states) and on the politics. With the new Global Industry Standard on Tailings Management a new set of guidelines was developed in order to avoid these accidents in the future. “The International Council
on Mining and Metals (ICMM), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the Principles for Responsible Investment (PRI) share a commitment to the adoption of global best practices on tailings storage facilities. They have co-convened this global tailings review to establish an international standard.” Their environmental risks and at the same time their high potential as a source for (critical) raw materials make mine waste projects a complex exercise. There is a need for solutions that respect environmental, technical, civil and economic issues and provide holistic and sustainable approaches. In order to validating and adjusting different approaches, the HIF coordinates the recomine-alliance. Local stakeholders representing environmental, technical, scientific, governmental and civil institutions assemble in recomine for a development of holistic mine waste solutions for a worldwide application.

Keywords: re-mining; resources; HIF; tailings; mine waste; mining; CRM; slag dump; mine water; WIR!; r3; recomine; Freiberg; Network; Alliance; BMBF; holistic; remediation; sustainable

  • World of Mining - Surface & Underground 72(2020)5, 264-269

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31646
Publ.-Id: 31646


Spin-wave dynamics and symmetry breaking in an artificial spin ice

Saha, S.; Zhou, J.; Hofhuis, K.; Kakay, A.; Scagnoli, V.; Heyderman, L. J.; Gliga, S.

Artificial spin ices are periodic arrangements of interacting nanomagnets that have been successfully used to investigate emergent phenomena in the presence of geometric frustration. Recently, it has become clear that artificial spin ices equally have the potential to be used as building blocks for creating functional materials, such as magnonic crystals and ratchets, in addition to supporting a large number of programmable magnetic states. In this context, we investigate the magnetization dynamics in a system exhibiting asymmetric magnetostatic interactions owing to locally broken structural symmetry. We find that this gives rise to a rich spectrum that can be tuned through an external field. We also determine the evolution of the observed excitation modes, starting with building blocks and evolving into larger arrays, highlighting the role of symmetry breaking in defining the mode spectrum of the system. Concurrently, the increasing complexity of the spectrum leads to the existence of a large number of modes over a narrow range of frequencies. These results contribute to the understanding of magnetization dynamics in spin ice systems beyond the kagome and square ice geometries with a view towards the realization of reconfigurable magnonic crystals based on spin ices.

Keywords: artificial spin ice; symmetry breaking; spin-wave dynamics; reconfigurable; magnonic crystal

Related publications

Downloads:

  • Secondary publication expected from 09.03.2022

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31644
Publ.-Id: 31644


A FDG-PET radiomics signature detects esophageal squamous cell carcinoma patients who do not benefit from chemoradiation

Li, Y.; Beck, M.; Päßler, T.; Lili, C.; Wu, H.; Ha, D.; Amthauer, H.; Biebl, M.; Thuss-Patience, P.; Berger, J.; Stromberger, C.; Tinhofer, I.; Kruppa, J.; Budach, V.; Hofheinz, F.; Lin, Q.; Zschaeck, S.

Detection of patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) who do not benefit from standard chemoradiation (CRT) is an important medical need. Radiomics using 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is a promising approach. In this retrospective study of 184 patients with locally advanced ESCC. 152 patients from one center were grouped into a training cohort (n = 100) and an internal validation cohort (n = 52). External validation was performed with 32 patients treated at a second center. Primary endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS), secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and local control (LC). FDG-PET radiomics features were selected by Lasso-Cox regression analyses and a separate radiomics signature was calculated for each endpoint. In the training cohort radiomics signatures containing up to four PET derived features were able to identify non-responders in regard of all endpoints (DFS p < 0.001, LC p = 0.003, OS p = 0.001). After successful internal validation of the cutoff values generated by the training cohort for DFS (p = 0.025) and OS (p = 0.002), external validation using these cutoffs was successful for DFS (p = 0.002) but not for the other investigated endpoints. These results suggest that pre-treatment FDG-PET features may be useful to detect patients who do not respond to CRT and could benefit from alternative treatment.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31643
Publ.-Id: 31643


An Experimental and Numerical Study of Precision Cooling to Determine Minimum Coolant Velocity of Downsized Internal Combustion Engines Using Boiling

Qasemian, A.; Keshavarz, A.; Setoodeh, H.; Mohammadi, A.; Chitsaz, I.

Nowadays, due to the internal combustion engine industry's orientation towards downsizing, modern efficient cooling systems with lower power consumption, small size and high compactness are essential. To improve these items, applying precision cooling and boiling phenomenon are inevitable. Having an appropriate coolant flow velocity which leads to utilize only the advantages of boiling heat transfer has always been a challenge. Two experimental test rigs, one for modeling and accurate prediction of subcooled flow boiling and the other for measurement and validation of coolant velocity in a water jacket by particle image velocimetry method are set up. An accurate and robust empirical correlation for modeling of subcooled flow boiling which occurs in the water jacket is developed. Then, through a three dimensional thermal analysis, the heat transfer parameters such as heat flux and temperature distribution of the internal combustion engine cylinder block and head are obtained numerically. Finally, as the main achievement of this study, a diagram is presented which combines the concept of precision cooling and subcooled flow boiling and gives the minimum coolant velocity in terms of heat flux. Without going into detail thermo-fluids analysis, this provides a convenient tool to determine the minimum velocity of the coolant flow over the different regions of the internal combustion engine water jacket wall to keep it at its allowable temperature range.

Keywords: Internal combustion engine; Downsizing; Heat transfer; Precision cooling; Subcooled flow boiling

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31642
Publ.-Id: 31642


Dissolution of donor-vacancy clusters in heavily doped n-type germanium

Prucnal, S.; Liedke, M. O.; Wang, X.; Butterling, M.; Posselt, M.; Knoch, J.; Windgassen, H.; Hirschmann, E.; Berencen, Y.; Rebohle, L.; Wang, M.; Napoltani, E.; Frigerio, J.; Ballabio, A.; Isella, G.; Hübner, R.; Wagner, A.; Bracht, H.; Helm, M.; Zhou, S.

The n-type doping of Ge is a self-limiting process due to the formation of vacancy-donor complexes (DnV with n ≤ 4) that deactivate the donors. This work unambiguously demonstrates that the dissolution of the dominating P4V clusters in heavily phosphorus-doped Ge epilayers can be achieved by millisecond-flash lamp annealing at about 1050 K. The P4V cluster dissolution increases the carrier concentration by more than three-fold together with a suppression of phosphorus diffusion. Electrochemical capacitance-voltage measurements in conjunction with secondary ion mass spectrometry, positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and theoretical calculations enabled us to address and understand a fundamental problem that has hindered so far the full integration of Ge with complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor technology.

Keywords: Ge; vacancies; doping; positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy; flash lamp annealing

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31641
Publ.-Id: 31641


The GeDI project-a German DIBH database

Duma, M. N.; Krause, M.; Hoinkis, C.; Gurtner, K.; Richter, C.; Corradini, S.; Pazos, M. E.; Schoencker, S.; Walke, M.; Gabriel, C.; Brunner, T.; Krug, D.; Hoerner-Rieber, J.; Grosu, A. L.; Nicolay, N. H.; Wittig, A.

Background: Studies indicate that all left-sided breast cancer patients benefit from the deep inspiration breath hold technique (DIBH), however, not all patients experience the same benefit. A meta-analysis performed by Latty et al. reviewed 18 studies evaluating DIBH, which demonstrated a relative reduction of mean dose (Dmean) to the heart ranging from 26.2% to 75% as compared to irradiation in free breathing. However, as most papers report averages rather than patient-by-patient analyses, outliers remain unidentified. Thus, a lack of data and knowledge exists in determining selection criteria to predict individual patient benefit from DIBH.

Methods: We are planning to establish a large retrospective database of breast cancer patients treated with deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) radiotherapy techniques. Data will be collected anonymized from all participating centres. A detailed analysis of:

1. Differences in OAR sparing by anatomical conditions
2. Differences in OAR sparing by used DIBH techniques (free breathing, RPM, surface scanning with camera or laser systems etc)
3. Differences in OAR sparing by fractionation schedules (normalized to EQD2)
4. Differences in OAR sparing by PTV volumes and CTV definitions

but not limited to, will be performed.

Discussion: Patient data will be stratified according to different anatomical conditions (such as large breasts vs. small breasts), radiation techniques, fractionation schedules and PTV volumes (for e.g. chest wall after mastectomy vs. breast only vs. breast and lymphatics etc). This multicentre database will allow for the first time an in depth analysis of the impact of DIBH. It will enhance our knowledge on outliers and will provide selection criteria to predict individual patient benefit from DIBH.

  • Lecture (Conference) (Online presentation)
    DEGRO, 24.-28.06.2020, Wiesbaden, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31639
Publ.-Id: 31639


Magnetic-field-assisted electrodeposition of metal to obtain conically structured ferromagnetic layers

Huang, M.; Eckert, K.; Mutschke, G.

Micro- or nano-structured ferromagnetic layers often possess superior electrocatalytic properties but are difficult to manufacture in general. The present work investigates how a magnetic field can possibly support local cone growth on a planar electrode during electrodeposition, thus simplifying fabrication. Analytical and numerical studies were performed on conical structures of mm size to elaborate the influence of the magnetic forces caused by an electrode-normal external field. It is shown that, beside the Lorentz force studied earlier in the case of single cones [1], the magnetic gradient force enabled by the field alteration near the ferromagnetic cathode significantly supports cone growth. Detailed studies performed for sharp and flat single cones allow conclusions to be drawn on the support at different stages in the evolution of conical deformations. Furthermore, the influence from neighboring cones is studied with arrays of cones at varying distances apart. Nearby neighbors generally tend to mitigate the flow driven by the magnetic forces. Here, the support for cone growth originating from the magnetic gradient force is less heavily affected than that from the Lorentz force. Our results clearly show that the magnetic field has a beneficial effect on the growth of ferromagnetic conical structures, which could also be useful on the micro- and nanometer scales.

Keywords: metal electrodeposition; magnetic field; surface-structured electrode; Lorentz force; magnetic gradient force; numerical simulation

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  • Secondary publication expected from 30.10.2021

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31638
Publ.-Id: 31638


Vortrag der Gleichstellungsbeauftragten des HZDR vor dem AGBR

Fiedler, F.

Vortrag der GSB vor dem AGBR

  • Lecture (others) (Online presentation)
    Treffen des AGBR, 27.10.2020, Dresden, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31635
Publ.-Id: 31635


Electron dose rate and oxygen depletion protect zebrafish embryos from radiation damage

Pawelke, J.; Brand, M.; Hans, S.; Hideghéty, K.; Karsch, L.; Leßmann, E.; Löck, S.; Schürer, M.; Szabo, E. R.; Beyreuther, E.

Background and purpose
In consequence of a previous study, where no protecting proton Flash effect was found for zebrafish embryos, potential reasons and requirements for inducing a Flash effect should be investigated with the beam pulse structure and the partial oxygen pressure (pO2) as relevant parameters.
Materials and methods
The experiments were performed at the research electron accelerator ELBE, whose variable pulse structure enables dose delivery as electron Flash and quasi-continuously (reference). Zebrafish embryos were irradiated with ~26 Gy either continuously with a dose rate of ~6.7 Gy/min or in one 111 µs long pulse with a pulse dose rate of 109 Gy/s and a mean dose rate of 105 Gy/s, respectively. Using the OxyLite system to measure the pO2 a low- (pO2 ≤ 5 mmHg) and a high-pO2 group were defined on basis of the oxygen depletion kinetics in sealed embryo samples.
Results
A protective Flash effect was seen for most endpoints ranging from 4 % less reduction in embryo length to about 20 – 25 % less embryos with spinal curvature and pericardial edema, relative to reference irradiation. The reduction of pO2 below atmospheric levels (148 mmHg) resulted in higher protection, which was however more pronounced in the low-pO2 group.
Conclusion
The Flash experiment at ELBE showed that the zebrafish embryo model is appropriate for studying the radiobiological response of high dose rate irradiation. Pulse dose and pulse dose rate as important beam parameters were confirmed as well as the pivotal role of pO2 during irradiation.

Keywords: Electron Flash effect; Oxygen depletion; Normal tissue toxicity; Zebrafish embryo

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  • Secondary publication expected from 13.02.2022

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31633
Publ.-Id: 31633


Experience with the Sperradiant THz user Facility Driven by a Quasi-CW SRF Accelerator at ELBE

Bawatna, M.; Green, B. W.

Instabilities in beam and bunch parameters, such as bunch charge, beam energy, or changes in the phase or amplitude of the accelerating field in the RF cavities can be the source of noise in the various secondary sources driven by the electron beam. Bunch charge fluctuations lead to in-tensity instabilities in the superradiant THz sources. The primary electron beam driving the light sources has a maximum energy of 40 MeV and a maximum current of 1.6 mA. Depending on the mode of operation required, there are two available injectors in use at ELBE. The first is the thermionic injector, which is used for regular operating modes and supports repetition rates up to 13 MHz and bunch charges up to 100 pC. The second is the SRF photo-cathode injector, which is used for experiments that may require lower emittance or higher bunch charges of up to 1 nC. It has a maximum repetition rate of 13 MHz, which can be adjusted to lower rates if desired, also including different macro pulse modes of operation. In this contribution, we will present our work in the pulse-resolved intensity measurement that allows for the correction of intensity instabilities.

  • Open Access Logo Contribution to proceedings
    FEL2019 - 39th International Free-Electron Laser Conference, 26.-30.08.2019, Hamburg, Germany
    Proceedings of the 39th International Free-Electron Laser Conference: JACoW, 978-3-95450-210-3
    DOI: 10.18429/JACoW-FEL2019-TUP007

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31632
Publ.-Id: 31632


Data for: Scanning transmission imaging in the helium ion microscope using a microchannel plate with a delay line detector

Serralta Hurtado De Menezes, E.; Klingner, N.; de Castro, O.; Mousley, M.; Eswara, S.; Duarte Pinto, S.; Wirtz, T.; Hlawacek, G.

  A detection system based on a microchannel plate with a delay line readout structure has been developed to perform scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM) in the helium ion microscope (HIM). This system is an improvement over other existing approaches since it combines the information of the scanning beam position on the sample with the position (scattering angle) and time of the transmission events. Various imaging modes such as bright and dark field or the direct image of the transmitted signal can be created by post-processing the collected STIM data. Furthermore, the detector has high spatial and time resolution, is sensitive to both ions and neutral particles over a wide energy range, and shows robustness against ion beam-induced damage. A special in-vacuum movable support gives the possibility of moving the detector vertically, placing the detector closer to the sample for the detection of high-angle scattering events, or moving it down to increase the angular resolution and distance for time-of-flight measurements. With this new system, we show composition-dependent contrast for amorphous materials and the contrast difference between small and high angle scattering signals. We also detect channeling related contrast on polycrystalline silicon, thallium chloride nanocrystals, and single crystalline silicon by comparing the signal transmitted at different directions for the same data set.

Keywords: helium ion microscopy; scanning transmission ion microscopy; delay line detector; channeling; bright field; dark field

Related publications

  • Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
    Publication date: 2020-09-09
    DOI: 10.14278/rodare.515
    License: CC-BY-1.0

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31631
Publ.-Id: 31631


A new approach for determining tray and point efficiencies via revamping of hydraulic air/water column mockups

Marchini, S.; Vishwakarma, V.; Schubert, M.; Brunazzi, E.; Hampel, U.

Tray and point efficiencies are the key parameters for characterizing the performance of a distillation tray.
The tray efficiencies are experimentally determined mostly by sampling the incoming and exiting streams of liquid and gas over the tray. Contrarily, the point efficiency determination is technically challenging and thus, it is derived mainly from correlations or small-scale experiments. Only few studies on the experimental determination of point efficiencies on large-scale distillation trays exist. However, the traditional physical systems pose several technical restrictions and safety concerns that often prevent their integration with the available air/water column mockups.
In this study, the stripping of isobutyl acetate from an aqueous solution using air is proposed as a physical system. It offers several advantages over the traditional ones (in terms of adaptability to different gas and liquid flow rates, safety and minimum revamping requirements), and is proved suitable for being readily integrated into existing cold fluid air/water mockups without any major modification.
The liquid concentration distribution on an 800 mm dia. distillation sieve tray was investigated by sampling the liquid at different deck locations for subsequent UV-spectroscopy. The concentration distribution was used to obtain the point efficiency values accounting for both axial and transverse liquid mixing on the tray. The concentration distributions, tray and point efficiency values obtained for different weir loads showed good agreement with the predictions given by the correlations and models used in the literature. The proposed approach can also account for the effect of weeping on the tray efficiency.
Potential future application of the proposed approach can address the investigation and design of novel tray concepts (e.g. with liquid flow conditioners), the development and validation of point and tray efficiency models as well as the validation of CFD simulations.

Keywords: tray efficiency; point efficiency; isobutyl acetate stripping; tray column; sieve tray; mockup revamp; weeping

  • Contribution to proceedings
    Jahrestreffen der ProcessNet-Fachgruppen Fluidverfahrenstechnik und Wärme- und Stoffübertragung, 24.-26.02.2021, Leipzig, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31630
Publ.-Id: 31630


Negative resistance for colloids driven over two barriers in a microchannel

Zimmermann, U.; Löwen, H.; Kreuter, C.; Erbe, A.; Leiderer, P.; Smallenburg, F.

When considering the flow of currents through obstacles, one core expectation is that the total resis- tance of sequential single resistors is additive. While this rule is most commonly applied to electronic circuits, it also applies to other transport phenomena such as the flow of colloids or nanoparti- cles through channels containing multiple obstacles, as long as these obstacles are sufficiently far apart. Here we explore the breakdown of this additivity for fluids of repulsive colloids driven over two energetic barriers in a microchannel, using real-space microscopy experiments, particle-resolved simulations, and dynamical density functional theory. If the barrier separation is comparable to the particle correlation length, the resistance is highly non-additive, such that the resistance added by the second barrier can be significantly higher or lower than that of the first. Surprisingly, in some cases the second barrier can even add a negative resistance, such that two identical barriers are easier to cross than a single one. We explain this counterintuitive observation in terms of the structuring of particles trapped between the barriers.

Keywords: colloidal model systems; soft matter; transport phenomena

Related publications

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31629
Publ.-Id: 31629


Metal Pad Roll Instability at Room Temperature Using Pairs of Liquid Metals

Herreman, W.; Nore, C.; Cappanera, L.; Guermond, J.-L.; Weier, T.

Metal pad roll instability is a well known phenomenon that occurs in aluminium reduction cells [1] Since long, scientists and engineers have been searching for an experimental model that recreates the metal pad roll instability in a well controlled laboratory environment. [2] partly succeeded in this task by using GaInSn eutectic alloy in replacement of aluminium and a steel wire array, in replacement of the badly conducting cryolite layer. A rolling wave motion was observed but comparison to fluid based theoretical models remains difficult.
In this talk, we demonstrate that it is possible to observe metal pad roll instability in a centimeter scale cylindrical set-up at room temperature and using different liquid metal pairs as working fluids: gallium liquid metal over mercury (immiscible case) or gallium over GaInSn eutectic alloy (miscible case). Despite the small difference in electrical conductivity, the stability theory of [3] suggests that metal pad roll instability occurs for reasonable values of the imposed magnetic field and electrical current. We confirm this theoretical prediction with some very challenging direct numerical simulations of the multiphase magnetohydrodynamical flow in this set-up, done with our massively parallel solver SFEMaNS [4].

Keywords: liquid metal battery; aluminum reduction cell; metal pad roll instability

  • Lecture (Conference) (Online presentation)
    14th World Congress on Computational Mechanics, 11.-15.01.2021, Paris, Frankreich

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31628
Publ.-Id: 31628


Propagation of spin waves through a Néel domain wall

Wojewoda, O.; Hula, T.; Flajšman, L.; Vaňatka, M.; Gloss, J.; Holobrádek, J.; Staňo, M.; Stienen, S.; Körber, L.; Schultheiß, K.; Schmid, M.; Schultheiß, H.; Urbánek, M.

Spin waves have the potential to be used as a next-generation platform for data transfer and processing as they can reach wavelengths in the nanometer range and frequencies in the terahertz range. To realize a spin-wave device, it is essential to be able to manipulate the amplitude as well as the phase of spin waves. Several theoretical and recent experimental works have also shown that the spin-wave phase can be manipulated by the transmission through a domain wall (DW). Here, we study propagation of spin waves through a DW by means of micro-focused Brillouin light scattering microscopy (μBLS). The 2D spin-wave intensity maps reveal that spin-wave transmission through a Néel DW is influenced by a topologically enforced circular Bloch line in the DW center and that the propagation regime depends on the spin-wave frequency. In the first regime, two spin-wave beams propagating around the circular Bloch line are formed, whereas in the second regime, spin waves propagate in a single central beam through the circular Bloch line. Phase-resolved μBLS measurements reveal a phase shift upon transmission through the domain wall for both regimes. Micromagnetic modeling of the transmitted spin waves unveils a distortion of their phase fronts, which needs to be taken into account when interpreting the measurements and designing potential devices. Moreover, we show that, by means of micromagnetic simulations, an external magnetic field can be used to move the circular Bloch line within the DW and to manipulate spin-wave propagation.
The authors thank R. Schäfer and O. Fruchart for the discussions on the DW classification.
This research was supported by the CEITEC Nano+ project (No. CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16013/0001728) and Austrian Science Fund (FWF) project I1937. M. Staňo acknowledges support by the ESF under the project CZ.02.2.69/0.0/0.0/19_074/0016239. CzechNanoLab project LM2018110 funded by MEYS CR is gratefully acknowledged for the financial support of the measurement and sample fabrication at the CEITEC Nano Research Infrastructure.

Keywords: Magnetic ordering; Spectrum analyzer; Light scattering; Magnetic force microscopy

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31627
Publ.-Id: 31627


Zero-field propagation of spin waves in waveguides prepared by focused ion beam direct writing

Flajšman, L.; Wagner, K.; Vaňatka, M.; Gloss, J.; Křižáková, V.; Schmid, M.; Schultheiß, H.; Urbánek, M.

Metastable face-centered-cubic Fe78Ni22 thin films are excellent candidates for focused ion beam direct writing of magnonic structures due to their favorable magnetic properties after ion-beam-induced transformation. The focused ion beam transforms the originally nonmagnetic fcc phase into the ferromagnetic bcc phase with additional control over the direction of uniaxial magnetic in-plane anisotropy and saturation magnetization. Local magnetic anisotropy direction control eliminates the need for external magnetic fields, paving the way towards complex magnonic circuits with waveguides pointing in different directions. In the present study, we show that the magnetocrystalline anisotropy in transformed areas is strong enough to stabilize the magnetization in the direction perpendicular to the long axis of narrow waveguides. Therefore, it is possible to propagate spin waves in these waveguides in the favorable Damon-Eshbach geometry without the presence of any external magnetic field. Phase-resolved microfocused Brillouin light scattering yields the dispersion relation of these waveguides in zero as well as in nonzero external magnetic fields.

Keywords: Ferromagnetism; Magnetic Anisotropy; Magnetic phase transition; Magnetization Dynamics; Spin Dynamics; Spin Waves; Structural Phase transition; Focused ion beam

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31626
Publ.-Id: 31626


Performance investigation of bulk photoconductive semiconductor switch based on reversely biased p+in+ structure

Hu, L.; Xu, M.; Li, X.; Wang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Dong, H.; Schneider, H.

We present an investigation of a low-energy-triggered bulk gallium arsenide (GaAs) photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) that is characterized by powerful avalanche domains. The performance of the switch is investigated using a reversely biased p⁺-i-n⁺ structure with 0.625-mm thickness, and the 8.0-kV, 170-ps bulk PCSS that is triggered by a 905-nm laser at the energy of 5.7 nJ is achieved. In the low-energy-triggered mode, it is found experimentally that the reduction of required energy for switching operation is not always kept by the continuous increase of the bias field in the bulk PCSS due to Franz–Keldysh effect. We also analyze the triggering efficiency depending on the laser wavelength numerically, and results indicate that the earlier formation of the powerful avalanche domains is realized by the increased wavelength, which causes lower laser energy for switching operation. Moreover, the prestudy of high-power microwave (HPM) applications is also introduced utilizing bulk PCSS, and we constructed the basic units for ultrawide-band (UWB) pulse and HPM-driven pulse.

Keywords: photoconductive semiconductor switch; avalanche domain; GaAs

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31625
Publ.-Id: 31625


Mode-locked short pulses from an 8 μm wavelength semiconductor laser

Hillbrand, J.; Opačcak, N.; Piccardo, M.; Schneider, H.; Strasser, G.; Capasso, F.; Schwarz, B.

Quantum cascade lasers (QCL) have revolutionized the generation of mid-infrared light. Yet, the ultrafast carrier transport in mid-infrared QCLs have so far constituted a seemingly insurmountable obstacle for the formation of ultrashort light pulses. Here, we demonstrate that careful quantum design of the gain medium and control over the intermode beat synchronization enable transform-limited picosecond pulses from QCL frequency combs. Both an interferometric radio-frequency technique and second-order autocorrelation shed light on the pulse dynamics and confirm that mode-locked operation is achieved from threshold to rollover current. Furthermore, we show that both antiphase and in-phase synchronized states exist in QCLs. Being electrically pumped and compact, mode-locked QCLs pave the way towards monolithically integrated non-linear photonics in the molecular fingerprint region beyond 6 μm wavelength.

Keywords: quantum cascade laser; two-photon QWIP; mid-infrared, frequency comb

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31624
Publ.-Id: 31624


Wire-mesh sensor measurements of single-phase liquid flows at different temperatures

Wiedemann, P.; de Assis Dias, F.; Schleicher, E.; Hampel, U.

The dataset contains raw data belonging to Wiedemann et al.: Temperature Compensation for Conductivity-Based Phase Fraction Measurements with Wire-Mesh Sensors in Gas-Liquid Flows of Dilute Aqueous Solutions, Sensors 2020, 20(24), 7114; https://doi.org/10.3390/s20247114.

A 16x16 conductivity-based wire-mesh sensor was placed in a single-phase liquid loop with adjustable fluid temperature. The dataset includes the wire-mesh sensor measurements with water at several temperature levels from 12.5°C to 80°C and the corresponding electrical conductivites. Two water samples, namely deionized water and a mixed water sample, were investigated. The latter one is composed of 95% deionized water and 5% local tap water.

Keywords: wire-mesh sensor; temperature compensation; electrical conductivity

Related publications

  • Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
    Publication date: 2020-10-21
    DOI: 10.14278/rodare.555

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31623
Publ.-Id: 31623


High-Intensity Laser-Driven Oxygen Source from CW Laser-Heated Titanium Tape Targets

Kondo, K.; Nishiuchi, M.; Sakaki, H.; Dover, N. P.; Lowe, H. F.; Miyahara, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Ziegler, T.; Zeil, K.; Schramm, U.; Ditter, E. J.; Hicks, G. S.; Ettlinger, O. C.; Najmudin, Z.; Kiriyama, H.; Kando, M.; Kondo, K.

The interaction of high-intensity laser pulses with solid targets can be used as a highly charged, energetic heavy ion source. Normally, intrinsic contaminants on the target surface suppress the performance of heavy ion acceleration from a high-intensity laser–target interaction, resulting in preferential proton acceleration. Here, we demonstrate that CW laser heating of 5 µm titanium tape targets can remove contaminant hydrocarbons in order to expose a thin oxide layer on the metal surface, ideal for the generation of energetic oxygen beams. This is demonstrated by irradiating the heated targets with a PW class high-power laser at an intensity of 5 x 10^21 W/cm^2, showing enhanced acceleration of oxygen ions with a non-thermal-like distribution. Our new scheme using a CW laser-heated Ti tape target is promising for use as a moderate repetition energetic oxygen ion source for future applications.

Keywords: Ti Sapphire laser; high-power laser; laser-driven heavy ion acceleration; surface treatment; CW laser heating; oxygen ion source

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31622
Publ.-Id: 31622


Frequency control of auto-oscillations of the magnetization in spin Hall nano-oscillators

Hache, T.

This thesis experimentally demonstrates four approaches of frequency control of magnetic autooscillations in spin Hall nano-oscillators (SHNOs).
The frequency can be changed in the GHZ-range by external magnetic fields as shown in this work. This approach uses large electromagnets, which is inconvenient for future applications.The nonlinear coupling between oscillator power and frequency can be used to control the latter one by changing the applied direct current to the SHNO. The frequency can be controlled over a range of several 100 MHz as demonstrated in this thesis.
The first part of the experimental chapter demonstrates the synchronization (injection-locking) between magnetic auto-oscillations and an external microwave excitation. The additionally applied microwave current generates a modulation of the effective magnetic field, which causes the interaction with the auto-oscillation. Both synchronize over a range of several 100 MHz. In this range, the auto-oscillation frequency can be controlled by the external stimulus. An increase of power and a decrease of line width is achieved in the synchronization range. This is explained by the increased coherence of the auto-oscillations. A second approach is the synchronization of auto-oscillations to an alternating magnetic field. This field is generated by a freestanding antenna, which is positioned above the SHNO.
The second part of the experimental chapter introduces a bipolar concept of SHNOs and its experimental demonstration. In contrast to conventional SHNOs, bipolar SHNOs generate autooscillations for both direct current polarities and both directions of the external magnetic field. This is achieved by combining two ferromagnetic layers in an SHNO. The combination of two different ferromagnetic materials is used to switch between two frequency ranges in dependence of the direct current polarity since it defines the layer showing auto-oscillations. This approach can be used to change the frequency in the GHz-range by switching the direct current polarity.

  • Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
    Publication date: 2020-10-21
    DOI: 10.14278/rodare.553
    License: CC-BY-4.0

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31619
Publ.-Id: 31619


Magnetic texture based magnonics

Yu, H.; Xiao, J.; Schultheiß, H.

The spontaneous magnetic orders arising in ferro-, ferri- and antiferromagnets stem from various magnetic interactions. Depending on the interplay and competition among the Heisenberg exchange interaction, Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya exchange interaction, magnetic dipolar interaction and crystal anisotropies, a great variety of magnetic textures may be stabilized, such as magnetic domain walls, vortices, Skyrmions and spiral helical structures. While each of these spin textures responds to external forces in a specific manner with characteristic resonance frequencies, they also interact with magnons, the fundamental collective excitation of the magnetic order, which can propagate in magnetic materials free of charge transport and therefore with low energy dissipation. Recent theories and experiments found that the interplay between spin waves and magnetic textures is particularly interesting and rich in physics. In this review, we introduce and discuss the theoretical framework of magnons living on a magnetic texture background, as well as recent experimental progress in the manipulation of magnons via magnetic textures. The flexibility and reconfigurability of magnetic textures are discussed regarding the potential for applications in information processing schemes based on magnons.

Keywords: magnetic textures; spin waves; magnetization dynamics; Skyrmions; antiferromagnets; Dzyaloshinskii Moria; chiral magnetism; domain walls; vortices

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  • Secondary publication expected from 06.01.2022

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31616
Publ.-Id: 31616


Potential microbial influence on the performance of subsurface, salt-based nuclear waste repositories

Swanson, J. S.; Bader, M.; Cherkouk, A.

Microrganisms can influence the performance of nuclear waste repositories through activities or processes that affect radionuclide migration. In the case of subterranean salt-based repositories, the influence of microorganisms may be limited by the unique constraints of such sutes (e.g. high ionic strength, low water activity, nutient supply) coupled with conditions of the repositories themselves (e.g. anoxia,radioactivity, high temperatures). Indigenous extremely halophilic archaea can survive long-term at high ionic strength and may remain viable throughout a repository´s lifetime. However, their ability to affect repository performance through waste and radionuclide transformation is uncertain, as they are mostly arobic and repositories are projected to be anoxic. Microorganisms introduced with waste may contribute to transformations within drums but may not survive high salt concentrations once drums have been breached and inundated with brine. However, both indigenous and introduced organisms may associate with radionuclides and enhance or mitigate radionuclide migration in this capacity.

  • Book chapter
    Jonathan Lloyd, Andrea Cherkouk: The Microbiology of Nuclear Waste Disposal 1st Edition, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2020, 978-0-12-818695-4

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31615
Publ.-Id: 31615


Molecular techniques for understanding microbial abundance and activity in clay barriers used for geodisposal

Mijnendonckx, K.; Monsieurs, P.; Cerna, K.; Hlavackova, V.; Steinova, J.; Burzan, N.; Bernier-Latmani, R.; Boothman, C.; Miettinen, H.; Kluge, S.; Matschiavelli, N.; Cherkouk, A.; Jroundi, F.; Larbi Merroun, M.; Engel, K.; Neufeld, J. D.; Leys, N.

Clays are commonly used in design concepts for geological disposal of nuclear waste. It is thus essential to identify and quantify microbial communities in clay-rich samples to study microbial processes during geological disposal. Although advances in culture-independent techiques have enablesd detailed studies of microbial communities in diverse ecosystems, the efficiency and sensitivity of these molecular techniques depend on chartacteristics of the environment studied. Moreover, the outcome of nucleic acid-based approaches depends on the extraction method, prmer specificity, PCR amplification, sequencing artefacts and downstream bioinformatic analyses. Clays are recalcitrant to DNA extraction and are challenging for analysis by standard techniques using viability stains and measurement of metabolic activity. This chapter explores the impact of various sequencing and bioinformatic pipelines used for 16S rRNA gene profiling of microbial communities and compares the efficiency of different DNA extraction methods from clay. Moreover, non-DNA based techniques used to assess microbial activity and viability in clay samples will be also discussed.

  • Book chapter
    Jonathan Lloyd Andrea Cherkouk: The Microbiology of Nuclear Waste Disposal 1st Edition, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2020, 978-0-12-818695-4

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31614
Publ.-Id: 31614


The Microbiology of Nuclear Waste Disposal

Lloyd, J.; Cherkouk, A.

The Microbiology of Nuclear Waste Disposal is a state-of-the-art reference featuring contributions focusing on the impact of microbes on the safe long-term disposal of nuclear waste. This book is the first to cover this important emerging topic, and is written for a wide audience encompassing regulators, implementers, academics, and other stakeholders. The book is also of interest to those working on the wider exploitation of the subsurface, such as bioremediation, carbon capture and storage, geothermal energy, and water quality.

Planning for suitable facilities in the U.S., Europe, and Asia has been based mainly on knowledge from the geological and physical sciences. However, recent studies have shown that microbial life can proliferate in the inhospitable environments associated with radioactive waste disposal, and can control the long-term fate of nuclear materials. This can have beneficial and damaging impacts, which need to be quantified.

  • Book (Editorship)
    Amsterdam: Elsevier, 2020
    ISBN: 9780128186954

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31613
Publ.-Id: 31613


Raw data: CoFeB beamtime overview

Awari, N.; Deinert, J.-C.

Collection of raw data and evaluated data for the CoFeB experiments carried out in collaboration with Stefano Bonetti et al.

Keywords: Spin dynamics; nutation; CoFeB; Terahertz

Related publications

  • Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
    Publication date: 2020-10-19
    DOI: 10.14278/rodare.551

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31612
Publ.-Id: 31612


Parametric optimization in rougher flotation performance of a sulfidized mixed copper ore

Hassanzadehmahaleh, A.; Azizi, A. A.; Masdarian, M. A.; Bahri, Z. C.; Niedoba, T. D.; Surowiak, A. D.

The dominant challenge of current copper beneficiation plants is the low recoverability of oxide copper-bearing minerals associated with sulfide type ones. Furthermore, applying commonly used conventional methodologies does not allow the interactional effects of critical parameters in the flotation processes to be investigated, which is mostly overlooked in the literature. To tackle this issue, the present paper aimed at characterizing the behavior of five key effective factors and their interactions in a sulfidized copper ore. In this context, dosage of collector (sodium di-ethydithiophosphate, 60–100 g/t), depressant (sodium silicate, 80–120 g/t) and frother (methyl isobutyl carbinol (MIBC), 6–10 g/t), pulp pH (7–11) and agitation rate (900–1300 rpm) were examined and statistically analyzed using response surface methodology. Flotation experiments were conducted in a Denver type agitated flotation cell at the rougher stage. The experimental results showed that increasing the pH (from 8 to 10) at low agitation rate (1000 rpm) enhanced the recovery from 80.36% to 85.22%, while at high agitation rate (1200 rpm), a slight declination occurred in the recovery. Meanwhile, increasing the collector dosage at a lower frother value (7 g/t), caused a reduction of about 4.44% in copper recovery owing to the interactions between factors, whereas at a higher frother level (9 g/t), the recovery was almost unchanged. The optimization process was also performed using the goal function approach, and maximum copper recovery of 92.75% was obtained using ~70 g/t collector, 110 g/t depressant, 7 g/t frother, pulp pH of 10 and 1000 rpm agitation rate.

Keywords: sulfidized copper ore; flotation; interaction effects; recovery; optimization

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31611
Publ.-Id: 31611


Point and extended defects in heteroepitaxial β-Ga2O3 films

Saadatkia, P.; Agarwal, S.; Hernandez, A.; Reed, E.; Brackenbury, I. D.; Codding, C. L.; Liedke, M. O.; Butterling, M.; Wagner, A.; Selim, F. A.

Ga2O3 is emerging as an excellent potential semiconductor for high power and optoelectronic devices.
However, the successful development of Ga2O3 in a wide range of applications requires a full understanding of the role and nature of its point and extended defects. In this work, high quality epitaxial Ga2O3 films were grown on sapphire substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition and fully characterized in terms of structural, optical, and electrical properties. Then defects in the films were investigated by a combination of depth-resolved Doppler broadening and lifetime of positron annihilation spectroscopies and thermally stimulated emission (TSE). Positron annihilation techniques can provide information about the nature and concentration of defects in the films, while TSE reveals the energy level of defects in the bandgap. Despite very good structural properties, the films exhibit short positron diffusion length, which is an indication of high defect density and long positron lifetime, a sign for the formation of Ga vacancy related defects and large vacancy clusters. These defects act as deep and shallow traps for charge carriers as revealed from TSE, which explains the reason behind the difficulty of developing conductive Ga2O3 films on non-native substrates. Positron lifetime measurements also show nonuniform distribution of vacancy clusters throughout the film depth. Further, the work investigates the modification of defect nature and properties through thermal treatment in various environments. It demonstrates the sensitivity of Ga2O3 microstructures to the growth and thermal treatment environments and the significant effect of modifying defect structure on the bandgap and optical and electrical properties of Ga2O3

Keywords: positron annihilation spectroscopy; positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy; Doppler broadening; defetcs; Ga2O3

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31609
Publ.-Id: 31609


Non-plasmonic improvement in photoconductive THz emitters using nano- and micro-structured electrodes

Singh, A.; Welsch, M.; Winnerl, S.; Helm, M.; Schneider, H.

We investigate here terahertz enhancement effects arising from micrometer and nanometer structured electrode features of photoconductive terahertz emitters. Nanostructured electrode based emitters utilizing the palsmonic effect are currently one of the hottest topics in the research field. We demonstrate here that even in the absence of any plasmonic resonance with the pump pulse, such structures can improve the antenna effect by enhancing the local d.c. electric field near the structure edges. Utilizing this effect in Hilbert-fractal and grating-like designs, enhancement of the THz field of up to a factor of ~ 2 is observed. We conclude that the cause of this THz emission enhancement in our emitters is different from the earlier reported plasmonic-electrode effect in a similar grating-like structure. In our structure, the proximity of photoexcited carriers to the electrodes and local bias field enhancement close to the metallization cause the enhanced efficiency. Due to the nature of this effect, the THz emission efficiency is almost independent of the pump laser polarization. Compared to the plasmonic effect, these effects work under relaxed device fabrication and operating conditions.

Keywords: Terahertz sources; Teraherhertz emitter; Photoconductive THz emitter; Photoconductive antenna

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31607
Publ.-Id: 31607


Successful user operation of the superconducting radio-frequency photo electron gun with Mg cathodes at ELBE

Teichert, J.; Arnold, A.; Ciovati, G.; Deinert, J.-C.; Evtushenko, P.; Justus, M.; Kneisel, P.; Kovalev, S.; Kuntzsch, M.; Lehnert, U.; Lu, P.; Ma, S.; Murcek, P.; Michel, P.; Ryzhov, A.; Schaber, J.; Schneider, C.; Schurig, R.; Steinbrück, R.; Vennekate, H.; Will, I.; Xiang, R.

At the ELBE high power radiation facility, the second version of a superconducting radio frequency (SRF) photoinjector has been put into operation and is now routinely applied for user operation at the ELBE electron accelerator. SRF guns are suitable for generating continuous wave (CW) electron beam with high average currents and high beam brightness. The SRF gun at ELBE has the goal to generate short electron pulses with bunch charges of 200-300 pC at typical repetition rates of 100 kHz for the production of super radiant, coherent terahertz radiation. The SRF gun includes a 3.5-cell, 1.3 GHz niobium cavity and a superconducting solenoid. A support system with liquid nitrogen (LN2) cooling allows the operation of normal-conducting, high quantum efficiency photo cathodes. In the paper we present the design and performance of the SRF gun as well as beam measurements for the operation with Mg photocathodes and an acceleration gradient of 8 MV/m (4 MeV kinetic energy). Finally, we discuss the SRF gun application for production of coherent terahertz radiation at the ELBE facility.

Keywords: electron source; THz radiation; electron accelerator; photo injector, photo cathode; superconducting radio-frequency

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31606
Publ.-Id: 31606


Temperature Compensation for Conductivity-Based Phase Fraction Measurements with Wire-Mesh Sensors in Gas-Liquid Flows of Dilute Aqueous Solutions

Wiedemann, P.; de Assis Dias, F.; Schleicher, E.; Hampel, U.

Wire-mesh sensors are well-established scientific instruments for measuring the spatio-temporal phase distribution of two-phase flows based on different electrical conductivities of the phases. Presently, these instruments are also applied in industrial processes and need to cope with dynamic operating conditions increasingly. However, since the quantification of phase fractions is achieved by normalizing signals with respect to a separately recorded reference measurement, the results are sensitive to temperature differences in any application. Therefore, the present study aims at proposing a method to compensate temperature effects in the data processing procedure. Firstly, a general approach is theoretically derived from the underlying measurement principle and compensation procedures for the electrical conductivity from literature models. Additionally, a novel semi-empirical model is developed on the basis of electrochemical fundamentals. Experimental investigations are performed using a single-phase water loop with adjustable fluid temperature in order to verify the theoretical approach for wire-mesh sensor applications and to compare the different compensation models by means of real data. Finally, the preferred model is used to demonstrate the effect of temperature compensation with selected sets of experimental two-phase data from a previous study. The results are discussed in detail and show that temperature effects need to be handled carefully --- not merely in industrial applications, but particularly in laboratory experiments.

Keywords: wire-mesh sensor; temperature compensation; multicomponent electrolyte solution; ionic conductivity; two-phase thermohydraulics

Related publications

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31605
Publ.-Id: 31605


Gallium-binding peptides as a tool for the sustainable treatment of industrial waste streams

Schönberger, N.; Taylor, C. J.; Schrader, M.; Drobot, B.; Matys, S.; Lederer, F.; Pollmann, K.

Metalliferous process wastewater not only represents a major ecotoxicological burden but can also serve as a secondary raw material source for the recovery of critical raw materials (CRM) like gallium. Smart, innovative strategies are needed for the economic recovery of industrial metals from such CRM sources. Biotechnological approaches are powerful tools to develop effective, selective and eco-friendly strategies in resource recovery. A particularly promising approach utilizes tailor-made biomolecules (such as peptides), that can be engineered to aid in the targeted extraction of individual metals. The application of phage Surface Display technology allows the directed molecular evolution of peptide ligands. This method has been used to identify the Ga-binding peptides TMHHAAIAHPPH, NYLPHQSSSPSR, SQALSTSRQDLR, HTQHIQSDDHLA and NDLQRHRLTAGP. In this study, the metal-binding properties of these peptides were further characterized. The peptides differed decisively in their interaction with gallium; in some cases, complex formation with gallium was strongly dependent on the surrounding buffer conditions. The peptide with the amino acid sequence NYLPHQSSSPSR showed the most promising gallium-binding properties. The site-selective and covalent immobilization of the gallium-binding peptide on polystyrene beads resulted in a robust and efficient material. It is suitable for the selective adsorption and desorption of gallium from industrial wastewater utilizing citric acid as environmentally friendly eluent. Biosorption studies performed with model and real water samples showed an up to ten-fold better adsorption of gallium as well as its effective separation from other contaminants like arsenic. Computer modeling suggests the probable structure of the peptide in aqueous solution and postulate a possible binding site for gallium.

Keywords: Industrial wastewater; Peptide-based material; Biosorption; Gallium; Arsenic; Computer modeling; Isothermale titration microcalorimetry

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  • Secondary publication expected from 15.07.2022

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31604
Publ.-Id: 31604


Code, data and supplementary material for: An improved contact method for quantifying the mixing of a binary granular mixture

Papapetrou, T. N.; Lecrivain, G.; Bieberle, M.; Boudouvis, A.; Hampel, U.

This material is related to the publication "An improved contact method for quantifying the mixing of a binary granular mixture", submitted on 13.05.2020 to Granular Matter. The original camera video, an intermediate masked video and the final preprocessed video used in the calculations, made from frames 4-1004 of the masked one, are included. The code used for all calculations in the paper and supplementary material, including the implementation of the mixing index evaluation methods, as well as the static artificial images and the generated data, are also included. All images used in the calculations are stored in the required data form. The figures of the paper are also included, as well as two supplementary materials: a version of Figure 12 with the points of the original contact method, and a discussion on the calculation of the minimum modified contact length.

Keywords: binary particle mixing; rotating drum; image analysis; mixing index; contact method; variance method

  • Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
    Publication date: 2020-10-13
    DOI: 10.14278/rodare.548

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31602
Publ.-Id: 31602


Insight into the structure-property relationship of UO2 nanoparticles

Gerber, E.; Romanchuk, A. Y.; Weiss, S.; Bauters, S.; Schacherl, B.; Vitova, T.; Hübner, R.; Shams Aldin Azzam, S.; Detollenaere, D.; Banerjee, D.; Butorin, S. M.; Kalmykov, S. N.; Kvashnina, K.

Fast chemical deposition of uranium(IV) under reducing conditions at pH 8-11 results in the formation of highly crystalline UO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with sizes of 2-3 nm, which is similar to the formation mechanism of PuO2 NPs. UO2 NPs are characterized by various microscopic and spectroscopic techniques including high energy transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), high energy resolution fluorescence detection (HERFD) X-ray absorption spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. Despite U(IV) being the dominant oxidation state of the freshly prepared UO2 NPs, they readily oxidize to U4O9 with time and under the X-ray beam. This oxidation of NPs is accompanied by their growth in size to 6 nm. The high tendency of UO2 NPs towards oxidation differs from PuO2 NPs’ behaviour due to the extremely high stability of Pu(IV) and much lower stability of oxidized Pu(V/VI) as compared to U(V/VI).

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31601
Publ.-Id: 31601


The effect of Pd(II) chloride complexes anchoring on the formation and properties of Pd/MgAlOx catalysts

Belskaya, O. B.; Zaikovskii, V. I.; Gulyaeva, T. I.; Talsi, V. P.; Trubina, S. V.; Kvashnina, K.; Nizovskii, A. I.; Kalinkin, A. V.; Bukhtiyarov, V. I.; A. Likholobov, V.

Pd(II) chloride complexes were anchored using magnesium-aluminum layered double
hydroxides (LDHs) with interlayer anions 3 2 and ), which possess different exchange properties, and MgAl mixed oxide during its rehydration. It was shown that the catalysts of the same chemical composition with different size, morphology and electronic state of supported palladium particles can be synthesized by varying the localization of Pd precursor. The properties of Pd/MgAlOx catalysts were studied in aqueous-phase hydrogenation of furfural.
Anchoring of the Pd precursor in the interlayer space of LDHs is accompanied by the formation of non-isometric agglomerated palladium particles which contain less oxidized metal and show a higher activity toward hydrogenation of furfural. Magnesium-aluminum oxides in Pd/MgAlOx catalysts are rehydrated in the aqueous-phase reaction to yield the activated MgAl-LDH species as a support, which promotes the furfural conversion via hydrogenation of the furan cycle.

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  • Secondary publication expected from 08.10.2021

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31600
Publ.-Id: 31600


Development of New 14 Cr ODS Steels by Using New Oxides Formers and B as an Inhibitor of the Grain Growth

Meza, A.; Macía, E.; García-Junceda, A.; Antonio Díaz, L.; Chekhonin, P.; Altstadt, E.; Serrano, M.; Eugenia Rabanal, M.; Campos, M.

In this work, new oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels have been produced by powder metallurgy using an alternative processing route and characterized afterwards by comparing them with a base ODS steel with Y2O3 and Ti additions. Different alloying elements like boron (B), which is known as an inhibitor of grain growth obtained by pinning grain boundaries, and complex oxide compounds (Y-Ti-Zr-O) have been introduced to the 14Cr prealloyed powder by using mechanical alloying (MA) and were further consolidated by spark employing plasma sintering (SPS). Techniques such as x-ray diffraction (XRD), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to study the obtained microstructures.
Micro-tensile tests and microhardness measurements were carried out at room temperature to analyze the mechanical properties of the differently developed microstructures, which was considered to result in a better strength in the ODS steels containing the complex oxide Y-Ti-Zr-O. In addition, small punch (SP) tests were performed to evaluate the response of the material under high temperatures conditions, under which promising mechanical properties were attained by the materials containing Y-Ti-Zr-O (14Al-X-ODS and 14Al-X-ODS-B) in comparison with the other commercial steel, GETMAT. The differences in mechanical strength can be attributed to the precipitate’s density, nature, size, and to the density of dislocations in each ODS steel.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31597
Publ.-Id: 31597


Feature extraction for hyperspectral mineral domain mapping: A test of conventional and innovative methods

Lorenz, S.; Ghamisi, P.; Kirsch, M.; Jackisch, R.; Rasti, B.; Gloaguen, R.

Hyperspectral (HS) imaging holds great potential for the mapping of geological targets. Innovative acquisition modes such as drone-borne or terrestrial remote sensing open up new scales and angles of observation, which allow to analyze small-scale, vertical, or difficult-to-access outcrops. A variety of available sensors operating in different spectral ranges can provide information about the abundance and spatial location of various geologic materials. However geological outcrops are inherently uneven and spectrally heterogeneous, may be covered by dust, lichen or weathering crusts, or contain spectrally indistinct objects, which is why classifications or domain mapping approaches are often used in geoscientific and mineral exploration applications as a means to discriminate mineral associations (e.g. ore or alteration zones) based on overall variations in HS data. Feature extraction (FE) algorithms are prominently used as a preparatory step to identify the first order variations within the data and, simultaneously, reduce noise and data dimensionality. The most established FE algorithms in geosciences are, by far, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF). Major progress has been conducted in the image processing community within the last decades, yielding innovative FE methods that incorporate spatial information for smoother and more accurate classification results. In this paper, we test the applicability of conventional (PCA, MNF) and innovative FE techniques (OTVCA: Orthogonal total variation component analysis and WSRRR: Wavelet-based sparse reduced-rank regression) on three case studies from geological HS mapping campaigns, including drone-borne mineral exploration, terrestrial paleoseismic outcrop scanning and thermal HS lithological mapping. This allows us to explore the performance of different FE approaches on complex geological data with sparse or partly inaccurate validation data. For all case studies, we demonstrate advantages of innovative FE algorithms in terms of classification accuracy and geological interpretability. We promote the use of advanced image processing methods for applications in geoscience and mineral exploration as a tool to support geological mapping activities.

Keywords: feature extraction; domain mapping; mineral exploration; image processing; hyperspectral imaging; classification

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  • Secondary publication expected from 22.10.2021

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31596
Publ.-Id: 31596


Numerical dimensioning of a pre-cooler for sCO2 power cycles to utilize industrial waste heat

Unger, S.; Müller, J.; Bangalore Mohankumar, M.; Rath, S.; Hampel, U.

The annual waste heat available from industry in the European Union is more than 2,700 PJ. Consequently, the utilization of the unexploited thermal energy will decisively contribute to a reduced overall power consumption and lower greenhouse gas emissions. Supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) power cycles offer a variety of advantages for that purpose compared to established power cycles. Such are a high conversion efficiency and a turbomachinery with high power density. The pre-cooler is one of the essential components in a sCO2 power cycle and the prediction of the flow and heat transfer characteristics is a challenging task. In the present investigation, cycle layouts were developed for two waste heat sources: a cement plant and a gas compressor station. The pre-cooler design as well as the boundary conditions of the numerical simulation were assessed by an analytical model. The most promising design was the printed circuit heat exchanger with inlet temperatures of 209 °C and 352 °C for the cement kiln and the gas turbine respectively. Subsequently, these heat exchangers were examined in more detail by the numerical code ANSYS CFX for sCO2 mass fluxes between 100 kg/(m^2 s) and 900 kg/(m^2 s). The pressure drop along the sCO2 channel was found insensitive to the channel diameter, but increased with the channel length and mass flux. However, the pressure drop of the coolant stream significantly depends on the channel diameter and thus a larger coolant channel diameter is recommended to maintain a reasonably low pressure drop. The overall heat transfer coefficient is limited by the heat transfer on the coolant side. Ultimately, pre-cooler designs were proposed for both waste heat systems, consisting of compact modular stainless steel plates with an sCO2 channel diameter of 0.5 mm, a coolant channel diameter of 0.8 mm, an sCO2 mass flux of 700 kg/(m^2 s) and a coolant mass flux of 1029 kg/(m^2 s). Based on these results more complex channels having internal fins were studied. The connection angle and the fin height was optimized, in order to improve the heat transfer performance.

Keywords: pre-cooler; numerical simulation; heat transfer; flow characteristics; waste heat

  • Contribution to proceedings
    The 4th European sCO2 Conference for Energy Systems, 22.-26.03.2021, Prague, Tschechien
    Proceedings of the 4th European sCO2 Conference for Energy Systems

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31595
Publ.-Id: 31595


Automated mineralogy particle dataset: apatite flotation

Hoang, D. H.; Pereira, L.; Kupka, N.; Tolosana Delgado, R.; Frenzel, M.; Rudolph, M.; Gutzmer, J.

This particle dataset was used for demonstrating the particle-tracking method presented in the paper "Computing single-particle flotation kinetics using automated mineralogy data and machine learning", submitted to Minerals Engineering in 08/10/2020, by Lucas Pereira, Max Frenzel, Duong Huu Hoang, Raimon Tolosana-Delgado, Martin Rudolph, Jens Gutzmer from the Helmholtz Institute Freiberg for Resource Technology.

This data belongs to the flotation tests performed by Duong Huu Hoang, and presented in:

Hoang, D.H., Kupka, N., Peuker, U.A., Rudolph, M., 2018. Flotation study of fine grained carbonaceous sedimentary apatite ore – Challenges in process mineralogy and impact of hydrodynamics. Miner. Eng. 121, 196–204. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mineng.2018.03.021

For this study, phosphate rock samples from the Lao Cai province, Vietnam, were provided by the Vietnam Apatite Limited Company. The objective of the flotation experiments was to determine the best way to efficiently separate fluorapatite from dolomite, calcite and silicates. After grinding for 8 minutes in a laboratory ball mill to assure a d90 of 67 µm, batch flotation tests were performed in a flotation cell built at the TU Bergakademie Freiberg. Corn starch ((C6H10O5)n) gelatinized with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) was used in combination with sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) to depress gangue minerals. The latter also acts as a fine particle dispersant. Solution pH was kept at 10 using the modifier sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), which can also be regarded as a depressant. Berol 2015 was used as the collector. Four concentrate fractions were collected after 0.75 min (CA), 1.50 min (CB), 3.00 min (CC), and 6.00 min (CD). In addition, a final tailings sample was collected (TD). Five replicates of the test were done to ensure reproducibility and produce enough sample mass for detailed characterization. All samples, including the feed, were wet sieved into four size fractions (-20 µm, +20 to -32 µm, +32 to -50 µm, and +50 µm) before characterization by MLA at the Helmholtz Institute Freiberg for Resource Technology. Samples were analyzed on a FEI Quanta 650F scanning electron microscope equipped with two Bruker Quantax X-Flash 5030 EDX detectors. The SEM was operated at 25 kV overall electron beam accelerating voltage and Extended BSE Liberation Analysis measurement mode. MLA results were validated with ICP-OES chemical assays. Particles from the flotation product samples (concentrate and tailings) are in the Traindata.csv file, while particles from the feed sample are in the FeedData.csv file. The weight distribution of each sample is given below:

Sample | wt.%

CA -20µm | 6.7

CA 20-32µm | 5.8

CA 32-50µm | 4.6

CA +50µm | 2.2

CB -20µm | 6.4

CB 20-32µm | 5.4

CB 32-50µm | 3.9

CB +50µm | 2.8

CC -20µm | 5.8

CC 20-32µm | 4.3

CC 32-50µm | 3.5

CC +50µm | 2.0

CD -20µm | 4.7

CD 20-32µm | 2.8

CD 32-50µm | 2.3

CD +50µm | 1.1

TD -20µm | 11.3

TD 20-32µm | 7.0

TD 32-50µm | 6.7

TD +50µm | 10.7

Feed -20µm | 36.60

Feed 20-32µm | 23.88

Feed 32-50µm | 21.75

Feed +50µm | 17.78

Variable names:

  • Mineral composition: Actinolite, Albite, Almandine, Apatite, Barite, Biotite, Calcite, Chalcopyrite, Clinochlore, Diopside, Dolomite, Fluorite, Hematite, Muscovite, Orthoclase, Plagioclase, Phlogopite, Pyrite, Pyrrhotite, Quartz, Rutile, Sanidine, Sphalerite_Fe, Titanite, Zircon.
  • Surface composition: Actinolite.surf, Albite.surf, Almandine.surf, Apatite.surf, Barite.surf, Biotite.surf, Calcite.surf, Chalcopyrite.surf, Clinochlore.surf, Diopside.surf, Dolomite.surf, Fluorite.surf, Hematite.surf, Muscovite.surf, Orthoclase.surf, Plagioclase.surf, Phlogopite.surf, Pyrite.surf, Pyrrhotite.surf, Quartz.surf, Rutile.surf, Sanidine.surf, Sphalerite_Fe.surf, Titanite.surf, Zircon.surf
  • Size and shape: AspectRatio, Solidity, ECD
  • Sample identifier: Class - In this case, particles identified with "CA20", for example, are the particles from the <20µm size fraction of the first concentrate sample, while "TD50" are the particles from the >50µm size fraction of the final tailings sample.

Keywords: Apatite; Froth flotation; Automated mineralogy; Geometallurgy; Particle-tracking

Related publications

  • Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
    Publication date: 2020-10-08
    DOI: 10.14278/rodare.542
    License: CC-BY-4.0

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31592
Publ.-Id: 31592


Technetium immobilization by chukanovite and its oxidative transformation products: Neural network analysis of EXAFS spectra

Schmeide, K.; Roßberg, A.; Bok, F.; Shams Aldin Azzam, S.; Weiß, S.; Scheinost, A.

The uptake of the fission product technetium (Tc) by chukanovite, an Fe(II) hydroxy carbonate mineral formed as a carbon steel corrosion product in anoxic and carbonate-rich environments, was studied under anoxic, alkaline to hyperalkaline conditions representative for nuclear waste repositories in deep geological formations with cement-based inner linings. The retention potential of chukanovite towards Tc(VII) is high in the pH range 7.8 to 12.6, evidenced by high solid-water distribution coefficients, log Rd ~ 6, and independent of ionic strength (0.1 or 1 M NaCl). Using Tc K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) two series of samples were investigated, Tc chukanovite sorption samples and coprecipitates, prepared with varying Tc loadings, pH values and contact times. From the resulting 37 XAS spectra, spectral endmembers and their dependence on chemical parameters were derived by self-organizing (Kohonen) maps (SOM), a neural network-based approach of machine learning. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) data confirmed the complete reduction of Tc(VII) to Tc(IV) by chukanovite under all experimental conditions. Consistent with mineralogical phases identified by X-ray diffraction (XRD), SOM analysis of the extended X-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) spectra revealed the presence of three species in the sorption samples, the speciation predominately controlled by pH: Between pH 7.8 and 11.8, TcO₂-dimers form inner-sphere sorption complexes at the surface of the initial chukanovite as well as on the surface of secondary magnetite formed due to redox reaction. At pH ≥11.9, Tc(IV) is incorporated in a mixed, chukanovite-like, Fe/Tc hydroxy carbonate precipitate. The same species formed when using the coprecipitation approach. Reoxidation of sorption samples resulted in a small remobilization of Tc, demonstrating that both the original chukanovite mineral and its oxidative transformation products, magnetite and goethite, contribute to the immobilization of Tc in the long term, thus strongly attenuating its environmental transport.

Keywords: chukanovite; XRD; XAS; incorporation; adsorption; redox; goethite; magnetite; machine learning

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31591
Publ.-Id: 31591


Raw data: Magnetic field-induced even-order harmonic generation in the three-dimensional Dirac semimetal Cd3As2

Deinert, J.-C.

Raw files from the TELBE beamtime August 2020 for exchange.

  • Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
    Publication date: 2020-10-06
    DOI: 10.14278/rodare.533

Downloads:

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31589
Publ.-Id: 31589


Interactive results viewer: Computing single-particle flotation kinetics using automated mineralogy data and machine learning

Pereira, L.; Frenzel, M.; Hoang, D. H.; Tolosana Delgado, R.; Rudolph, M.; Gutzmer, J.

This plotting application allows the reader to interact with all results obtained in the case study presented in the publication

"Computing single-particle flotation kinetics using automated mineralogy data and machine learning", submitted on 07/10/2020 to Minerals Engineering and currently under review.

The interactive plot displays the flotation kinetics modelling outcome (k, Rmax, km) for single-particles. The user is able to filter particles according to their intrinsic properties (modal composition, surface composition, size, and shape), thus allowing the user to understand the influence of every particle property in their process (i.e. flotation) behavior.

The platform contains a help function to guide the user.

It can be accessed here: Pereira et al. 2021 Flotation kinetics platform.

Keywords: Geometallurgy; Particle-tracking; Froth flotation; Automated mineralogy

Related publications

  • Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
    Publication date: 2020-10-06
    DOI: 10.14278/rodare.535
    License: CC-BY-4.0

Downloads:

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31588
Publ.-Id: 31588


Results of a randomized controlled phase III trial: efficacy of polyphenol-containing cystus® tea mouthwash solution for the reduction of mucositis in head and neck cancer patients undergoing external beam radiotherapy

Ebert, N.; Kensche, A.; Löck, S.; Hadiwikarta, W. W.; Hänsch, A.; Dörr, W.; Krause, M.; Hannig, C.; Baumann, M.

Purpose: To determine the effect of Cystus® tea (Naturprodukte Dr. Pandalis GmbH & Co. KG) as mouthwash compared to sage tea on oral mucositis in patients undergoing radio(chemo)therapy for head and neck cancer. Methods: In this randomized, prospective phase III study, 60 head and neck cancer patients with primary or postoperative radio(chemo)therapy were included between 04/2012 and 06/2014. They received either sage or Cystus® tea for daily mouthwash under therapy. Mucositis was scored twice a week following the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and the European Organization for Research and Treatment Cancer (RTOG/EORTC) scoring system. Dental parameters were also recorded. Statistical evaluation of the primary endpoint was performed using t test and log rank test. Results: Data from 57 patients could be evaluated. Patient characteristics showed no significant difference between the two groups (n = 27 sage; n = 30 Cystus®). A total of 55 patients received the prescribed dose (60–66 Gy postoperative; 70–76.8 Gy primary). Mucositis grade 3 was observed in 23 patients (n = 11 sage; n = 12 Cystus®) and occurred between day 16 and 50 after start of therapy. There was no significant difference between the two groups in latency (p = 0.75) and frequency (p = 0.85) of the occurrence of mucositis grade 3. The self-assessment of the oral mucosa and the tolerability of the tea also showed no significant differences. Occurrence of dental pathologies appeared to increase over time after radiotherapy. Conclusion: Cystus® and sage tea have a similar effect on the occurrence of radiation-induced mucositis regarding latency and incidence. Cystus® tea mouthwash solution is tolerated well and can be applied in addition to intensive oral care and hygiene along with the application of fluorides. © 2020, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.

Keywords: Herbal tea; HNSC; COral mucositis; Radiation side effect; Supportive treatment

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31587
Publ.-Id: 31587


BGM MLA data from grinding kinetics experiments

Belo Fernandes, I.

Datasource from two sets of grinding experiments:

- from top size fraction -1600µm+1250µm

- from top size fraction -425µm+315µm

  • Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
    Publication date: 2020-10-05
    DOI: 10.14278/rodare.531

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31586
Publ.-Id: 31586


Long-range magnetic order in the S = 1/2 triangular lattice antiferromagnet KCeS2

Bastien, G.; Rubrecht, B.; Haeussler, E.; Schlender, P.; Zangeneh, Z.; Avdoshenko, S.; Sarkar, R.; Alfonso, A.; Luther, S.; Onykiienko, Y. A.; Walker, H. C.; Kühne, H.; Grinenko, V.; Guguchia, Z.; Kataev, V.; Klauss, H.-H.; Hozoi, L.; van den Brink, J.; Inosov, D. S.; Büchner, B.; Wolter, A. U. B.; Doert, T.

Recently, several putative quantum spin liquid (QSL) states were discovered in S󠆶 = 1/2 rare-earth based triangular-lattice antiferromagnets (TLAF) with the delafossite structure. In order to elucidate the conditions for a QSL to arise, we report here the discovery of a long-range magnetic order in the Ce-based TLAF KCeS2 below TN = 0.38 K, despite the same delafossite structure. Finally, combining various experimental and computational methods, we characterize the crystal electric field scheme, the magnetic anisotropy and the magnetic ground state of KCeS2.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31585
Publ.-Id: 31585


2D MOFs: A New Platform for Optics?

Arora, H.; Park, S.; Dong, R.; Erbe, A.

With the research on inorganic 2D semiconductors reaching its zenith, the search for new materials beyond these traditional 2D materials is at a rapid pace. In this article, we present an emerging class of 2D semiconductors, so-called metal-organic frameworks, in terms of their synthesis, intrinsic properties, and underlying charge transport mechanisms. Further, we discuss their potential as active elements in optical applications.

Keywords: Metal-organic frameworks; Two-dimensional semiconductors; Photonics; optical applications; photodetectors; high-mobility materials; sensors

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31584
Publ.-Id: 31584


Protonen als Alternative zur konventionellen Strahlentherapie – Unterschiede und Herausforderungen

Spautz, S.; Stützer, K.

Die externe Strahlentherapie ist eine wesentliche Komponente bei der Behandlung von Tumoren. Üblicherweise wird dafür Photonenstrahlung verwendet. Jedoch hat sich die Protonentherapie auf Grund ihrer physikalischen Eigenschaften zu einer attraktiven Alternative entwickelt. Vor allem ihre überlegene Dosisverteilung ermöglicht im Vergleich zur herkömmlichen Strahlentherapie eine bessere Normalgewebsschonung, wodurch potentiell das Risiko von Nebenwirkungen und Toxizitäten sinkt. Wir geben hier einen einleitenden Überblick zu den physikalischen Protoneneigenschaften und den Möglichkeiten der Dosisformierung. Insbesondere werden auch spezielle Herausforderungen in der Protonentherapie und damit verbundene aktuelle Forschungsschwerpunkte vorgestellt.

Keywords: Protonentherapie; Physikalische Grundlagen; Herausforderungen; Forschungsschwerpunkte

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  • Secondary publication expected from 01.11.2021

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31582
Publ.-Id: 31582


New reaction rates for the destruction of 7Be during big bang nucleosynthesis measured at CERN/n_TOF and their implications on the cosmological lithium problem

Mengoni, A.; Damone, L. A.; Barbagallo, M.; Aberle, O.; Alcayne, V.; Amaducci, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Babiano-Suarez, V.; Bacak, M.; Bennett, S.; Berthoumieux, E.; Bosnar, D.; Brown, A. S.; Busso, M.; Caamaño, M.; Caballero, L.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Casanovas, A.; Cerutti, F.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortés, G. P.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Cosentino, L.; Cristallo, S.; Davies, P. J.; Diakaki, M.; Dietz, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Ducasse, Q.; Dupont, E.; Durán, I.; Eleme, Z.; Fernández-Domíngez, B.; Ferrari, A.; Ferro-Gonçalves, I.; Finocchiaro, P.; Furman, V.; Garg, R.; Gawlik, A.; Gilardoni, S.; Göbel, K.; González-Romero, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Heinitz, S.; Heyse, J.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Jiri, U.; Junghans, A.; Kadi, Y.; Käppeler, F.; Kimura, A.; Knapová, I.; Kokkoris, M.; Kopatch, Y.; Krtička, M.; Kurtulgil, D.; Ladarescu, I.; Lederer-Woods, C.; Lerendegui-Marco, J.; Lonsdale, S.-J.; Macina, D.; Manna, A.; Martínez, T.; Masi, A.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P. F.; Mastromarco, M.; Maugeri, E.; Mazzone, A.; Mendoza, E.; Michalopoulou, V.; Milazzo, P. M.; Millán-Callado, M. A.; Mingrone, F.; Moreno-Soto, J.; Musumarra, A.; Negret, A.; Ogállar, F.; Oprea, A.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Petrone, C.; Piersanti, L.; Pirovano, E.; Porras, I.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J. M.; Ramos Doval, D.; Reifarth, R.; Rochman, D.; Rubbia, C.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schumann, D.; Sekhar, A.; Smith, A. G.; Sosnin, N.; Sprung, P.; Stamatopoulos, A.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A. E.; Tassan-Got, L.; Thomas, B.; Torres-Sánchez, P.; Tsinganis, A.; Urlass, S.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Vescovi, D.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Woods, P. J.; Wright, T. J.; Žugec, P.

New measurements of the 7Be(n,α)4He and 7Be(n,p)7Li reaction cross sections from thermal to keV neutron energies have been recently performed at CERN/n_TOF. Based on the new experimental results, astrophysical reaction rates have been derived for both reactions, including a proper evaluation of their uncertainties in the thermal energy range of interest for big bang nucleosynthesis studies. The new estimate of the 7Be destruction rate, based on these new results, yields a decrease of the predicted cosmological 7Li abundance insufficient to provide a viable solution to the cosmological lithium problem.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31579
Publ.-Id: 31579


Status and perspectives of the neutron time-of-flight facility n_TOF at CERN

Chiaveri, E.; Aberle, O.; Alcayne, V.; Amaducci, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Babiano-Suarez, V.; Bacak, M.; Barbagallo, M.; Bennett, S.; Berthoumieux, E.; Bosnar, D.; Brown, A. S.; Busso, M.; Caamaño, M.; Caballero, L.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Casanovas, A.; Cerutti, F.; Colonna, N.; Cortés, G. P.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Cosentino, L.; Cristallo, S.; Damone, L. A.; Davies, P. J.; Diakaki, M.; Dietz, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Ducasse, Q.; Dupont, E.; Durán, I.; Eleme, Z.; Fernández-Domíngez, B.; Ferrari, A.; Ferro-Gonçalves, I.; Finocchiaro, P.; Furman, V.; Garg, R.; Gawlik, A.; Gilardoni, S.; Göbel, K.; González-Romero, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Heinitz, S.; Heyse, J.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Jiri, U.; Junghans, A.; Kadi, Y.; Käppeler, F.; Kimura, A.; Knapová, I.; Kokkoris, M.; Kopatch, Y.; Krtička, M.; Kurtulgil, D.; Ladarescu, I.; Lederer-Woods, C.; Lerendegui-Marco, J.; Lonsdale, S.-J.; Macina, D.; Manna, A.; Martínez, T.; Masi, A.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P. F.; Mastromarco, M.; Maugeri, E.; Mazzone, A.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Michalopoulou, V.; Milazzo, P. M.; Millán-Callado, M. A.; Mingrone, F.; Moreno-Soto, J.; Musumarra, A.; Negret, A.; Ogállar, F.; Oprea, A.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Petrone, C.; Piersanti, L.; Pirovano, E.; Porras, I.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J. M.; Ramos Doval, D.; Reifarth, R.; Rochman, D.; Rubbia, C.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schumann, D.; Sekhar, A.; Smith, A. G.; Sosnin, N.; Sprung, P.; Stamatopoulos, A.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A. E.; Tassan-Got, L.; Thomas, B.; Torres-Sánchez, P.; Tsinganis, A.; Urlass, S.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Vescovi, D.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Woods, P. J.; Wright, T. J.; Žugec, P.

Since the start of its operation in 2001, based on an idea of Prof. Carlo Rubbia [1], the neutron time of-flight facility of CERN, n_TOF, has become one of the most forefront neutron facilities in the world for wide-energy spectrum neutron cross section measurements. Thanks to the combination of excellent neutron energy resolution and high instantaneous neutron flux available in the two experimental areas, the second of which has been constructed in 2014, n_TOF is providing a wealth of new data on neutron-induced reactions of interest for nuclear astrophysics, advanced nuclear technologies and medical applications. The unique features of the facility will continue to be exploited in the future, to perform challenging new measurements addressing the still open issues and long-standing quests in the field of neutron physics. In this document the main characteristics of the n_TOF facility and their relevance for neutron studies in the different areas of research will be outlined, addressing the possible future contribution of n_TOF in the fields of nuclear astrophysics, nuclear technologies and medical applications. In addition, the future perspectives of the facility will be described including the upgrade of the spallation target, the setup of an imaging installation and the construction of a new irradiation area.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31578
Publ.-Id: 31578


Measurement of the energy-differential cross-section of the 12C(n,p)12B and 12C(n,d)11B reactions at the n_TOF facility at CERN

Barbagallo, M.; Aberle, O.; Alcayne, V.; Amaducci, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Babiano-Suarez, V.; Bacak, M.; Bennett, S.; Berthoumieux, E.; Bosnar, D.; Brown, A. S.; Busso, M.; Caamaño, M.; Caballero, L.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Casanovas, A.; Cerutti, F.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortés, G. P.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Cosentino, L.; Cristallo, S.; Damone, L. A.; Davies, P. J.; Diakaki, M.; Dietz, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Ducasse, Q.; Dupont, E.; Durán, I.; Eleme, Z.; Fernández-Domíngez, B.; Ferrari, A.; Ferro-Gonçalves, I.; Finocchiaro, P.; Furman, V.; Garg, R.; Gawlik, A.; Gilardoni, S.; Göbel, K.; González-Romero, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Heinitz, S.; Heyse, J.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Jiri, U.; Junghans, A.; Kadi, Y.; Käppeler, F.; Kimura, A.; Knapová, I.; Kokkoris, M.; Kopatch, Y.; Krtička, M.; Kurtulgil, D.; Ladarescu, I.; Lederer-Woods, C.; Lerendegui-Marco, J.; Lonsdale, S.-J.; Macina, D.; Manna, A.; Martínez, T.; Masi, A.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P. F.; Mastromarco, M.; Maugeri, E.; Mazzone, A.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Michalopoulou, V.; Milazzo, P. M.; Millán-Callado, M. A.; Mingrone, F.; Moreno-Soto, J.; Musumarra, A.; Negret, A.; Ogállar, F.; Oprea, A.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Petrone, C.; Piersanti, L.; Pirovano, E.; Porras, I.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J. M.; Ramos Doval, D.; Reifarth, R.; Rochman, D.; Rubbia, C.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schumann, D.; Sekhar, A.; Smith, A. G.; Sosnin, N.; Sprung, P.; Stamatopoulos, A.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A. E.; Tassan-Got, L.; Thomas, B.; Torres-Sánchez, P.; Tsinganis, A.; Urlass, S.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Vescovi, D.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Woods, P. J.; Wright, T. J.; Žugec, P.

Although the 12C(n,p)12B and 12C(n,d)11B reactions are of interest in several fields of basic and applied Nuclear Physics the present knowledge of these two cross-sections is far from being accurate and reliable, with both evaluations and data showing sizable discrepancies. As part of the challenging n_TOF program on (n,cp) nuclear reactions study, the energy differential cross-sections of the 12C(n,p)12B and 12C(n,d)11 B reactions have been measured at CERN from the reaction thresholds up to 30 MeV neutron energy. Both measurements have been recently performed at the long flight-path (185 m) experimental area of the n_TOF facility at CERN using a pure (99.95%) rigid graphite target and two silicon telescopes. In this paper an overview of the experiment is presented together with a few preliminary results.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31577
Publ.-Id: 31577


Measurement of the 242Pu(n, γ) cross section from thermal to 500 keV at the Budapest research reactor and CERN n_TOF-EAR1 facilities

Lerendegui-Marco, J.; Guerrero, C.; Mendoza, E.; Quesada, J. M.; Eberhardt, K.; Junghans, A.; Krtiička, M.; Belgya, T.; Maróti, B.; Aberle, O.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Bécares, V.; Bacak, M.; Balibrea, J.; Barbagallo, M.; Barros, S.; Bečvář, F.; Beinrucker, C.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Caamaño, M.; Calviño, F.; Calviani, M.; Cano-Ott, D.; Cardella, R.; Casanovas, A.; Castelluccio, D. M.; Cerutti, F.; Chen, Y. H.; Chiaveri, E.; Colonna, N.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Cosentino, L.; Damone, L. A.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dressler, R.; Dupont, E.; Durán, I.; Fernández-Domínguez, B.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira, P.; Finocchiaro, P.; Furman, V.; Göbel, K.; García, A. R.; Gawlik, A.; Glodariu, T.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González-Romero, E.; Goverdovski, A.; Griesmayer, E.; Gunsing, F.; Harada, H.; Heftrich, T.; Heinitz, S.; Heyse, J.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Kadi, Y.; Katabuchi, T.; Kavrigin, P.; Ketlerov, V.; Khryachkov, V.; Kimura, A.; Kivel, N.; Knapova, I.; Kokkoris, M.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Lo Meo, S.; Lonsdale, S. J.; Losito, R.; Macina, D.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mastromarco, M.; Matteucci, F.; Maugeri, E. A.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Montesano, S.; Musumarra, A.; Nolte, R.; Oprea, A.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Porras, J. I.; Praena, J.; Rajeev, K.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego-Perez, A.; Rout, P. C.; Rubbia, C.; Ryan, J. A.; Sabaté-Gilarte, M.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schumann, D.; Sedyshev, P.; Smith, A. G.; Stamatopoulos, A.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Vescovi, D.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Wallner, A.; Warren, S.; Weigand, M.; Weiss, C.; Wolf, C.; Woods, P. J.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.; The N_TOF Collaboration

The design and operation of innovative nuclear systems requires a better knowledge of the capture and fission cross sections of the Pu isotopes. For the case of capture on 242Pu, a reduction of the uncertainty in the fast region down to 8-12% is required. Moreover, aiming at improving the evaluation of the fast energy range in terms of average parameters, the OECD NEA High Priority Request List (HPRL) requests high-resolution capture measurements with improved accuracy below 2 keV. The current uncertainties also affect the thermal point, where previous experiments deviate from each other by 20%. A fruitful collaboration betwen JGU Mainz and HZ Dresden-Rossendorf within the EC CHANDA project resulted in a 242Pu sample consisting of a stack of seven fission-like targets making a total of 95(4) mg of 242Pu electrodeposited on thin (11.5 μm) aluminum backings. This contribution presents the results of a set of measurements of the 242Pu(n, γ) cross section from thermal to 500 keV combining different neutron beams and techniques. The thermal point was determined at the Budapest Research Reactor by means of Neutron Activation Analysis and Prompt Gamma Analysis, and the resolved (1 eV - 4 keV) and unresolved (1 - 500 keV) resonance regions were measured using a set of four Total Energy detectors at the CERN n_TOF-EAR1.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31576
Publ.-Id: 31576


Co(NO3)2 as an inverted umbrella-type chiral noncoplanar ferrimagnet

Danilovich, I. L.; Deeva, E. B.; Bukhteev, K. Y.; Vorobyova, A. A.; Morozov, I. V.; Volkova, O. S.; Zvereva, E. A.; Maximova, O. V.; Solovyev, I. V.; Nikolaev, S. A.; Phuyal, D.; Abdel-Hafiez, M.; Wang, Y. C.; Lin, J.-Y.; Chen, J. M.; Gorbunov, D.; Puzniak, K.; Lake, B.; Vasiliev, A. N.

The low-dimensional magnetic systems tend to reveal exotic spin-liquid ground states or form peculiar types of long-range order. Among systems of vivid interest are those characterized by the triangular motif in two dimensions. The realization of either ordered or disordered ground state in triangular, honeycomb, or kagome lattices is dictated by the competition of exchange interactions, also being sensitive to anisotropy and the spin value of magnetic ions.While the low-spin Heisenberg systems may arrive to a spin-liquid long-range entangled quantum state with emergent gauge structures, the high-spin Ising systems may establish the rigid noncollinear structures. Here, we present the case of chiral noncoplanar inverted umbrella-type ferrimagnet formed in cobalt nitrate Co(NO3)2 below TC = 3 K with the comparable spin and orbital contributions to the total magnetic moment.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31575
Publ.-Id: 31575


Recent progress in contact, mobility, and encapsulation engineering of InSe and GaSe

Arora, H.; Erbe, A.

The field of two-dimensional (2D) materials has stimulated considerable interest in the scientific community. Owing to quantum confinement in one direction, intriguing properties have been reported in 2D materials that cannot be observed in their bulk form. The advent of semiconducting 2D materials with a broad range of electronic properties has provided fascinating opportunities to design and configure next-generation electronics. One such emerging class is the family of III–VI monochalcogenides, the two prominent members of which are indium selenide (InSe) and gallium selenide (GaSe). In contrast to transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs), their high intrinsic mobility and the availability of a direct bandgap at small thicknesses have attracted researchers to investigate the underlying physical phenomena as well as their technological applications. However, the sensitivity of InSe and GaSe to environmental influences has limited their exploitation in functional devices. The lack of methods for their scalable synthesis further hinders the realization of their devices. This review article outlines recent advancements in the synthesis and understanding of the charge transport properties of InSe and GaSe for their integration into technological applications. A detailed summary of the improvements in the device structure by optimizing extrinsic factors such as bottom substrates, metal contacts, and device fabrication schemes is provided. Furthermore, various encapsulation techniques that have been proven effective in preventing the degradation of InSe and GaSe layers under ambient conditions are thoroughly discussed. Lastly, this article presents an outlook on future research ventures with respect to ongoing developments and practical viability of these materials.

Keywords: 2D materials; indium selenide; gallium selenide; electronic properties; vdW semiconductors; 2D transistors

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31574
Publ.-Id: 31574


Dataset for: Morphology of flashing feeds at critical fluid properties in larger pipes

Döß, A.; Schubert, M.; Hampel, U.
DataManager: Wiezorek, Michael

This data set contains cross-sectional averaged vapor fraction data obtained for flashing refrigerant in the horizontal feed section (inner pipe diameter of 200 mm) of the TERESA facility. The data was obtained with the Wire-mesh Sensor Framework GUI (Version 1.3.0). The archive 'void' contains .epst-files which are organized as a two column table (ASCII). The first column denotes the time step (in seconds), the second column is the cross-sectional averaged vapor fraction in percent.

Allocation of the files to the operational conditions is included separate .csv-file (overview.csv), which contains 12 columns for each measurement. Here the averaged values of the .epst-files are included as well.

In this study, two wire-mesh sensors were operated simultaneously. WMS1 (*_X_Sensor_1.epst) was located in an axial distance of L = 2.5 D from the flash nozzle and WMS2 (*_Y_Sensor_2.epst) was located L = 17.5 D away from the flash nozzle.  

Keywords: TERESA; Flashing feed; Wire-mesh sensor

  • Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
    Publication date: 2020-10-01
    DOI: 10.14278/rodare.418
    License: CC-BY-4.0

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31573
Publ.-Id: 31573


Detection of REEs with lightweight UAV-based hyperspectral imaging.

Booysen, R.; Jackisch, R.; Lorenz, S.; Zimmermann, R.; Kirsch, M.; Nex, P. A. M.; Gloaguen, R.

Rare Earth Elements (REEs) supply is important to ensure the energy transition, e-mobility and ultimately to achieve the sustainable development goals of the United Nations. Conventional exploration techniques usually rely on substantial geological field work including dense in-situ sampling with long delays until provision of analytical results. However, this approach is limited by land accessibility, financial status, climate and public opposition. Efficient and innovative methods are required to mitigate these limitations. The use of lightweight Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) provides a unique opportunity to conduct rapid and non-invasive exploration even in socially sensitive areas and in relatively inaccessible locations. We employ drones with hyperspectral sensors to detect REEs at the Earth’s surface and thus contribute to a rapidly evolving field at the cutting edge of exploration technologies. We showcase for the first time the direct mapping of REEs with lightweight hyperspectral UAV platforms. Our solution has the advantage of quick turn-around times (<1d), low detection limits (<200ppm for Nd) and is ideally suited to support exploration campaigns. This procedure was successfully tested and validated in two areas: Marinkas Quellen, Namibia, and Siilinjärvi, Finland. This strategy should invigorate the use of drones in exploration and for the monitoring of mining activities.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31572
Publ.-Id: 31572


Reducing entrainment in ultrafine particle flotation by selective flocculation of gangue material

Sygusch, J.; Rudolph, M.

Froth flotation is an efficient and well-established separation technique for particles with sizes ranging from 10 µm to 200 µm, but when it comes to the separation of ultrafine particles (< 10 µm) there are still some challenges. This research is part of the German research foundation priority programme DFG-SPP 2045 “MehrDimPart” and aims at developing a method for the separation of ultrafine particles based on multiple particle properties, such as wettability, morphology (shape or roughness) and size. In this study, the focus lies on the investigation of the effect of particle size on the flotation outcome.
A system consisting of ultrafine size fractions of glass particles as the valuable material and magnetite as the gangue material is used for testing. Wettability analysis is carried out using inverse gas chromatography, whereas size and shape properties are obtained via a combination of laser diffraction and microscopic analysis. In order to investigate the effect of particle size, the magnetite is selectively flocculated using macromolecules as flocculants. A novel flotation apparatus, designed for the flotation of ultrafine particles by combining advantages from column flotation and machine-type froth flotation, is used for all flotation tests.

Keywords: Ultrafine Particles; Flotation; Selective flocculation; Entrainment

  • Poster (Online presentation)
    10. ProcessNet-Jahrestagung und 34. DECHEMA-Jahrestagung der Biotechnologen 2020, 21.-24.09.2020, Online, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31571
Publ.-Id: 31571


Zur Mineralogie von Vulkaniten und Lithophysen im Bereich des unterpermischen Leisniger Porphyrs (Nordwestsächsisches Becken)

Götze, J.; Möckel, R.; Breitkreuz, C.; Georgi, U.; Klein, A.

Mineralogische und geochemische Untersuchungen an Proben des Leisniger Porphyrs sowie von Gangporphyren, Pechsteinen und Lithophysen (Hochtemperatur-Kristallisationsdomänen) im entsprechenden Verbreitungsgebiet wurden durchgeführt, um eine mineralogisch-petrographische Charakteristik dieser vulkanischen Bildungen und deren Zuordnung zu möglichen vulkanischen Edukten zu erarbeiten. Phasenanalytische Untersuchungen (Röntgendiffraktometrie, Mikroskopie, Kathodolumineszenz - KL) erbrachten eine monotone Mineralzusammensetzung, die von Quarz, den beiden Kalifeldspat-Phasen Sanidin und Orthoklas sowie Biotit dominiert ist. Anhand der geochemischen Charakteristika (Röntgenfluoreszenzanalyse - RFA) lassen sich die untersuchten Vulkanite überwiegend als Rhyolithe einstufen. Das Vorkommen von hypidiomorphen Quarzphänokristen, z.T. mit Einbuchtungen, gut erhaltenen Kalifeldspäten, sowie das Fehlen von Glas-Shards und Fiamme (Bimsfetzen) deuten darauf hin, dass es sich bei den vulkanischen Ablagerungen im Untersuchungsgebiet um keine Pyroklastite (Ignimbrite) handelt. Neuere Untersuchungen (Rehda 2018) gehen davon aus, dass es sich bei den Gesteinen nicht um klassische Fließlaven handelt, sondern um einen Lakkolith, der sich unter den Rochlitz-Ignimbrit eingeschoben hat. Damit müsste auch die bisherige stratigraphische Einordnung des Leisniger Porphyrs in die KohrenFormation korrigiert werden und eine Einordnung in die frühe Oschatz-Formation erfolgen. Die deutlichen Übereinstimmungen aller Gesteinstypen hinsichtlich mineralogischer Zusammensetzung, chemischer Charakteristik, Ausbildung der Phänokristen sowie deren KL-Eigenschaften deuten auf die Herkunft aus einem gemeinsamen Magmenreservoir hin. Auftretende Unterschiede sind im Wesentlichen auf sekundäre Alterationen zurückzuführen. Allerdings zeigen Geländebefunde und vertikal ausgerichtete Gefüge in Pechsteinen und Gangporphyren, dass diese vulkanischen Bildungen den eigentlichen Leisniger Porphyr wahrscheinlich zu einem späteren Zeitpunkt in Form vertikaler Gangstrukturen durchschlagen haben. Aufgrund der mineralogischen und geochemischen Ähnlichkeiten der Kristallisationsdomänen der Lithophysen und aller Gesteinstypen im Verbreitungsbereich des Leisniger Porphyrs kann bisher keine eindeutige Zuordnung
der Lithophysen- und Achatbildungen zu einer speziellen Gesteinsgruppe erfolgen. Aus Geländebefunden ist eine Häufung in Kreuzungsbereichen von Gangporphyren und Pechsteinen mit dem eigentlichen Leisniger Porphyr zu beobachten, was allerdings im Anstehenden oder in Bohrproben nicht direkt nachgewiesen werden
konnte. Die Bildung der Lithophysen im Bereich einer glasigen Fazies konnte ebenfalls bisher nicht bestätigt werden, da keine randlichen Anhaftungen von Pechsteinrelikten an den Lithophysen (wie im Fall des Kemmlitzer Porphyrs) beobachtet wurden. Auf Grund spezifischer textureller und mineralogischer Unterschiede kann allerdings eine Zuordnung der Lithophysen zum Seifersdorfer Porphyr im Liegenden bzw. zum Rochlitz-Ignimbrit im Hangenden ausgeschlossen werden.

Mineralogical and geochemical investigations were carried out on samples of the Leisnig porphyry including certain vein-like porphyries, pitchstones and lithophysae (HTCD - high temperature crystallization domains) in the distribution area to get information about mineralogical and petrographical characteristics of the volcanic rocks and their origin. Analytical results of X-ray diffraction, microscopy and cathodoluminescence (CL) revealed a monotonous mineral composition dominated by quartz, orthoclase/sanidine and biotite. The volcanic rocks can be classified as rhyolite according to geochemical characteristics (X-ray fluorescence – XRF). Hypidiomorphic quartz phenocrysts, partially with embayments, well preserved K-feldspar, and the absence of glass shards and fiamme disclose a pyroclastic formation (ignimbrite) of the rocks of the Leisnig porphyry in contrast to the Rochlitz ignimbrite in the same area. Recent results of Rehda (2018) indicate that the volcanic rocks of the Leisnig porphyry were not formed by flowing lava, but represent a laccolith that emplaced below the volcanic rocks of the Rochlitz ignimbrite. This consideration would result in a stratigraphic position of the Leisnig porphyry in the early Oschatz Formation instead of the previously assumed position in the Kohren Formation. The common mineralogical and chemical composition of all rock types, as well as similar characteristics of phenocrysts including their CL properties, indicate an origin from the same magma chamber or at least a melt with similar composition. Detected differences can mainly be related to secondary alteration processes. Field observations and vertically oriented textures in pitchstones and vein porphyries show that these volcanic rocks subsequently penetrated the Leisnig porphyry as vertical vein structures. Up to now, no unambiguous assignment of the lithopysae and associated agates can be done to one of the rock types in the distribution area of the Leisnig porphyry because of their similarities in mineralogy and geochemistry with the crystallization domains of the lithophysae. Based on field observations, a preferred occurrence of lithophysae in cross areas of vein porphyries and pitchstones with the Leisnig porphyry is assumed. However, this assumption could not be proven directly in outcrops or drilling samples. Although the formation of lithophysae in a glassy facies is most likely (as it was proven for the Kemmlitz porphyry), this assumption could not be confirmed due to the lack of adherent pitchstone relics on the lithophysae. However, mineralogical and textural differences to the underlying Seifersdorf porphyry and the overlying Rochlitz ignimbrite disclose an assignment of the lithophysae in the area of the Leisnig porphyry to these volcanic rocks.

  • Veröffentlichungen des Museums für Naturkunde Chemnitz 43(2020)-5-44

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31570
Publ.-Id: 31570


Better Together: Ilmenite/Hematite Junctions for Photoelectrochemical Water Oxidation

Berardi, S.; Kesavan, J. K.; Amidani, L.; Meloni, E. M.; Marelli, M.; Boscherini, F.; Caramori, S.; Pasquini, L.

Hematite (α-Fe₂O₃) is an Earth-abundant indirect n-type semiconductor displaying a band gap of about 2.2 eV, useful for collecting a large fraction of visible photons, with frontier energy levels suitably aligned for carrying out the photoelectrochemical water oxidation reaction under basic conditions. The modification of hematite mesoporous thin film photoanodes with Ti(IV), as well as their functionalization with an oxygen evolving catalyst, leads to a six-fold increase in photocurrent density with respect to the unmodified electrode. In order to provide a detailed understanding of this behavior, we report a study of Ti-containing phases within the mesoporous film structure. Using X-ray absorption fine structure and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy coupled with electron energy loss spectroscopy, we find that Ti(IV) ions are incorporated within ilmenite (FeTiO₃) near-surface layers, thus modifying the semiconductor-electrolyte interface. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a FeTiO₃/α -Fe₂O₃ composite is used in a photoelectrochemical set-up for water oxidation. In fact, previous studies of Ti(IV)-modified hematite photoanodes reported the formation of pseudobrookite (Fe₂TiO₅) at the surface. By means of transient absorption spectroscopy, transient photocurrent experiments, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, we show that the formation of the Fe₂O₃/FeTiO₃ interface passivates deep traps at the surface and induce a large density of donor levels, resulting in a strong depletion field that separates electron and holes, favoring hole injection in the electrolyte. Our results provide the identification of a phase coexistence with enhanced photoelectrochemical performance, allowing for the rational design of new photoanodes with improved kinetics.

Keywords: Photoelectrochemistry; Hematite; Titanium; EXAFS; Electron Microscopy; Transient Absorption Spectroscopy; Heterointerface; Oxygen Evolution Catalyst

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  • Secondary publication expected from 21.10.2021

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31569
Publ.-Id: 31569


Formation and crystallographic orientation of NiSi2-Si interfaces

Fuchs, F.; Khan, B.; Deb, D.; Pohl, D.; Schuster, J.; Weber, W. M.; Mühle, U.; Löffler, M.; Georgiev, Y. M.; Erbe, A.; Gemming, S.

The transport properties of novel device architectures depend strongly on the morphology and the quality of the interface between contact and channel materials. In silicon nanowires with nickel silicide contacts, NiSi 2-Si interfaces are particularly important as NiSi 2 is often found as the phase adjacent to the silicide-silicon interface during and after the silicidation. The interface orientation of these NiSi 2-Si interfaces as well as the ability to create abrupt and flat interfaces, ultimately with atomic sharpness, is essential for the properties of diverse emerging device concepts. We present a combined experimental and theoretical study on NiSi 2-Si interfaces. Interfaces in silicon nanowires were fabricated using silicidation and characterized by high-resolution (scanning) transmission electron microscopy. It is found that {111} interfaces occur in 〈110»nanowires. A tilted interface and an arrow-shaped interface are observed, which depends on the nanowire diameter. We have further modeled NiSi 2-Si interfaces by density functional theory. Different crystallographic orientations and interface variations, e.g., due to interface reconstruction, are compared with respect to interface energy densities. The {111} interface is energetically most favorable, which explains the experimental observations. Possible ways to control the interface type are discussed.

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  • Secondary publication expected from 24.08.2021

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31568
Publ.-Id: 31568


Detection of manufactured nanomaterials in complex environmental compartments – An expert review

Schymura, S.; Hildebrand, H.; Völker, D.; Schwirn, K.; Franke, K.; Fischer, C.

Manufactured nanomaterials (NMs) are materials in which 50% or more of the particles have one or more dimensions between 1 nm and 100 nm. These NMs show interesting properties. However, the same properties that motivate their use in applications are also reason for concern, as NMs can cause toxic reactions and have mobilities in the environment different from bulk materials of the same elements. Despite considerable scientific efforts, the selective detection of manufactured NMs in environmental compartments is still a very complex and challenging task. An expert review of the literature has been conducted on behalf of the German Environment Agency (UBA) to identify relevant methods for nanomaterial detection in complex media in the context of environmental monitoring and a need for action was concluded from the existing body of work.

Keywords: Nanoparticle detection; Environment; complex systems

  • Poster (Online presentation)
    Nanosafety 2020, 05.-07.10.2020, Saarbrücken, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31567
Publ.-Id: 31567


Radiolabeling of nanoparticles - A versatile tool in nanosafety research

Schymura, S.; Hildebrand, H.; Rybkin, I.; Strok, M.; Franke, K.

The employment of radiotracers is a versatile tool for the detection of nano-particulate materials in complex systems such as environmental samples or organisms. The monitoring of nanoparticles (NPs) in such complex natural systems as soil, natural waters, plants, sewage sludge, etc. very is challenging using conventional methods, especially at environmentally relevant concentrations. This obstacle can be overcome by the use of radiolabeling which provides an easy way of accurately quantifying nanoparticles in complex systems without extensive sample preparation, regardless of any particulate or elemental background.
We have developed various methods of introducing radiotracers into the most common nanoparticles, such as Ag, carbon, SiO2, CeO2 and TiO2 nanoparticles.

Keywords: Radiolabeling; nanoparticles

  • Poster (Online presentation)
    Nanosafety 2020, 05.-07.10.2020, Saarbrücken, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31566
Publ.-Id: 31566


Monitoring laser-induced magnetization in FeRh by transient terahertz emission spectroscopy

Awari, N.; Semisalova, A.; Deinert, J.-C.; Lenz, K.; Lindner, J.; Fullerton, E.; Uhlir, V.; Li, J.; Clemens, B.; Carley, R.; Scherz, A.; Kovalev, S.; Gensch, M.

In this study, a conceptually different approach for investigating magnetic phase transitions in ultra-thin films is presented. THz emission from a laser-excited material is used to monitor the magnetization dynamics during the laser-driven antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic transition in FeRh. The emitted THz signal is calibrated against static magnetometry data measurements, giving a direct measure of the absolute magnetic moment of the sample on the sub-picosecond timescale. The technique is, therefore, highly complementary to conventional time-resolved experiments such as time resolved magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE) or x-ray magnetic circular dichroism.

Keywords: Magnetization dynamics; terahertz; ultrafast; FeRh

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31565
Publ.-Id: 31565


Grating-graphene metamaterial as a platform for terahertz nonlinear photonics

Deinert, J.-C.; Alcaraz Iranzo, D.; Perez, R.; Jia, X.; Hafez, H. A.; Ilyakov, I.; Awari, N.; Chen, M.; Bawatna, M.; Ponomaryov, O.; Germanskiy, S.; Bonn, M.; Koppens, F. H. L.; Turchinovich, D.; Gensch, M.; Kovalev, S.; Tielrooij, K.-J.

Nonlinear optics is an increasingly important field for scientific and technological applications, owing to its relevance and potential for optical and optoelectronic technologies. Currently, there is an active search for suitable nonlinear material systems with efficient conversion and small material footprint. Ideally, the material system should allow for chip-integration and room-temperature operation. Two-dimensional materials are highly interesting in this regard. Particularly promising is graphene, which has demonstrated an exceptionally large nonlinearity in the terahertz regime. Yet, the light-matter interaction length in two-dimensional materials is inherently minimal, thus limiting the overall nonlinear-optical conversion efficiency. Here we overcome this challenge using a metamaterial platform that combines graphene with a photonic grating structure providing field enhancement. We measure terahertz third-harmonic generation in this metamaterial and obtain an effective third-order nonlinear susceptibility with a magnitude as large as 3·10−⁸ m² /V² , or 21 esu, for a fundamental frequencyof 0.7 THz. This nonlinearity is 50 times larger than what we obtain for graphene without grating. Such an enhancement corresponds to third-harmonic signal with an intensity that is three orders of magnitude larger due to the grating. Moreover, we demonstrate a field conversion efficiency for the third harmonic of up to ∼1% using a moderate field strength of ∼30 kV/cm. Finally we show that harmonics beyond the third are enhanced even more strongly, allowing us to observe signatures of up to the 9th harmonic. Grating-graphene metamaterials thus constitute an outstanding platform for commercially viable, CMOS compatible, room temperature, chip-integrated,THz nonlinear conversion applications.

Keywords: terahertz; harmonics; graphene; nonlinear; field enhancement; metamaterial

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31564
Publ.-Id: 31564


Experimental data of the ROCOME2.3 experiment

Kliem, S.
DataManager: Grahn, Alexander

The experiment ROCOM E2.3 represents a boron dilution event in a KONVOI-type pressurized lightwater reactor. It was conducted at room temperature with de-mineralized water without boric acid. Underborated water slugs were modelled by adding Ethanol in order to adjust a density difference of 1.22% with respect to the regular coolant inventory. At the beginning of the experiment, the slugs are enclosed between two valves in the cold legs of loops 1 and 2. The volume of the two water slugs accounts for 0.0576 m 3 (57.6 l) each and the slug fronts are located at 1.8 m upstream of the pressure vessel inlet nozzles. The experiment is started by opening the loop valves and running up the circulation pumps. The time dependency of the volumetric flow rates in all four coolant loops can be found in https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nucengdes.2020.110776. During the experiment, the mixing process was recorded by wire-mesh conductivity sensors at various positions within the coolant loops and the pressure vessel.  The nomenclature of the data files as well as the format of the tables are described in the accompanying document DataDescription_ROCOME23.pdf.

Keywords: boron dilution; coolant mixing; pressurized water reactor

  • Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
    Publication date: 2020-09-25
    DOI: 10.14278/rodare.527
    License: CC-BY-4.0

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31562
Publ.-Id: 31562


Presence of Bradyrhizobium sp. under continental conditions in Central Europe

Griebsch, A.; Matschiavelli, N.; Lewandowska, S.; Schmidtke, K.

Soil samples from different locations with varied cultivation histories of soybeans were taken from arable fields in 2018 in East Germany and Poland (Lower Silesia) to evaluate the specific microsymbionts of the soybean, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, over the years after inoculation. Soybean was grown in the selected farms between 2011 and 2017. The aim of the experiment is to investigate whether there is a difference in rhizobia content in soils in which soybean was grown over a different period of time and whether this might lead to differences in plant growth of soybean. The obtained soil samples were directly transferred into containers, then sterilized soybean seeds were sown into pots in the greenhouse. After 94 days of growth, the plants were harvested and various parameters such as nodular mass, number of nodules and dry matter in the individual plant parts were determined. In addition, the relative abundance of Bradyrhizobium sp. in soil samples was determined identified by sequencing. No major decline in Bradyrhizobia could be observed due to a longer interruption of soybean cultivation. Soil properties such as pH, P and Mg content had no significant influence on the formation of nodule mass and number, but seem to have an influence on the relative abundance of Bradyrhizobium sp. The investigations have shown that Bradyrhizobium japonicum persists longer in arable soils even under the site conditions of Central Europe and forms an effective symbiosis with soybeans.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31561
Publ.-Id: 31561


Zur Untersuchung schwerer Erdalkalimetalle für die radiopharmazeutische Anwendung

Bauer, D.

Ein maßgebliches medizinisches Problem unserer Gesellschaft sind Krebs- und Tumor-erkrankungen. Aus diesem Grund sind die verbesserte Diagnose und Früherkennung von Krebserkrankungen sowie die Entwicklung neuer und effizienterer Therapiemöglichkeiten ein wichtiger Aspekt der gegenwärtigen medizinischen Forschung.
Die zielgerichtete α-Partikel Therapie (TAT, engl. Targeted Alpha-particle Therapy) ist eine spezielle Form der nuklearmedizinischen Behandlung von Krebserkrankungen und ordnet sich im Feld der Radionuklidtherapie ein. Die TAT hebt sich gegenüber anderen Radionuklidtherapien, wie der Behandlung mit β--oder Auger-Elektronen-Emittern, dadurch hervor, dass sie Chemo- und Strahlungsresistenzen überwinden kann, eine hohe biologische Wirksamkeit zeigt, und dabei gesundes Gewebe vergleichsmäßig wenig belastet.
Bei der TAT werden α-emittierende Radionuklide, hauptsächlich Radiometalle, mittels eines Radiopharmakons zielgerichtet an oder in die Krebszellen transportiert, welche dort hochenergetische α-Partikel emittieren, die zum Absterben des entarteten Gewebes führen. Um ein Radiopharmakon auf Basis eines Radiometalls herzustellen, werden die entsprechenden Radionuklide mittels eines Chelators stabil gebunden, welcher wiederum mit einem Vektormolekül verknüpft ist. Vektormoleküle können dabei monoklonale Antikörper oder niedermolekulare Verbindungen sein, welche spezifische Eigenschaften der Krebszelle adressieren und damit das selektive Binden an diese ermöglichen.
Nur wenige α-Emitter erfüllen die Voraussetzungen, um in der TAT eingesetzt werden zu können. Aus der Reihe der schweren Erdalkalimetalle stammen die beiden α-Emitter Radium 223 und Radium-224, welche großes Potential für eine solche radiopharmazeutische Anwendung besitzen. Zusätzlich kann der γ Emitter Barium 131, dessen Element das nächst leichtere Homologe des Radiums ist, zum Therapie-Monitoring eingesetzt werden. Aufgrund der chemischen Ähnlichkeit der Elemente Barium und Radium können beide mittels des gleichen Chelators gebunden und deren Radionuklide im Rahmen eines kombinierten diagnostischen und therapeutischen – eines so genannten theranostischen – Ansatzes in der Onkologie genutzt werden. Da von Radium keine stabilen Isotope existieren, dient Barium auch als ein nicht-radioaktives Surrogat, um Chelatoren initial bezüglich ihrer Komplex-bildungseigenschaften zu untersuchen.
Ziel dieser Arbeit war es, das Potential ausgewählter Radionuklide aus der Gruppe der schweren Erdalkalimetalle für die radiopharmazeutische Anwendung zu erschließen, und dafür die Möglichkeit ihrer stabilen Bindung in einem Radiopharmakon mittels eines geeigneten Chelators zu untersuchen. Der Fokus lag dabei auf Barium 131 und Radium 224. Als potentielle Chelatoren wurden die beiden Substanzklassen der Calix[4]aren-krone-6-Derivate und der Cavitanden untersucht.
Bei diesen Verbindungen handelt es sich um Makrozyklen, welche aus vier aromatischen Einheiten aufgebaut sind. Ihre Anordnung formt eine Kavität, welche auf die Ionengrößen von Barium und Radium zugeschnitten ist. Die beiden Grundstrukturen verfügen jeweils über acht Sauerstoffatome, die für die Koordination an Ba2+- beziehungsweise Ra2+-Ionen, ideale Donoratome darstellen.
Um die Interaktion der Liganden mit (nicht-radioaktiven) Bariumionen untersuchen zu können, wurden analytische Verfahren auf der Basis von NMR- und UV/Vis-Spektroskopie etabliert. Bei diesen Untersuchungen wurde für die Cavitanden trotzt weitreichender Optimierungsversuche keine Einlagerung von Bariumionen festgestellt.
Für die Calix[4]krone-6-basierten Derivate wurden die entsprechenden 1:1 Metallion-Ligand-Chelate mit Bariumionen hergestellt und nachgewiesen. Die Stabilität der Chelate wurde mit einer Titrationsmethode auf Basis von NMR- und UV/Vis Detektion bestimmt. Aufgrund der geringen Wasserlöslichkeit der gewählten Verbindungen wurden die initialen Versuche im Lösungsmittel Acetonitril durchgeführt. In nachfolgenden Optimierungsschritten wurden Calix[4]krone-6-basierte Chelatoren hergestellt, welche in Hinblick auf das HSAB-Konzept noch besser auf schwere Erdalkalimetalle abgestimmt waren. Zusätzlich wurden diese Chelatoren über funktionelle Gruppen mit einem Vektormolekül verknüpft, welches die Wasserlöslichkeit erhöhte.
Für nachfolgende Radiomarkierungsversuche wurden Dünnschichtchromatographie-Systeme etabliert, welche die Untersuchung von [131Ba]Ba2+- und [224Ra]Ra2+-Chelaten im wässrigen Medium sowie unter kompetitiven Bedingungen ermöglichten. Es konnten jedoch für alle Calix[4]krone-6-Derivate unter wässrigen Bedingungen keine Chelate nachgewiesen werden. Anschließende Untersuchungen legten nahe, dass das Radiometall kinetisch nicht ausreichend stabil in den Calix[4]krone-6-Derivate gebunden ist

Keywords: Radium-223; Barium-131; Makrozyklen; targetd Alpha-Therrapy

  • Doctoral thesis
    TU Dresden, 2020
    Mentor: PD Dr. habil. Constantin Mamat
    162 Seiten

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31560
Publ.-Id: 31560


Nanocytometer for smart analysis of peripheral blood and acute myeloid leukemia: a pilot study

Schütt, J.; Sandoval Bojorquez, D. I.; Avitabile, E.; Oliveros Mata, E. S.; Milyukov, G.; Colditz, J.; Delogu, L. G.; Rauner, M.; Feldmann, A.; Koristka, S.; Middeke, J. M.; Sockel, K.; Faßbender, J.; Bachmann, M.; Bornhäuser, M.; Cuniberti, G.; Baraban, L.

We realize an ultracompact nanocytometer for real-time impedimetric detection and classification of subpopulations ofliving cells. Nanoscopic nanowires in a microfluidic channel act asnanocapacitors and measure in real time the change of theamplitude and phase of the output voltage and, thus, the electricalproperties of living cells. We perform the cell classification in thehuman peripheral blood (PBMC) and demonstrate for thefirsttime the possibility to discriminate monocytes andsubpopulationsof lymphocytes in a label-free format. Further, we demonstrate thatthe PBMC of acute myeloid leukemia and healthy samples grantthe label free identification of the disease. Using the algorithmbased on machine learning, we generatedspecific data patternstodiscriminate healthy donors and leukemia patients. Such a solutionhas the potential to improve the traditional diagnostics approaches with respect to the overall cost and time effort, in a label-freeformat, and restrictions of the complex data analysis.

Keywords: mpedance cytometer; nanosensor; POC diagnostics; PBMCs; acute myeloid leukemia (AML); machine learning for data treatment

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  • Secondary publication expected from 07.08.2021

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31558
Publ.-Id: 31558


Tailoring the Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Hematene by Surface Passivation: Insights from First-principles Calculations

Wei, Y.; Ghorbani Asl, M.; Krasheninnikov, A.

Exfoliation of atomically-thin layers from non-van der Waals bulk solids gave rise to the emergence of a new class of two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as hematene (Hm), a structure just a few atoms thick obtained from hematite. Due to a large number of unsaturated sites, Hm surface can be passivated under ambient conditions. Using density functional theory calculations, we investigate the effects of surface passivation with H and OH groups on Hm properties and demonstrate that the passivated surfaces are energetically favorable under oxygen-rich conditions. While the bare sheet is antiferromagnetic and possesses an indirect band gap of 0.93 eV, the hydrogenated sheets are half-metallic with a ferromagnetic ground state, and the fully hydroxylated sheets are antiferromagnetic with a larger band gap as compared to the bare system. The electronic structure of Hm can be further tuned by mechanical deformations. The band gap of fully passivated Hm increases monotonically with biaxial strain, hinting at potential applications of Hm in electromechanical devices.

Keywords: Two-dimensional materials; Hematene; Surface Passivation; First-principles Calculations

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  • Secondary publication expected from 24.09.2021

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31557
Publ.-Id: 31557


Eddy Current Flow Meter performance in liquid metal flows inclined to the sensor axis

Krauter, N.; Galindo, V.; Wondrak, T.; Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.

The Eddy Current Flow Meter is a reliable and robust inductive sensor for the measurement of flowrates in liquid metal flows. This kind of sensor is usually being used in pipe flows where the flow is mostly parallel to the sensor axis. When this sensor is used as part of the safety instrumentation above the subassemblies in liquid metal cooled fast reactors, the flow angle may change rapidly according to the conditions within the reactor. In this paper we investigate the performance of the Eddy Current Flow Meter in flows inclined to the sensor axis by numerical simulations as well as model experiments. We demonstrate that the Eddy Current Flow Meter yields reliable results for flow angles up to 30° while the sensitivity of the sensor is significantly reduced for larger angles.

Keywords: inductive measurements; flow velocity; flow angle; Eddy Current Flow Meter

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31556
Publ.-Id: 31556


Depth selective magnetic phase coexistence in FeRh thin films

Griggs, W.; Eggert, B.; Liedke, M. O.; Butterling, M.; Wagner, A.; Kentsch, U.; Hirschmann, E.; Grimes, M.; Caruana, A. J.; Kinane, C.; Wende, H.; Bali, R.; Thomson, T.

We demonstrate the manipulation of magnetic phasesin FeRh thin filmsthrough atomic displacementsand the distributionof structural defects. Atomic scale disorder can be controlled via irradiation withlight noble gas ions, producingdepth-varying nanoscale phase configurationsof distinct antiferromagnetic, ferromagnetic and paramagnetic regions. Here, we perform a spatial characterization of the magnetic phasesandthe local magnetic environment around the Fe atoms,as well as the variation ofthe open-volumes around atomic sites. Thus,a direct correspondence between the existence of the three magnetic phases andlattice defects is revealed. By careful selection of the irradiating fluence, we show that it is possible to produce simple and thermally stable magnetic configurations, such as uniform magnetisation or a bilayer phase structure.Furthermore, the thin film surface and interfaces are observed as the nucleation sites for the transitions between the phases. These results demonstrate a sensitive nanoscale manipulation of magnetic properties, shedding light on magnetic ordering in alloy lattices and broadening the scope for applications.

Keywords: Magnetic modification; PNR; Induced disorder; Phase transitions; FeRh

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31555
Publ.-Id: 31555


Guideline on current good radiopharmacy practice (cGRPP) for the small-scale preparation of radiopharmaceuticals

Gillings, N.; Hjelstuen, O.; Ballinger, J.; Béhé, M.; Decristoforo, C.; Elsinga, P.; Ferrari, V.; Kolenc Peitl, P.; Koziorowski, J.; Laverman, P.; Mindt, T.; Neels, O.; Ocak, M.; Patt, M.; Todde, S.

This guideline on current good radiopharmacy practice (cGRPP) for small-scale preparation of radiopharmaceuticals represents the view of the Radiopharmacy Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM). The guideline is laid out in the format of the EU Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) guidelines as defined in EudraLex volume 4. It is intended for non-commercial sites such as hospital radiopharmacies, nuclear medicine departments, research PET centres and in general any healthcare establishments. In the first section, general aspects which are applicable to all levels of operations are discussed. The second section discusses the preparation of small-scale radiopharmaceuticals (SSRP) using licensed generators and kits. Finally, the third section goes into the more complex preparation of SSRP from non-licensed starting materials, often requiring a purification step and sterile filtration. The intention is that the guideline will assist radiopharmacies in the preparation of diagnostic and therapeutic SSRP´s safe for human administration.

Keywords: cGRPP; GMP; radiopharmaceuticals; radiopharmacy

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31554
Publ.-Id: 31554


Anisotropy of the magnetocaloric effect: Example of Mn5Ge3

Maraytta, N.; Voigt, J.; Salazar Mejia, C.; Friese, K.; Scurschii, I.; Perßon, J.; Salman, S. M.; Brückel, T.

We have investigated the field direction dependence of thermo-magnetic behavior in single crystalline Mn5Ge3. The adiabatic temperature change ΔTad in pulsed fields, the isothermal entropy change ΔSiso calculated from static magnetization measurements, and heat capacity have been determined for fields parallel and perpendicular to the easy magnetic direction [001]. The isothermal magnetization measurements yield, furthermore, the uniaxial anisotropy constants in second and fourth order, K1 and K2. We discuss how the anisotropy affects the magneto-caloric effect (MCE) and compare the results to the related compound MnFe4Si3, which features an enhanced MCE, too, but instead exhibits strong easy plane anisotropy. Our study reveals the importance of magnetic anisotropy and opens new approaches for optimizing the performance of magnetocaloric materials in applications.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31553
Publ.-Id: 31553


Pulsed laser deposition of Fe-oxypnictides: Co- and F-substitution

Haindl, S.; Sato, M.; Wurmehl, S.; Büchner, B.; Kampert, W. A. G.

The majority of thin film studies that were devoted to Fe-oxyarsenides has focused so far on F-substituted (i.e. indirectly electron doped) LnOFeAs (Ln = La, Nd, Sm). Here we turn our attention towards Co-substituted (i.e. directly electron doped) LaOFeAs and SmOFeAs in order to investigate its growth on different substrate materials by using pulsed laser deposition (PLD). We detected dominant LnOFeAs phase formation and discuss the occurrence of minor impurity phases in the different films on different substrates. The lack of a superconducting transition in LnOFe0.85Co0.15As films on MgO(100) could be due to strain, since we observe an onset of superconductivity in SmOFe1−xCoxAs (x = 0.07, 0.15) films on other oxide substrates. In addition, Co-substitution (i.e. within the Fe2As2 layers) and F-substitution (i.e. within the Ln2O2 layers) leading to direct and indirect electron doping respectively, appears for films deposited on CaF2 substrates. In contrast to the F-substituted but Co-free Fe-oxyarsenides, the co-doped SmO1−xFxFe0.85Co0.15As film has experimentally accessible upper critical fields down to the lowest temperatures and may serve as an ideal test bed for further theoretical modeling of Fe-oxyarsenides.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31552
Publ.-Id: 31552


Preparation of γ-Al₂O₃/α-Al₂O₃ ceramic foams as catalyst carriers via the replica technique

Shumilov, V.; Kirilin, A.; Tokarev, A.; Boden, S.; Schubert, M.; Hampel, U.; Hupa, L.; Salmi, T.; Murzin, D. Y.

This work describes an effective method for the preparation of open-cell ceramic foams for their further use as catalyst supports. The polyurethane sponge replica technique was applied using a ceramic suspension based on a mixture of α-alumina, magnesia and titania and polyvinyl alcohol solution as a liquid component. The polyurethane sponge was etched with NaOH and covered with colloidal silica to obtain better adhesion of the slurry to the walls of the polymeric material onto it. The surface area of the ceramic carrier was increased by adding a layer of γ-alumina. Deposition of an active catalytic phase (Pt) was done by impregnation. Properties of the carriers and the final catalyst were investigated by a number of physico-chemical methods such as TEM, SEM, XRD and computer tomography. Hydrogenation of ethyl benzoylformate was performed to elucidate the catalytic properties of foam catalysts illustrating their applicability.

Keywords: γ-Al₂O₃/α-Al₂O₃; catalytic foams; macroporous ceramics; hydrogenation of ethylbenzoylformate

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31551
Publ.-Id: 31551


Single-Shot Measurement of Post-Pulse-GeneratedPre-Pulse in High-Power Laser Systems

Kon, A.; Nishiuchi, M.; Kiriyama, H.; Kando, M.; Bock, S.; Ziegler, T.; Püschel, T.; Zeil, K.; Schramm, U.; Kondo, K.

In this study, a detailed investigation of the dynamics of the generation of pre-pulse bypost-pulses is presented, using single-shot self-referenced spectral interferometry (SRSI). The capabilityof SRSI in terms of the single-shot measurement of the temporal contrast of high-power lasersystems has been experimentally demonstrated. The results confirm that the energy levels of thepre-pulses increase proportional to the square of the B-integral parametrizing the nonlinearity of theamplifier chain.

Keywords: laser pulse contrast; high-intensity lasers; B-integral

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31549
Publ.-Id: 31549


Supplementary simulations for laser foil experiments on TOD variation

Göthel, I.

Simulations made with PIConGPU in 2d geometry with a longitudinally modified gaussian laser on a foil.
The laser has been modified to reproduce the main features of the pulse shape seen in the experiments as a result of modifying TOD and GVD.
The three main features, which were enabled with varying strength in the simulations:
 - an exponential ramp on the timescale of 300fs before the gaussian main pulse
 - a postpulse with around 100fs delay and around 0.2 of the total pulse energy
 - a skewness of the gaussian - modelled by two gaussian halves for the rising and falling part

From the spectra of the accelerated protons the cutoff energy is measured. The main result is, that the variations of the spectra are much smaller than those observed in the experiments, suggesting more complex mechanisms than those modelled here.

Keywords: laser particle acceleration

  • Software in the HZDR data repository RODARE
    Publication date: 2020-09-22
    DOI: 10.14278/rodare.521
    License: CC-BY-4.0

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31548
Publ.-Id: 31548


Single-shot diagnostics development for high power laser driven relativistic plasma experiments at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf

Bock, S.; Püschel, T.; Helbig, U.; Gebhardt, R.; Oksenhendler, T.; Bernert, C.; Couperus Cabadağ, J. P.; Ziegler, T.; Schöbel, S.; Zeil, K.; Irman, A.; Toncian, T.; Cowan, T.; Schramm, U.

At the HZDR TO-AC contrast measurement tools and newly developed single-shot diagnostics characterizing laser pulses are applied for laser improvements and particle acceleration experiments. An overview of the applied techniques and recent results is presented.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences) (Online presentation)
    CLEO 2020, 11.-15.05.2020, San Jose, California, USA

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31547
Publ.-Id: 31547


Control of magneto-optical properties of cobalt-layers by adsorption of α-helical polyalanine self-assembled monolayers

Sharma, A.; Matthes, P.; Soldatov, I.; Arekapudi, S. S. P. K.; Böhm, B.; Lindner, M.; Selyshchev, O.; Thi, N. H. N.; Mehring, M.; Tegenkamp, C.; Schulz, S. E.; Zahn, D. R. T.; Paltiel, Y.; Hellwig, O.; Salvan, G.

The adsorption of chiral molecules was recently shown to trigger a change in the magnetisation of mesoscopic magnetic domains in a ferromagnetic underlayer. In this work, we investigated the macroscopic (magneto-)optical response of chemisorbed α-helical polyalanine self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on a gold and gold-capped-cobalt thin film on Au substrates using spectroscopic ellipsometry and magneto-optical Kerr effect spectroscopy and microscopy. The optical and magneto-optical spectra reveal selective chemisorption of the α-helical polyalanine molecules depending on the orientation of the substrate remanent magnetisation during the SAMs process. Moreover, a sign change of the magneto-optical response was observed in some of the magnetic substrates after the chiral SAMs formation.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31546
Publ.-Id: 31546


Characterization of Accumulated B-Integral of Regenerative Amplifier Based CPA Systems

Bock, S.; Marie Herrmann, F.; Püschel, T.; Helbig, U.; Gebhardt, R.; Johannes Lötfering, J.; Pausch, R.; Zeil, K.; Ziegler, T.; Irman, A.; Oksenhendler, T.; Kon, A.; Nishuishi, M.; Kiriyama, H.; Kondo, K.; Toncian, T.; Schramm, U.

We report on a new approach to measure the accumulated B-integral in the regenerative and multipass amplifier stages of ultrashort-pulse high-power laser systems by B-integral-induced coupling between delayed test post-pulses and the main pulse. A numerical model for such non-linear pulse coupling is presented and compared to data taken at the high-power laser Draco with self-referenced spectral interferometry (SRSI). The dependence of the B-integral accumulated in the regenerative amplifier on its operation mode enables optimization strategies for extracted energy vs. collected B-integral. The technique presented here can, in principle, be applied to characterize any type of ultrashort pulse laser system and is essential for pre-pulse reduction.

Keywords: Petawatt laser; temporal pulse contrast; B-integral; self-referenced spectral interferometry

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31545
Publ.-Id: 31545


Fluid Mechanics of Liquid Metal Batteries

Weier, T.; Horstmann, G. M.; Landgraf, S.; Nimtz, M.; Personnettaz, P.; Weber, N.

The quest for renewable energy sources entails an increasingly intermittent electricity supply.
Transmission grid updates can only partially account for balancing the resulting variations and large-scale stationary storage will gain importance in future energy landscapes dominated by volatile sources.
Today’s battery technologies were, with the notable exception of redox-flow batteries, mainly designed for and driven by mobile applications. Those prioritize properties (energy density, power rating) that are less important for stationary storage. Thus, battery technologies developed from the ground up to meet the needs of stationary storage have the potential to much better address the specifics of huge capacity installations.
Liquid metal batteries (LMBs) are a new technology for grid-scale energy storage, see [1] for a comprehensive review. They consist of all liquid cells that operate with liquid metals as electrodes and molten salts as electrolytes. The liquids separate into three stably stratified layers by virtue of density and mutual immiscibility (see the two upper left inserts in Fig. 1a). This conceptually very simple and self-assembling structure has the unique advantage to allow for an easy scale-up at the cell level: single-cell cross sections can potentially reach several square-meters. Such cell sizes enable highly favourable and otherwise unattainable ratios of active to construction material because of the cubic scaling (volume) of the former and the quadratic scaling (surface) of the latter. The total costs should therefore largely be determined by those of the active materials.
The talk will start with a general introduction to LMBs and then focus on the fluid mechanics in these devices [2]. Electric currents, magnetic fields, and heat and mass transfer are tightly coupled with the cells’ electrochemistry. First a number of fluid dynamic instabilities will be discussed in relation to operational safety. The remainder of the talk will deal with transport phenomena in the positive electrode. While transport in most modern battery systems is typically dominated by diffusion and migration in micrometer-scale liquid layers and solids, convection - with exception of the aforementioned redox-flow batteries - rarely plays a role. This is in stark contrast to LMBs were mediated by the fully liquid interior fluid flow can be driven by various mechanisms. The influence of solutal convection on the cycling behavior of a cell (Fig. 1a) will be demonstrated. Electromagnetically induced convection can be used to improve mixing (Fig. 1b) thereby mitigating diffusion overpotentials.

Keywords: liquid metal batteries; electro-vortex flows; mass transfer; solutal convection

  • Invited lecture (Conferences) (Online presentation)
    Department Seminar Mechanical Engineering Department, 16.10.2020, Dearborn, MI, USA

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31544
Publ.-Id: 31544


Highly Conductive Collagen by Low-Temperature Atomic Layer Deposition of Platinum

Bishal, A. K.; Anderson, N. D.; Hung, S. K. H.; Jokisaari, J. R.; Klie, R. F.; Koh, A.; Abdussalam, W.; Sukotjo, C.; Takoudis, C. G.

In modern biomaterial-based electronics, conductive and flexible biomaterials are gaining increasing attention for their wide range of applications in biomedical and wearable electronics industries. The ecofriendly, biodegradable, and self-resorbable nature of these materials makes them an excellent choice in fabricating green and transient electronics. Surface functionalization of these biomaterials is required to cater to the need of designing electronics based on these substrate materials. In this work, a low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) process of platinum (Pt) is presented to deposit a conductive thin film on collagen biomaterials, for the first time. Surface characterization revealed that a very thin ALD-deposited seed layer of TiO2 on the collagen surface prior to Pt deposition is an alternative for achieving a better nucleation and 100% surface coverage of ultrathin Pt on collagen surfaces. The presence of a pure metallic Pt thin film was confirmed from surface chemical characterization. Electrical characterization proved the existence of a continuous and conductive Pt thin film (∼27.8 ± 1.4 nm) on collagen with a resistivity of 295 ± 30 μΩ cm, which occurred because of the virtue of TiO2. Analysis of its electronic structures showed that the presence of metastable state due to the presence of TiO2 enables electrons to easily flow from valence into conductive bands. As a result, this turned collagen into a flexible conductive biomaterial.

Keywords: collagen; atomic layer deposition; platinum thin films; conductive biomaterials; electronic structures

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31542
Publ.-Id: 31542


Investigation of Mild Steel Corrosion in the Cement Production Associated with the Usage of Secondary Fuels

Thieme, M.; Bergmann, U.; Kiesewetter, A.; Wehry, T.; Potzger, K.; Zarzycki, A.; Marszalek, M.; Worch, H.

The present work deals with the corrosion of mild steel (1.0037) used as the outer construction material of the preheater of a modern industrial cement production facility. The facility uses secondary fuels, which introduce considerable amounts of corrosive species. The situation at the examination sites in the preheater zone is tracked over a period of two years including operation and shut-down periods. The investigation is focused on (i) the acquisition of the underlying physicochemical conditions, such as moisture, temperature, and contamination data at the examination site of the preheater, (ii) the multianalytical identification of the formed corrosion products using scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis, infrared spectrometry, Raman spectrometry, X-ray diffractometry, and Möβbauer spectrometry, and (iii) voltammetric and EIS laboratory investigations using model solutions. It was evidenced that corrosion takes place at a temperature level of about 100°C in the presence of moisture and oxygen as well as chloride ion as a consequence of the usage of secondary fuels. Typical hot-gas corrosion could be excluded under the current conditions. Appearance, structure, and nature of the corrosion products were found to be not mainly dependent on the varied length of exposure, but on the conditions of the hosting preheater intake. In addition to different FeOOH phases and hematite, magnetite was found, dependent on the oxygen concentration in the process gas. The decisive role of oxygen as key factor for the corrosion rate was electrochemically confirmed.

Keywords: Mössbauer spectroscopy; corrosion

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31541
Publ.-Id: 31541


Dosimetry with the ability to distinguish pulsed and non-pulsed dose contributions

Makarevich, K.; Beyer, R.; Henniger, J.; Ma, Y.; Polter, S.; Sommer, M.; Teichmann, T.; Weinberger, D.; Kormoll, T.

The concept of an active dosimetry system for pulsed radiation dose rate measurements is presented. Real-time distinction of pulsed and non-pulsed radiation contributions is based on the time structure of a single interaction. A fast tissue equivalent plastic scintillator is exploited to minimize the pile-up effect influence on absorbed energy measurements. Being connected to a fully digital signal processing board, the detector creates an active dosimetry system with adjustable parameters. With this system, absorbed dose rate measurements were carried out in a photon field with a time structure mimicking a radiotherapeutic beam, but also in the presence of a constant radiation field. Measurements show a linear dependence of a pulsed radiation contribution on the accelerator current in the investigated range of the total dose rate up to 8 μGy h⁻¹. While increasing the accelerator current by 1 μA, the pulsed radiation dose rate grows by (26.2±0.9) nGy h⁻¹ when considering pile-up events.

Keywords: gELBE; dosimetry

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31540
Publ.-Id: 31540


Comprehensive analysis of tumour sub-volumes for radiomic risk modelling in locally advanced HNSCC

Leger, S.; Zwanenburg, A.; Leger, K.; Lohaus, F.; Linge, A.; Schreiber, A.; Kalinauskaite, G.; Tinhofer, I.; Guberina, N.; Guberina, M.; Balermpas, P.; Von, D. G. J.; Ganswindt, U.; Belka, C.; Peeken, J.; Combs, S.; Böke, S.; Zips, D.; Richter, C.; Krause, M.; Baumann, M.; Troost, E. G. C.; Löck, S.

Radiomics aims to characterise the tumour phenotype using advanced image features to predict patient-specific outcome. ...

Keywords: radionmic; image-based risk modelling; machine learning; personalised therapy; radiation oncology

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31539
Publ.-Id: 31539


Toxicity of L19-Interleukin 2 combined with Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy: A phase I study

van Limbergen Ej, H. A.; Lieverse, R.; Houben, R.; Overhof, C.; Jacobi, L.; Postma, A.; Zindler, J.; Verhelst, F.; Dubois, L.; De, R. D.; Troost, E. G. C.; Lambin, P.

Introduction
The immunocytokine L19-IL2 delivers interleukin-2 to the tumor by exploiting the selective L19-dependent binding of extradomain B of fibronectin on tumor blood vessels. In preclinical models, L19-IL2 has been shown to enhance the local and abscopal effects of radiotherapy. The clinical safety of L19-IL2 monotherapy has been established previously. In this study, the safety and tolerability of L19-IL2 following Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) was assessed.
Materials and methods
Patients with oligometastatic solid tumors received radical SBRT to all visible metastases. Within one week following SBRT, intravenous L19-IL2 using a 3+3 dose escalation design was administered. Safety and tolerability were analyzed as the primary endpoint using the CTCAE4.03 scoring system, progression-free and overall survival as secondary endpoints.
Results
A total of 6 patients in two L19-IL2 dose levels were included. The 15 Mio International Units (IU) dose level was well tolerated with no dose limiting toxicity. The most frequently reported adverse events were chills, noninfectious fever, fatigue, edema, erythema, pruritus, nausea/vomiting as well as cough and dyspnea. Blood analysis revealed abnormalities in liver function tests, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and hypokalemia. At the second dose level (i.e., 22.5 Mio IU), which is the recommended dose for L19-IL2 monotherapy, all three included patients experienced dose-limiting toxicity, but toxicities recovered without sequelae. We documented two long-term progression-free responders both having non-small cell lung cancer as primary tumor.
Conclusion
Based in the results of this phase I clinical trial, the recommended phase II dose for SBRT combined with L19-IL2 is 15 Mio IU. The therapeutic efficacy of this combination is currently being evaluated in the multicentric EU-funded phase II clinical trial, ImmunoSABR.

Keywords: L19-IL2; SBRT; oligometastatic cancer; toxicity; safety; phase I

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31537
Publ.-Id: 31537


CT-based attenuation correction of whole-body radiotherapy treatment positioning devices in PET/MRI hybrid imaging

Taeubert, L.; Berker, Y.; Beuthien-Baumann, B.; Hoffmann, A. L.; Troost, E. G. C.; Kachelrieß, M.; Gillmann, C.

Objective To implement Computed Tomography (CT)-based attenuation maps of radiotherapy (RT) positioning hardware and radiofrequency (RF) coils to enable hybrid positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI)-based RT treatment planning. Materials and Methods The RT positioning hardware consisted of a flat RT table overlay, coil holders for abdominal scans, coil holders for head and neck scans and an MRI compatible hip and leg immobilization system. CT images of each hardware element were acquired on a CT scanner. Based on the CT images, attenuation maps of the devices were created. Validation measurements were performed on a PET/MR scanner using a 68Ge phantom (48 MBq, 10 min scan time). Scans with each device in treatment position were performed. Then, reference scans containing only the phantom were taken. The scans were reconstructed online (at the PET/MRI scanner) and offline (via e7tools on a PC) using identical reconstruction parameters. Average reconstructed activity concentrations of the device and reference scans were compared. Results The device attenuation maps were successfully implemented. The RT positioning devices caused an average decrease of reconstructed PET activity concentration in the range between -8.3 ± 2.1 % (mean ± SD) (head and neck coil holder with coils) to -1.0 ± 0.5 % (abdominal coil holder). With attenuation correction taking into account RT hardware, these values were reduced to -2.0 ± 1.2 % and 0.6 ± 0.5 %, respectively. The results of the offline and online reconstructions were nearly identical, with a difference of up to 0.2 %. Conclusion The decrease in reconstructed activity concentration caused by the RT positioning devices is clinically relevant and can successfully be corrected using CT-based attenuation maps. Both the offline and online reconstruction methods are viable options.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31536
Publ.-Id: 31536


Dead time corrections for Bonner sphere measurements of secondary neutrons at a proton therapy facility

Dommert, M.; Reginatto, M.; Zbořil, M.; Lutz, B.

Radiation therapy with proton beams allows the deposition of high doses to the tumour while minimising dose to the surrounding tissue. During such treatment the patient is also exposed to secondary radiation which produces an out-of-field dose that affects healthy tissue. The largest contribution to this out-of-field dose comes from neutron radiation; therefore, it is of interest to fully characterise the neutron field in the therapy room with measurements. This is usually done with Bonner sphere spectrometers using active detectors, typically ³He-filled proportional counters, as central thermal neutron sensors. Under the experimental conditions encountered in proton therapy facilities, a proper analysis of the measurements is impossible unless dead time corrections are implemented. In this paper, we present a method using a paralysable dead time model for carrying out such corrections for Bonner sphere measurements with ³He-filled proportional counters and apply it to data taken at the University Proton Therapy Dresden (UPTD) facility in double scattering mode. The neutron events were recorded with time stamps and, based on this time-resolved data, the measured neutron rate distribution was sampled. Since the neutron flux is proportional to the proton flux, the integral neutron flux is directly related to the proton dose. Hence, we were able to estimate the detector dead time from the measured rate distributions recorded for a set of measurements with different proton dose rates. Experimental measurements with different intensities of the proton field show that the corrections are in agreement within 0.5% for measured signal rates smaller than 15×10³ counts per second and do not exceed 1% at 25×10³ counts per second.

Keywords: Neutron detectors; Instrumentation for hadron therapy; Data processing methods; Radiation monitoring

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  • Secondary publication expected from 30.03.2022

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31535
Publ.-Id: 31535


Wafer-scale 4H-silicon carbide-on-insulator (4H–SiCOI) platform for nonlinear integrated optical devices

Yi, A.; Zheng, Y.; Huang, H.; Lin, J.; Yan, Y.; You, T.; Huang, K.; Zhang, S.; Shen, C.; Zhou, M.; Huang, W.; Zhang, J.; Zhou, S.; Ou, H.; Ou, X.

4H-silicon carbide-on-insulator (4H–SiCOI) serves as a novel and high efficient integration platform for nonlinear optics and quantum photonics. The realization of wafer-scale fabrication of single-crystalline semi-insulating 4H–SiC film on Si (100) substrate using the ion-cutting and layer transferring technique was demonstrated in this work. The thermodynamics of 4H–SiC surface blistering is investigated via observing the blistering phenomenon with a series of implanted fluences and annealing temperatures. Surface tomography and the depth dependent film quality of the 4H–SiC have been extensively studied by employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Moreover, X-ray diffraction (XRD) was carried out and the diffraction spectrum reveals a narrow peak with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 75.6 arcsec, indicating a good maintenance of the single-crystalline phase for the prepared thin film of 4H–SiC as compared to its bulk counterpart. With the single-crystalline 4H–SiCOI, we have successfully fabricated a micro-ring resonator with a quality factor as high as 6.6 × 104. The reported 4H–SiCOI wafer provides a feasible monolithic platform for integrated photonic applications.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31534
Publ.-Id: 31534


Classical and robust regression analysis with compositional data

van den Boogaart, K. G.; Filzmoser, P.; Hron, K.; Templ, M.; Tolosana Delgado, R.

Compositional data carry their relevant information in the relationships (logratios) between the compositional parts. It is shown how this source of information can be used in regression modeling, where the composition could either form the response, or the explanatory part, or even both. An essential step to set up a regression model is the way how the composition(s) enter the model. Here, balance coordinates will be constructed that support an interpretation of the regression coefficients and allow for testing hypotheses of subcompositional independence. Both classical least-squares regression and robust MM regression are treated, and they are compared within different regression models at a real data set from a geochemical mapping project.

Keywords: Balances; Robust regression; GEMAS project; Hypothesis testing; Robust bootstrap

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31533
Publ.-Id: 31533


High carrier mobility epitaxially aligned PtSe2 films grown by one-zone selenization

Sojkova, M.; Dobročka, E.; Hutár, P.; Tašková, V.; Pribusová-Slušná, L.; Stoklas, R.; Píš, I.; Bondino, F.; Munnik, F.; Hulman, M.

Few-layer PtSe2 films are promising candidates for applications in high-speed electronics, spintronics and photodetectors. Reproducible fabrication of large-area highly crystalline films is, however, still a challenge. Here, we report the fabrication of epitaxially aligned PtSe2 films using one-zone selenization of pre-sputtered platinum layers. We have studied the influence of growth conditions onstructural and electrical properties of the films prepared from Pt layers with different initial thickness. The best results were obtained for the PtSe2 layers grown at elevated temperatures (600 °C). The films exhibit signatures for a long-range in-plane ordering resembling an epitaxial growth. The charge carrier mobility determined by Hall-effect measurements is up to 24 cm²/V.s

Keywords: PtSe2; epitaxial films; Laue oscillations; Raman spectroscopy

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31532
Publ.-Id: 31532


Series of Tetravalent Actinide Amidinates: Structure Determination and Bonding Analysis.

Kloditz, R.; Fichter, S.; Kaufmann, S.; Brunner, T. S.; Kaden, P.; Patzschke, M.; Stumpf, T.; Roesky, P. W.; Schmidt, M.; März, J.

Two series of isostructural tetravalent actinide amidinates [AnX((S)-PEBA)3] (An = Th, U, Np; X = Cl, N3) bearing the chiral (S,S)-N,N’-bis-(1-phenylethyl)benzamidinate ((S)- PEBA) ligand have been synthesized and thoroughly characterized in solid and in solution. This study expands the already reported tetravalent neptunium complexes to the lighter actinides thorium and uranium. Furthermore, a rare Ce(IV) amidinate [CeCl((S)-PEBA)3] was synthesized to compare its properties to those of the analogous tetravalent actinide complexes. All compounds were characterized in the solid state using single crystal XRD and infrared spectroscopy and in solution using NMR spectroscopy. Quantum chemical bonding analysis including also the isostructural Pa and Pu complexes was used to characterize the covalent contributions to any bond involving the metal cation. Th shows the least covalent character throughout the series, even substantially smaller than for the Ce complex. For U, Np, and Pu similar covalent bonding contributions are found, but a natural population analysis reveals different origins. The 6d participation is the highest for U and decreases afterwards, whereas the 5f participation increases continuously from Pa to Pu.

Keywords: actinides; coordination chemistry; bonding; NMR; DFT; transuranium chemistry; QTAIM; NPA

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  • Secondary publication expected from 09.10.2021

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31531
Publ.-Id: 31531


The absence of metamictisation in natural monazite

Nasdala, L.; Akhmadaliev, S.; Burakov, B. E.; Chanmuang N, C.; Škoda, R.

The actinide-containing mineral monazite–(Ce) is a common accessory rock component that bears petrogenetic information, is widely used in geochronology and thermochronology, and is considered as potential host material for immobilisation of radioactive waste. Natural samples of this mineral show merely moderate degrees of radiation damage, despite having sustained high self-irradiation induced by the decay of Th and U (for the sample studied herein 8.9 ± 0.3 × 1019 α/g). This is assigned to low damage-annealing temperature of monazite–(Ce) and “alpha-particle-assisted reconstitution”.
Here we show that the response of monazite–(Ce) to alpha radiation changes dramatically, depending on the damage state. Only in radiation-damaged monazite–(Ce), 4He ions cause gradual structural restoration. In contrast, its high-temperature annealed (i.e. well crystalline) analogue and synthetic CePO4 experience He-irradiation damage. Alpha-assisted annealing contributes to preventing irradiation-induced amorphisation (“metamictisation”) of monazite–(Ce); however, this process is only significant above a certain damage level.

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31530
Publ.-Id: 31530


Experimental gas phase hydrodynamic data of lab scale bubble column

Kipping, R.; Hampel, U.

For the investigation of bubble column hydrodynamics an experimental study using ultrafast electron beam X-ray tomography (UFXCT) has been carried out. Local hydrodynamic parameters were measured in a DN100 bubble column using two types of capillary gas sparger, which are named as 'Type A' and 'Type B' . Nitrogen is used as gas phase and deionized water as liquid phase. For Type B sparger additionally, experiments with sodium hydroxide of different concentrations are given. Experiments were carried out at two different measurement heights, which are located at 10 (L/D = 1) and 70 cm (L/D = 7) above the gas sparger

An additional readme.txt file provides all required information and is necessary for the interpretation of the experimental data.

Keywords: Bubble column hydrodynamics; Uniform bubbly flow; Ultrafast X-ray computed tomography; SPP1740

Related publications

  • Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
    Publication date: 2020-04-02
    DOI: 10.14278/rodare.282

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31529
Publ.-Id: 31529


Analytical Approach to Phonon Calculations in the SCC-DFTB Framework

Bacic, V.; Heine, T.; Kuc, A. B.

Detailed derivation of the analytical, reciprocal-space approach of Hessian calculation within the self- consistent-charge density functional based tight-binding framework (SCC-DFTB) is presented. This ap- proach provides an accurate and efficient way for obtaining the SCC-DFTB Hessian of periodic systems. Its superiority with respect to the traditional numerical force differentiation method is demonstrated for doped graphene, graphene nanoribbons, boron-nitride nanotubes, bulk zinc-oxide and other systems.

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31528
Publ.-Id: 31528


Structural and chemical evolution of Au-silica core-shell nanoparticles during 20 keV helium ion irradiation: a comparison between experiment and simulation

Mousley, M.; Möller, W.; Philipp, P.; Hlawacek, G.; Wirtz, T.; Eswara, S.

Au-silica core-shell nanoparticles have been irradiated with 20 keV He+ ions up to a maximum fluence of 4.7x10(17) ions/cm(2). The nanoscale structural and crystallographic evolution induced by He+ ion irradiation was followed at various stages using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). During irradiation satellite Au clusters are formed around the main Au core, which remained crystalline even after the maximum He+ ion fluence. The spherical silica shell deformed into a hemisphere due to He+ ion irradiation. Three dimensional Monte-Carlo simulations, based on the binary collision approximation, have been performed on stacked infinite layers and an individual particle. The stacked layers results show that the He+ beam interacts with most of the nanoparticle and Au migrates in the direction of beam incidence agreeing with experimental findings. The individual particle results match the experiment in terms of the volume which is sputtered away however additional mechanisms, not included in the simulations, are present in the experiment during the satellite formation and silica shell deformation. These results show the ability for 20 keV He+ ions to be used for the modification of nanostructures. Furthermore, these results contribute to a quantitative understanding of the dynamic evolution of materials observed using microscopy techniques based on He+ ions.

Keywords: nanoparticles; ion irradiation; He-Ne microscope; computer simulation; TRI3DYN

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31526
Publ.-Id: 31526


Microcosm studies for evaluating the microbial influence on metal corrosion

Sushko, V.; Dressler, M.; Neubert, T.; Kühn, L.; Cherkouk, A.; Schierz, A.; Stumpf, T.; Matschiavelli, N.

A deep geological disposal by using multiple barriers is favored for the long-term storage of high-level radioactive waste. A safe long-term storage means to analyze the applied materials according to their structural properties and stability in order to identify potential risks that could evolve during the operational phase and on the long run. So far, several concepts in Europe prefer cast iron and copper as canister materials (technical barrier) and bentonite as backfill- and buffering-/sealing material in between the canister and the host rock formation. In order to analyze the influence of naturally occurring microorganisms in bentonite on the respective barrier materials, different microcosm experiments were set up. These slurry experiments contain the Bavarian B25 bentonite, synthetic Opalinus Clay pore water or cap rock solution as well as copper- or cast iron plates in various combinations. During an incubation time of 400 days under anaerobic conditions at 37 °C, several bio-geochemical parameters (e.g. pH, redox potential and the concentration of minerals, sulfate, iron(II/III) and organic acids) were analyzed as well as the development of microbial diversity and incubated metal plates in the respective experiments. The obtained results provide insights into the complex interplay between bentonite, pore water, metals and microorganisms and can help to get a deeper understanding of the corrosion process of canister materials under the applied conditions.

  • Lecture (others) (Online presentation)
    European MIC Network, 20.10.2020, Dresden-Webinar, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-31525
Publ.-Id: 31525


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