biophys_publ_Identification of Glutamid Acid 113

Identification of glutamic acid 113 as the Schiff base proton acceptor in the metarhodopsin II photointermediate of rhodopsin
Biochemistry. 1994 Sep 13;33(36):10878-82.

Abstract:In order to investigate the molecular mechanism of rhodopsin photoactivation, site-directed mutants of bovine rhodopsin were studied by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) difference spectroscopy. Rhodopsin mutants E113D and E113A were prepared in which the retinylidene Schiff base counterion, Glu113, was replaced by Asp and Ala, respectively. FTIR difference spectra were recorded and compared with spectra of recombinant native rhodopsin. Both mutant pigments formed photoproducts at 0 degrees C with vibrational absorption bands typical of the metarhodopsin II (MII) state of rhodopsin. The FTIR difference spectrum of E113D was nearly identical to that of rhodopsin. A positive band at 1712 cm-1 caused by the protonation of an internal carboxylic acid in rhodopsin was shifted slightly to 1709 cm-1 in mutant E113D. E113A was studied at acidic pH in the presence of chloride as an inorganic counterion to the protonated Schiff base. The 1712-cm-1 (1709-cm-1) band was absent in the FTIR difference spectrum of mutant E113A. Therefore, we have assigned the 1712-cm-1 absorbance band to the C = O stretching vibration of protonated Glu113 in MII of rhodopsin. These results show that the Schiff base counterion of rhodopsin, the carboxylate side chain of Glu113, becomes protonated during MII formation.