Publications Repository - Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf

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32088 Publications
1,4,7-Triazacyclononane ligands as bifunctional radiocoppper chelating agents
Stephan, H.; Joshi, T.;
design of tailor-made bifunctional chelating agents (BFCAs) for radioactive transition metals in view of nuclear medical applications as well as acquisition of reliable information about the biodistribution of different materials represents an intensive and rapidly developing field of research [1]. In this context, the tridentate macrocycle 1,4,7-triazacyclononane (TACN) is of special interest since it forms stable complexes with transition metal ions particularly with Cu(II) [2]. Further, the introduction of donor groups, such as pyridyl units, on the TACN scaffold, significantly enhances the thermodynamic stability as well as the kinetic inertness of the Cu(II) complexes formed. Furthermore, the ligand structure offers various possibilities to introduce biological vectors and suitable linkers for tuning the lipophilicity, overall charge and aqueous solubility of the final bioconjugates. For example, TACN ligands with two pyridylmethyl side-arms (DMPTACN derivatives) rapidly chelate copper(II) radionuclides under ambient conditions and the resulting complexes show high in vivo stability. One such derivative, 2-[4,7-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononan-1-yl]acetic acid (DMPTACN-COOH), containing two coordinating picoline groups, not only exhibits excellent in vivo stability after 64Cu radiolabeling, but also allows for direct attachment of vector molecules as well as easy introduction of bioconjugatable functionalities (e.g., maleimide, isothiocyanate) via the carboxylate pendant. This makes DMPTACN-COOH and its derivatives promising BFCAs for radiocopper (DMPTACN-based BFCAs), facilitating the preparation of radiolabeled targeting molecules and bio(nano)materials.
Examples of target-specific peptides and bio(nano)materials equipped with DMPTACN ligands for labeling with 64Cu as an ideal positron emitter are discussed. This enables tumor imaging and the biodistribution of the materials to be studied over a period of days via positron emission tomography (PET).

[1] E. Boros, A. B. Packard, Chem. Rev. 119 (2019) 870-901.
[2] T. Joshi, M. Kubeil, A. Nsubuga, G. Singh, G. Gasser, H. Stephan, ChemPlusChem 83 (2018) 554-564.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    19th International Conference on Biological Inorganic Chemistry, 11.-16.08.2019, Interlaken, Schweiz

Publ.-Id: 29584 - Permalink


PIConGPU simulation setup for L|PWFA simulation
Pausch, R.ORC; Steiniger, K.ORC; Debus, A.ORC

The input set of the L|PWFA simulation as used in the publication "Demonstration of a compact plasma wakefield accelerator powered by laser-accelerated electron beams" by T.Kurz et al. .
To run the simulation use PIConGPU 0.4.2 (see DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1491926).           

  • Software in the HZDR data repository RODARE
    Publication date: 2019-08-19
    DOI: 10.14278/rodare.146
    License: CC-BY-4.0

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Publ.-Id: 29581 - Permalink


UFXCT data of silo discharge of hydrogel spheres
Bieberle, M.ORC; Barthel, F.; Sancho Martinez, D.; Stannarius, R.

The outflow of hydrogel spheres from a cylindrical storage container with narrow outlet of two different sizes is imaged by means of ultrafast X-ray computed tomography (UFXCT) at different heights above the outlet. Sequences of cross-sectional images were recorded over 30 s with a frame rate of 1000 fps in dual plane mode.

Keywords: ultrafast measurement; X-ray CT; silo discharge
Related publications
UFXCT data of silo discharge of airsoft balls (Id 29573) is a supplement to this publication
High-speed X-ray tomography of silo discharge (Id 29464) is supplemented by this publication
  • Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
    Publication date: 2019-08-16
    DOI: 10.14278/rodare.144

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Publ.-Id: 29575 - Permalink


UFXCT data of silo discharge of airsoft balls
Bieberle, M.ORC; Barthel, F.; Sancho Martinez, D.; Stannarius, R.

The outflow of airsoft bullets from a cylindrical storage container with narrow outlet is imaged by means of ultrafast X-ray computed tomography (UFXCT) at different heights above the outlet. Sequences of cross-sectional images were recorded over 30 s with a frame rate of 1000 fps in dual plane mode.

Keywords: ultrafast measurement; X-ray CT; silo discharge
Related publications
UFXCT data of silo discharge of hydrogel spheres (Id 29575) is supplemented by this publication
High-speed X-ray tomography of silo discharge (Id 29464) is supplemented by this publication
  • Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
    Publication date: 2019-08-16
    DOI: 10.14278/rodare.142

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Publ.-Id: 29573 - Permalink


Single bubble dynamics during nucleate flow boiling on a vertical heater: Experimental and theoretical analysis of the effect of surface wettability,roughness and bulk liquid velocity
Sarker, D.; Ding, W.; Schneider, C.; Hampel, U.;
The present study reports the mutual effect of heater surface wettability, roughness and bulk liquid velocity on the bubble dynamics and departure in nucleate boiling. Boiling experiments were conducted at atmospheric pressure with degassed-deionized water at low subcooling (1.9 ± 0.25 K) for vertically oriented stainless steel heaters. Self-assembled monolayer (SAM) coating and wet-etching technique were used to alter the heater surface wettability and roughness. Liquid contact angle hysteresis ("θ" _"hys" ) and root mean square roughness (Sq) of the heater surfaces were adjusted between "42.32° "≤ "θ" _"hys" ≤ "68.56°" and roughness "0.01" µm≤"Sq"≤"0.549" µm. High resolution optical shadowgraphy has been used to record the bubble life cycle. Experimental results show that higher bulk liquid velocity yields smaller bubble departure diameters for all heater surface characteristics. Bubble departure diameters are greater for low wetting surfaces. The bubble growth rate and departure diameter were found maximum for an intermediate surface roughness Sq between 0.108 and 0.218 m. The corresponding roughness height is referred to as the ‘optimal roughness height’ in this study. Eventually, a bubble departure criterion was derived from the expressions of forces which act on a nucleating bubble throughout its growth cycle. 90% of the departing bubbles satisfy the bubble departure criterion with ± 25% deviation.
Keywords: Bubble growth, bubble departure, surface wettability, roughness, flow boiling

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  • Secondary publication expected from 24.07.2020

Publ.-Id: 29570 - Permalink


Transient Characteristics of Interdigitated GaAs Photoconductive Semiconductor Switch at 1-kHz Excitation
Xu, M.; Liu, X.; Li, M.; Liu, K.; Qu, G.; Wang, V.; Hu, L.; Schneider, H.;
To explore the stability of gallium arsenide (GaAs) photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSSs) with avalanche multiplication mechanism, an interdigitated electrodestructure is presented at 1-kHz excitation by a femtosecond laser. The influences of optical excitation and bias electric field on switching characteristics are investigated. The transient current density and the distribution of electric field are demonstrated by the Monte Carlo simulation. The repetitive switching indicates that the avalanche multiplication mechanism could persist stably at 1-kHz repetition rate operation with this specific electrode structure.
Keywords: Gallium arsenide, GaAs, high gain, photoconductive semiconductor switch, avalanche multiplication, repetition rate

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Publ.-Id: 29564 - Permalink


Computer Modeling of Single-layer Nanocluster Formation in a Thin SiO2 Layer Buried in Si by Ion Mixing and Thermal Phase Decomposition
Prüfer, T.; Möller, W.; Heinig, K.-H.; Wolf, D.; Engelmann, H.-J.; Xu, X.; von Borany, J.;
A single sheet of Si nanoclusters with an average diameter of about 2 nm has been formed in a 30 nm Si / 7 nm SiO2 / Si layer stack by 50 and 60 keV Si+ ion-beam mixing at room temperature and fluences between 8.51015 and 2.61016 ions/cm2, and subsequent thermal annealing at a temperature above 1000°C. Computer modelling of the process is accomplished by TRIDYN dynamic ballistic simulation of ion mixing and subsequent lattice kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of the phase decomposition of sub-stoichiometric silicon oxide into Si nanoclusters in a SiO2 matrix. The simulation algorithms are briefly described with special emphasis on the choice of governing parameters for the present system. In comparison to the experimental results it is concluded that the predicted ion mixing profiles overestimate the interface broadening. This discrepancy is attributed to the neglect of chemical driving forces in connection with thermal-spike induced diffusion, which tends to re-constitute the Si/SiO2 interfaces. With a corresponding correction and a suitable number of Monte Carlo steps, the experimentally obtained areal densities and average diameters of the nanoclusters are successfully reproduced.
Keywords: Ion Beam Mixing; SiO2; Silicon; Thermal Spikes

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  • Secondary publication expected from 13.06.2020

Publ.-Id: 29563 - Permalink


Mineral Precipitation in Fractures and Nanopores within Shale Imaged Using Time-Lapse X-ray Tomography
Godinho, Jose R. A.; Ma, L.; Chai, Y.; Storm, M.; Burnett, T. L.;
Barite precipitation in fractures and nanopores within a shale sample is analysed in situ, in 3D, and over time. Diffusion of barium and sulphate from opposite sides of the sample creates a supersaturated zone where barium sulphate crystals precipitate. Time-lapse synchrotron-based computed tomography was used to track the growth of precipitates over time, even within the shale’s matrix where the nanopores are much smaller than the resolution of the technique. We observed that the kinetics of precipitation is limited by the type and size of the confinement where crystals are growing, i.e., nanopores and fractures. This has a major impact on the ion transport at the growth front, which determines the extent of precipitation within wider fractures (fast and localised precipitation), thinner fractures (non-localised and slowing precipitation) and nanopores (precipitation spread as a front moving at an approximately constant velocity of 10 ± 3 µm/h). A general sequence of events during precipitation in rocks containing pores and fractures of different sizes is proposed and its possible implications to earth sciences and subsurface engineering, e.g., fracking and mineral sequestration, are discussed.
Keywords: time-lapse imaging; 3D imaging; shale; barite; mineral precipitation; scale; formation damage; porous media; fracking

Publ.-Id: 29557 - Permalink


Spin Hall magnetoresistance in heterostructures consisting of noncrystalline paramagnetic YIG and Pt
Lammel, M.; Schlitz, R.; Geishendorf, K.; Makarov, D.; Kosub, T.; Fabretti, S.; Reichlova, H.; Huebner, R.; Nielsch, K.; Thomas, A.; Goennenwein, S. T. B.;
The spin Hall magnetoresistance (SMR) effect arises from spin-transfer processes across the interface between a spin Hall active metal and an insulating magnet. While the SMR response of ferrimagnetic and antiferromagnetic insulators has been studied extensively, the SMR of a paramagnetic spin ensemble is not well established. Thus, we investigate herein the magnetoresistive response of the as-deposited yttrium iron garnet/platinum thin film bilayers as a function of the orientation and the amplitude of an externally applied magnetic field. Structural and magnetic characterization shows no evidence for the crystalline order or spontaneous magnetization in the yttrium iron garnet layer. Nevertheless, we observe a clear magnetoresistance response with a dependence on the magnetic field orientation characteristic for the SMR. We propose two models for the origin of the SMR response in paramagnetic insulator/platinum heterostructures. The first model describes the SMR of an ensemble of noninteracting paramagnetic moments, while the second model describes the magnetoresistance arising by considering the total net moment. Interestingly, our experimental data are consistently described by the net moment picture, in contrast to the situation in compensated ferrimagnets or antiferromagnets.
Keywords: spin Hall magnetoresistance, antiferromagnetic insulators

Publ.-Id: 29554 - Permalink


Tuning the interactions in the spin-ice materials Dy2Ge2−xSixO7 by silicon substitution
Stöter, T.; Antlauf, M.; Opherden, L.; Gottschall, T.; Hornung, J.; Gronemann, J.; Herrmannsdörfer, T.; Granovsky, S.; Schwarz, M.; Doerr, M.;
We report that the lattice constant of Dy2Ge2−xSixO7 (x = 0, 0.02, 0.08, 0.125) can be systematically reduced by substituting the nonmagnetic germanium ion in the cubic pyrochlore oxide with silicon. A multianvil high-pressure synthesis was performed up to 16 GPa and 1100 °C to obtain polycrystalline samples in a solid-state reaction. Measurements of magnetization, ac susceptibility, and heat capacity reveal the typical signatures of a spin-ice phase. From the temperature shift of the peaks, observed in the temperature-dependent heat capacity, we deduce an increase in the strength of the exchange interaction. In conclusion, the reduced lattice constant leads to a changed ratio of the competing exchange and dipolar interaction. This puts the new spin-ice compounds closer towards the phase boundary of a short-range spin-ice arrangement and antiferromagnetic long-range order consistent with an observed reduction in the energy scale of monopole excitations.

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Publ.-Id: 29552 - Permalink


Evidence for the Single-Site Quadrupolar Kondo Effect in the Dilute Non-Kramers System Y1−xPrxIr2Zn20
Yanagisawa, T.; Hidaka, H.; Amitsuka, H.; Zherlitsyn, S.; Wosnitza, J.; Yamane, Y.; Onimaru, T.;
Acoustic signatures of the single-site quadrupolar Kondo effect in Y0.966Pr0.034Ir2Zn20 are presented. The elastic constant (C11 − C12)/2, corresponding to the Γ3(E)-symmetry electric-quadrupolar response, reveals a logarithmic temperature dependence of the quadrupolar susceptibility in the low-magnetic-field region below ∼0.3 K. Furthermore, the Curie-type divergence of the elastic constant down to ∼1 K indicates that the Pr ions in this diluted system have a non-Kramers ground-state doublet. These observations evidence the single-site quadrupolar Kondo effect, as previously suggested based on specific-heat and electrical-resistivity data.

Publ.-Id: 29550 - Permalink


High magnetic field phase diagram and failure of the magnetic Grüneisen scaling in LiFePO4
Werner, J.; Sauerland, S.; Koo, C.; Neef, C.; Pollithy, A.; Skourski, Y.; Klingeler, R.;
We report the magnetic phase diagram of single-crystalline LiFePO4 in magnetic fields up to 58 T and present a detailed study of magnetoelastic coupling by means of high-resolution capacitance dilatometry. Large anomalies at TN in the thermal-expansion coefficient α imply pronounced magnetoelastic coupling. Quantitative analysis yields the magnetic Grüneisen parameter γmag = 6.7(5) × 10−7 mol/J. The positive hydrostatic pressure dependence dTN/dp = 1.46(11) K/GPa is dominated by uniaxial effects along the a axis. Failure of Grüneisen scaling below ≈40K, i.e., below the peak temperature in the magnetoelectric coupling coefficient [7], implies several competing degrees of freedom. A broad and strongly magnetic field dependent anomaly in α in this temperature regime highlights the relevance of structure changes. Upon application of the magnetic field B||b axis, a pronounced jump in the magnetization implies spin reorientation at BSF = 32 T as well as a precursing phase at 29 T and T = 1.5K. In a two-sublattice mean-field model, the saturation field Bsat,b = 64(2) T enables assessing the effective antiferromagnetic exchange interaction Jaf = 2.68(5)meV as well as anisotropies Db = −0.53(4)meV and Dc = 0.44(8)meV.

Publ.-Id: 29549 - Permalink


Not all Neoproterozoic iron formations are glaciogenic: Sturtian-aged non-Rapitan exhalative iron formations from the Arabian–Nubian Shield
Abd El-Rahman, Y.; Gutzmer, J.; Li, X.-H.; Seifert, T.; Li, C.-F.; Ling, X.-X.; Li, J.;
Neoproterozoic iron formations are exposed in the Wadi Hamama area (Egypt) in the northwestern part of the Arabian–Nubian Shield. Mafic and felsic volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of an intra-oceanic island-arc setting host multiple, thin iron-formation units. Major element compositions of the iron formation confirm a low detrital input, whereas the rare-earth elements and Y data suggest deposition related to an influx of low-temperature hydrothermal fluids. Unlike most Neoproterozoic banded iron formations, but similar to other iron-formation occurrences from the Arabian–Nubian Shield, the Nd isotopic compositions of the Wadi Hamama iron formations are predominantly mantle-like. SIMS U–Pb zircon ages of the host volcaniclastic units indicate that the age of iron-formation deposition is ca. 695 Ma, which is within the Sturtian epoch that is presumed to be a glacial event of global extent. Nevertheless, there is no robust evidence of any influence of Sturtian glaciation in the Arabian–Nubian Shield. Our results rather suggest that the iron formations in the area may have formed as low-temperature exhalites on the floor of an island-arc basin. The iron formations were deposited during periods of volcanic quiescence, with metals having been derived during low-temperature pervasive hydrothermal alteration of volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks exposed at the seafloor–seawater interface. Precipitation took place due to mixing of metal-bearing hydrothermal fluids and cold, oxygenated seawater. There is no need to invoke possible effects of global glaciation to explain the origin of the Sturtian-aged iron formations in the shield. Our study thus suggests that not all Neoproterozoic iron formations are necessarily linked to glacial events as the Hamama deposit represents a non-Rapitan exhalative iron formation.
Keywords: Cryogenian, Exhalite, Hydrothermal, Iron formations, Island arc, Sturtian glaciation

Publ.-Id: 29547 - Permalink


High temperature plasma immersion ion implantation using hollow cathode discharges in small diameter metal tubes
Ueda, M.; Silva, C.; de Souza, G. B.; Pichon, L.; Reuther, H.;
High temperature nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation (HT-NPIII) method was used to treat the internal walls of small diameter metal tubes made of SS304 and of Ti6-Al4-V (TAV). Using a lid in one side of the tubes was essential to reach high temperatures of 700-900 °C, necessary for high thermal diffusion of nitrogen in Ti alloy samples placed inside the metal tubes for monitoring the HT-NPIII process. The used metal tubes also reached such high temperatures. New phases of TiN and Ti2N were successfully attained in the TAV samples with the treated layer thickness of more than 1.3 μm for all the tested cases. For tubes made of SS304, HT-NPIII treatments resulted in redeposition of FeN thick layers with high hardness on the surfaces of the internal walls of the tubes and on the monitoring samples. Obtaining such HT-NPIII conditions in these small metallic tubes was possible by achieving high plasma density through hollow cathode discharges inside those tubes. These results were compared to the ones obtained on the nitrogen implantation treatments of TAV samples in moderate to high temperatures carried out previously in the laboratory which indicated the superior performance of the presently reported method of surface modification.

Publ.-Id: 29546 - Permalink


Structure–Affinity Relationships of Fluorinated Spirocyclic Sigma2 Receptor Ligands with an Exocyclic Benzylamino Moiety
Bergkemper, M.; Kronenberg, E.; Schepmann, D.; Ludwig, F.-A.; Brust, P.; Wünsch, B.;
To identify a potent and selective σ2 receptor ligand appropriate for development as a positron emission tomography (PET) tracer, several fluorinated analogues of the spirocyclic lead compounds trans- and cis-6 (N-(2,4-dimethylbenzyl)-3-methoxy-3,4-dihydrospiro[[2]benzopyran-1,1′-cyclohexan]-4′-amine) were designed. In multistep syntheses, a fluorine atom was introduced directly or as a 2-fluoroethoxy moiety on the 2-benzopyran scaffold, on the dimethylbenzylamino moiety, or on the central amino moiety. The σ1 and σ2 receptor affinity was determined in receptor binding studies with radioligands. With respect to σ2 affinity and σ2/σ1 selectivity, cis-N-(2,4-dimethylbenzyl)-5-fluoro-3-methoxy-3,4-dihydrospiro[[2]benzopyran-1,1′-cyclohexan]-4′-amine (cis-15 c, Ki(σ2)=51 nm) and cis-N-[4-(fluoromethyl)-2-methylbenzyl]-3-methoxy-3,4-dihydrospiro[[2]benzopyran-1,1′-cyclohexan]-4′-amine (cis-28 e, Ki(σ2)=57 nm) are the most promising ligands. The combination of both structural elements in one molecule, cis-N-[4-(fluoromethyl)-2-methylbenzyl]-5-fluoro-3-methoxy-3,4-dihydrospiro[[2]benzopyran-1,1′-cyclohexan]-4′-amine (cis-28 c: Ki(σ2)=874 nm), resulted in decreased σ2 and σ1 affinity. Methylation of secondary amines led to three tertiary methylamines with moderate affinity for both σ receptor subtypes.
Keywords: cis–trans configuration, fluorinated PET tracers, receptor selectivity, spirocyclic ligands, structure–affinity relationships, σ receptors

Publ.-Id: 29545 - Permalink


Study of mixing enhanced by a magnetic field in a microfluidic channel
Yang, X.; Wojnicki, M.; Zabinski, P.; Mutschke, G.;
Mixing in a microfluidic environment is challenging due to the laminarity of flow. The idea of the present study is to apply a magnetic force to a stratified channel flow. Due to the different magnetic susceptibilities of the liquid layers, mixing might be triggered. The magnetic gradient force is generated simply by the application of permanent magnets. Fig. 1 shows the channel setup with two entries and two outflows. The upper entry is fed with water, whereas the lower entry is fed with 0.1 M HoCl3 solution. On top of the front part, the magnets are applied. Different flow rates and magnet configurations were studied. The degree of mixing is measured by determining the concentration of HoCl3 in the upper outlet by a spectrophotometer measuring the absorbance at a specific wavelength. Additional Micro-PIV measurements are performed to resolve the related flow pattern in detail. Numerical simulations are performed to complement the investigation.
Keywords: microfluidics, mixing, paramagnetic solution, magnetic field, Kelvin force
  • Poster
    11th International PAMIR International Conference - Fundamental and Applied MHD, 01.-05.07.2019, Reims, Frankreich

Publ.-Id: 29535 - Permalink


Study of the Marangoni effect during electrolytic gas evolution
Mutschke, G.; Massing, J.; Hossain, S. S.; Yang, X.; Baczyzmalski, D.; Cierpka, C.; Eckert, K.;
lectrolytic gas evolution is a fundamental phenomenon occurring in a large number of industrial applications. Near the electrode, bubble growth is understood to appear due to mass flux of dissolved gas across the bubble interface from a supersaturated electrolyte. Because of related thermal, electrical or solutal effects, a gradient of the surface tension along the interface may exist. The resulting shear stress would cause convection at the interface (Marangoni effect), which may affect the mass transfer across the interface during growth and also the departure of the gas bubble. This Marangoni effect was unveilled only recently in an experimental study [1]. The present work aims to investigate the origin of the effect in more detail. Numerical simulations are performed including only the thermal Marangoni effect near a hydrogen gas bubble growing electrochemically at a microelectrode in an acidic electrolyte. The simulation results are compared with experimental data of the near-bubble convection obtained by Particle Tracking Velocimetry (PTV) and by temperature measurements. The comparison allows to conclude on a strong thermocapillary effect at the microelectrode [2]. The related force on the bubble is found to retard the release of the bubble.

[1] X. Yang et al, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 20: 11542-11548. 2018.
[2] J. Massing et al., Electrochim. Acta. 2019. IN PRESS
Keywords: Electrolysis, gas evolution, hydrogen evolution, Marangoni, thermocapillary effect
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    11th International PAMIR International Conference - Fundamental and Applied MHD, 01.-05.07.2019, Reims, Frankreich

Publ.-Id: 29534 - Permalink


FLUKA simulations with and without magnetic field
Müller, S.ORC
Presentation at Mu2e Simulation WG meting August 1, 2019
Keywords: Mu2e, FLUKA
  • Lecture (others)
    Mu2e Simulation WG meeting, 01.08.2019, Batavia, USA

Publ.-Id: 29531 - Permalink


Improved magnetostructural and magnetocaloric reversibility in magnetic Ni-Mn-In shape-memory Heusler alloy by optimizing the geometric compatibility condition
Devi, P.; Salazar Mejia, C.; Ghorbani Zavareh, M.; Dubey, K. K.; Kushwaha, P.; Skourski, Y.; Felser, C.; Nicklas, M.; Singh, S.;
We report an improved reversibility of magnetostriction and inverse magnetocaloric effect (MCE) for the magnetic shape-memory Heusler alloy Ni1.8Mn1.8In0.4. We show that the magnetostriction and MCE crucially depends on the geometrical compatibility of the austenite and martensite phases. Detailed information on the compatibility of both phases has been obtained from the transformation matrix calculated from x-ray diffraction data. The uniqueness of the lattice parameters results in an improved reversibility of the magnetostriction and the MCE. In the thermal hysteresis region of the martensitic transformation, the maximum relative length change is 0.3% and the adiabatic temperature change Δad ≈ −10 K in pulsed magnetic fields. Our results reveal that the approach of geometric compatibility will allow one to design materials with reversible magnetostriction and reversible inverse MCE at a first-order magnetostructural phase transition in shape-memory Heusler alloys.

Publ.-Id: 29530 - Permalink


Magnetic phase transitions, metastable states, and magnetic hysteresis in the antiferromagnetic compounds Fe0.5TiS2−ySey
Baranov, N. V.; Selezneva, N. V.; Sherokalova, E. M.; Baglaeva, Y. A.; Ovchinnikov, A. S.; Tereshchenko, A. A.; Gorbunov, D. I.;
The phase transitions and magnetization processes in the antiferromagnetic compounds Fe0.5TiS2−ySey [FeTi2(S,Se)4] with an ordered layered crystal structure of the CrS4 type have been studied by using x-ray diffraction, measurements of the specific heat, electrical resistivity, magnetoresistance, and the magnetization in steady and pulsed magnetic fields together with calculations within the Ising model accounting the magnetoelastic interactions. The change from the spin-flip to spin-flop type phase transition and a monotonic growth of the critical transition field from ∼50 kOe at y = 0 up to 470 kOe at y = 2 has been observed with the Se for S substitution in antiferromagnetic (AFM) compounds Fe0.5TiS2−ySey. In the selenium-poor compounds (y < 0.5), the field-induced AFM-FM phase transition at low temperatures is accompanied by ultrasharp changes in the magnetization and magnetoresistance and by huge magnetic hysteresis. The presence of remnant magnetoresistance in these compounds after the application of a magnetic field indicates the formation of a metastable field-induced FM state. Despite an AFM ground state, the Fe0.5TiS2−ySey compounds with y < 0.5 after application of a magnetic field behave at low temperatures as high-anisotropic Ising-type ferromagnets with the coercive field Hc up to ∼60 kOe. It has been shown, that magnetoelastic interactions may be responsible for the formation of the metastable field-induced high-coercive FM state in the Ising-type antiferromagnets.

Publ.-Id: 29529 - Permalink


Tailoring the ferrimagnetic-to-ferromagnetic transition field by Interstitial and substitutional atoms in the R–Fe compounds
Tereshina, I. S.; Ivanov, L. A.; Tereshina-Chitrova, E. A.; Gorbunov, D. I.; Paukov, M. A.; Havela, L.; Drulis, H.; Granovsky, S. A.; Doerr, M.; Gaviko, V. S.; Andreev, A. V.;
Fundamental characteristics of rare-earth (R) – iron intermetallics R2Fe14B are highly sensitive to the atomic substitutions and interstitial absorption of light elements. We studied a combined influence of the substitutions in the rare-earth sublattice and hydrogen absorption on the magnetization behavior in magnetic fields up to 60 T Er2Fe14B and Tm2Fe14B ferrimagnets chosen for the study showed that the substitution of Nd for Er or Tm increases the saturation magnetization as a result of ferromagnetic ordering of Nd and Fe moments. Under sufficiently high magnetic fields the magnetic moments rotate and the field-induced ferromagnetic state may be observed. The field at which a transition occurs is related to the strength of the inter-sublattice exchange interaction. The role of hydrogen is primarily to weaken the inter-sublattice ferrimagnetic coupling so that the reorientation becomes achievable at the available magnetic field strength (in hydrides Tm2Fe14BH5.5 and (Tm0.5Nd0.5)2Fe14BH5.5). We analyze the volume dependence of the R–Fe magnetic interaction in R2Fe14B and compare it with other R–Fe compounds.

Publ.-Id: 29527 - Permalink


Shifts in bentonite bacterial community and mineralogy in response to uranium and glycerol-2-phosphate exposure
Povedano-Priego, C.; Jroundi, F.; Lopez Fernandez, M.; Sánchez-Castro, I.; Martin-Sánchez, I.; Huertas, F. J.; Merroun, M. L.;
The multi-barrier deep geological repository system is currently considered as one of the safest option for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. Indigenous microorganisms of bentonites, may affect the structure and stability of these clays through Fe-containing minerals biotransformation and radionuclides mobilization.
The present work aimed to investigate the behavior of bentonite and its bacterial community in the case of a uranium leakage from the waste containers. Hence, bentonite microcosms were amended with uranyl nitrate (U) and glycerol-2-phosphate (G2P) and incubated aerobically for 6 months. Next generation 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the bacterial populations of all treated microcosms were dominated by Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria, accounting for >50% of the community. Additionally, G2P and nitrate had a remarkable effect on the bacterial diversity of bentonites by the enrichment of bacteria involved in the nitrogen and carbon biogeochemical cycles (e.g. Azotobacter). A significant presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria such as Desulfonauticus and Desulfomicrobium were detected in the U-treated microcosms. The actinobacteria Amycolatopsis was enriched in G2P‑uranium amended bentonites. High Annular Angle Dark-Field Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy analyses showed the capacity of Amycolatopsis and a bentonite consortium formed by Bradyrhizobium-Rhizobium and Pseudomonas to precipitate U as U phosphate mineral phases, probably due to the phosphatase activity. The different amendments did not affect the mineralogy of the bentonite pointing to a high structural stability. These results would help to predict the impact of microbial processes on the biogeochemical cycles of elements (N and U) within the bentonite barrier under repository relevant conditions and to determine the changes in the microbial community induced by a uranium release.
Keywords: Deep geological repository Bentonite Bacterial diversity Uranium Glycerol-2-phosphate Microscopy

Publ.-Id: 29526 - Permalink


¹⁸F-Labeled benzylpiperazine derivatives as highly selective ligands for imaging σ1 receptor with positron emission tomography
Ye, J.; Wang, L.; Deuther-Conrad, W.; Chen, Y.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, J.; Huang, Y.; Brust, P.; Jia, H.;
We report the design, synthesis, and evaluation of a new series of benzylpiperazine derivatives as selective σ1 receptor ligands. All seven ligands possessed low nanomolar affinity for σ1 receptors (Ki(σ1) = 0.31-4.19 nM) and high subtype selectivity (Ki(σ2)/Ki(σ1) = 50-2448). The fluoroethoxy analogues also exhibited high selectivity toward the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (Ki(VAChT)/Ki(σ1) = 99-18252). The corresponding radiotracers [18F]13, [18F]14, and [18F]16 with high selectivity (Ki(σ2)/Ki(σ1) > 100, Ki(VAChT)/Ki(σ1) > 1000) were prepared in 42% to 55% radiochemical yields (corrected for decay), greater than 99% radiochemical purity (RCP), and molar activity of about 120 GBq/μmol at the end of synthesis (EOS). All three radiotracers showed high initial brain uptake in mouse (8.37-11.48% ID/g at 2 min), which was not affected by pretreatment with cyclosporine A, suggesting that they are not substrates for permeability-glycoprotein (P-gp). Pretreatment with SA4503 or haloperidol resulted in significantly reduced brain uptake (35%-62% decrease at 30 min). In particular, [18F]16 displayed high brain-to-blood ratios and high in vivo metabolic stability. Although it may not be an optimal neuroimaging agent because of its slow kinetics in the mouse brain, [18F]16 can serve as a lead compound for further structural modifications to explore new potential radiotracers for σ1 receptors.
  • Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals 62(2019)8, 425-437
    DOI: 10.1002/jlcr.3738

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Publ.-Id: 29524 - Permalink


Haemodynamic impairments in asymptomatic unilateral carotid artery stenosis are most pronounced within individual watershed areas
Kaczmar, S.; Goettler, J.; Petr, J.; Hansen, M.; Kufer, J.; Hock, A.; Kufer, J.; Mouridsen, K.; Hyder, F.; Christine, P.;
Objectives
Severe internal carotid-artery stenosis (ICAS) is a major public health issue, as it accounts for approximately 10% of all strokes.1 Despite several studies,2–5 mechanisms of related haemodynamic impairments are still not well understood, which limits the currently insufficient treatment guidelines6. To improve diagnostic significance, we propose a multimodal-MRI protocol to better characterise haemodynamic impairments in asymptomatic ICAS. Since perfusion impairments arise first in the highly variableborder zones7 between perfusion territories,8 we hypothesize to be most sensitive to ICAS-impairments within subject’s individual watershed areas (iWSAs)7.

Methods
Fifty-nine participants (29 asymptomatic, unilateral ICAS-patients, age = 70.1 ± 4.8y and 30 age-matched HC, age = 70.3 ± 7.3y) underwent MRI on a Philips 3T Ingenia with written informed consent. Imaging yielded maps of cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR)9 by breathhold-fMRI;10 cerebral blood flow (CBF) by pCASL;11 relative oxygen extraction fraction (rOEF) by multiparametric-quantitative BOLD (mq-BOLD);12 relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), capillary transit-time heterogeneity (CTH), and oxygen extraction capacity (OEC) by parametric modeling13 of dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) data14 (Fig.1C-H). Based on DSC-derived time-to-peak (TTP) maps, iWSAs were defined for each participant (Fig.1A).7 Mean haemodynamic parameter values within each hemisphere were compared between ICAS-patients vs. HC and inside vs. outside iWSAs (Fig.1B) within GM and WM.

Results
We found statistically significant lateralisation of CBF, CVR, rCBV, CTH and OEC for ICAS-patients, whereas no significant rOEF lateralisation was found (Fig.1I). Inside iWSAs, lateralisation was significantly enhanced for CBF and CVR (t-test, p < 0.05), with a strong trend for rCBV. Overall, lateralisation was stronger within WM than GM (Fig.1I). Contrary, OEC and CTH were indeed lateralised, but comparable inside vs. outside iWSAs (Fig.1I). For HC, all parameters were symmetrical between hemispheres (data not shown).



Discussion
The multimodal MRI-protocol is sensitive to haemodynamic impairments in unilateral-ICAS. Specificity was affirmed by symmetrical HC results. As hypothesized, impairments of CBF, CVR and rCBV were stronger within iWSAs (Fig.1I). Pronounced effects in WM-iWSA fit with the different blood supply in GM/WM. Ipsilaterally decreased CBF agrees with recent studies.2 Decreased CVR, along with increased rCBV, indicates chronic vasodilation.15 Consistent with current literature,2 no rOEF lateralisation was found on group level. Observed ΔCBF vs. ΔrOEF mismatch could imply variable oxygen diffusivity16– potentially moderated by CTH17,18. Increased CTH in ICAS agrees with previous studies.18 Interestingly, we found CTH and OEC lateralisation independent of iWSA-locations, which coincides with previous CTH and Tmax comparisons.19,20 This indicates different CTH and TTP sensitivities to macrovascular effects and microcapillary flow heterogeneity.18

Conclusion
We successfully analyzed haemodynamic impairments in unilateral-ICAS and found lateralisation in accordance with current literature. Application of iWSA confirmed increased sensitivity to CBF, CVR and rCBV changes. Interestingly, CTH and OEC increases are independent of iWSA-locations.
  • Open Access LogoContribution to proceedings
    The 29th International Symposium on Cerebral Blood Flow, Metabolism and Function, 04.07.2019, Yokohama, Japan
  • Open Access LogoLecture (Conference)
    The 29th International Symposium on Cerebral Blood Flow, Metabolism and Function, 04.07.2019, Yokohama, Japan

Publ.-Id: 29522 - Permalink


Recovery of cerebrovascular reactivity after treatment of asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis is assessable by non-invasive breath-hold fMRI within global watershed areas
Kaczmar, S.; Goettler, J.; Sollmann, N.; Hock, A.; Sorg, C.; Zimmer, C.; Mouridsen, K.; Hyder, F.; Preibisch, C.; Petr, J.;
Objectives
Accounting for approximately 10% of all strokes,1 severe internal carotid-artery stenosis (ICAS) is a major public health issue. The average 2-year mortality after the invasive treatment is very high with 32%,2 which creates the need for non-invasive methods to support treatment decisions and evaluate treatment efficacy.3,4 A highly promising biomarker of vascular health is cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR),3,4 however, commonly employed methods are either invasive acetazolamide injections or complicated gas applications.3-8 We therefore used an easily-applicable breath-hold fMRI (BH-fMRI) scheme for CVR measurements. To maximize sensitivity and ensure specificity, we evaluated CVR within global watershed areas (gWSAs) in ICAS-patients before and after treatment and in healthy controls (HC).9

Methods
Thirty-three participants (16 asymptomatic, unilateral ICAS-patients, age = 71.4 ± 5.8 y and 17 HC, age = 70.8 ± 5.3 y) underwent MRI on a 3 T Philips Ingenia with written informed consent. All participants were scanned twice, patients before and at least three months after treatment (by stenting or endarterectomy), HC with a similar follow-up delay. The BOLD-based BH-fMRI scheme comprised five breath-holds of 15 s, each. CVR-maps were calculated by data-driven analysis10 (Fig.1B,C). Artefact-affected CVR-maps were excluded based on visual ratings (CP,SK,JG). To investigate the role of chronic vasolidation,5 dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MRI was additionally acquired in both scans to calculate relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV) maps11. Lateralization between hemispheres was calculated in MNI-space by mean parameter-values within GM of gWSAs for each participant (Fig.1A). ICAS-patients were evaluated within hemispheres ipsilateral and contralateral to the stenosis.

Results
Exemplary data of an ICAS-patient shows impaired CVR before treatment, which improves after treatment (see arrows in Fig.1B,C). On group level, CVR is significantly decreased in the ipsilateral hemisphere before treatment (Fig.1D, p = 0.0038). After treatment, CVR lateralization was significantly reduced (p = 0.0495) towards more symmetrical values between hemispheres (p = 0.25). Similarly, rCBV was ipsilaterally increased in ICAS before treatment and more symmetrical after treatment (data not shown). HC data was symmetrical between hemispheres at all scans (Fig.1E, p > 0.60).

Discussion
As hypothesized, BH-fMRI based evaluation of CVR lateralization within gWSAs was sensitive to subtle impairments in asymptomatic ICAS without compromising its specificity, as affirmed by symmetrical HC results (Fig.1E). Decreased CVR along with increased rCBV before treatment is associated with chronic vasodilation.5 Consistent with current literature, CVR recovery was detected after ICAS-treatment,4-8 demonstrating improved haemodynamic status. Compared to more accurate CVR-measurements with CO2 application and end-tidal gas analysis,3,12 breath-holds remain a viable alternative being much more tolerable and easily applicable at low costs within clinically feasible scan times.
  • Open Access LogoContribution to proceedings
    The 29th International Symposium on Cerebral Blood Flow, Metabolism and Function, 04.07.2019, Yokohama, Japan
  • Open Access LogoPoster
    The 29th International Symposium on Cerebral Blood Flow, Metabolism and Function, 04.07.2019, Yokohama, Japan

Publ.-Id: 29521 - Permalink


Human exposure to uranium in South African gold mining areas using barber-based hair sampling
Winde, F.; Geipel, G.; Espina, C.; Schüz, J.;
Uranium (U) measurements in water, soil, and food related to gold mining activities in populated areas in Gauteng Province, South Africa, suggest the possibility of exposure levels that may lead to adverse health consequences, including cancer. Theoretical considerations on pathways of human uptake of significant exposures are plausible, but few data on directly measured human exposure are available. A cross-sectional study was conducted using human measurements to compare U levels with other settings around the globe (based on literature review), to explore potential exposure variability within the province, and to test the feasibility of recruiting subjects partially coming from vulnerable and difficult-to-reach populations. Wards of potentially high (HE) and low exposure (LE) were identified. Composite hair samples representing the respective local populations were collected from regular customers of selected barber shops over a period of 1–2 months. A total of 70 U concentrations were determined in 27 composite samples from 1332 individuals. U concentrations ranged from 31 μg/kg to 2524 μg/kg, with an arithmetic mean of 192 μg/kg (standard deviation, 310 μg/kg) and a median of 122 μg/kg. Although HE wards collectively showed higher U levels than LE wards (184 vs 134 μg/kg), differences were smaller than expected. In conclusion, detected U levels were higher than those from most other surveys of the general public. The barber-based approach was an efficient hair collection approach. Composite hair samples are not recommended, due to technical challenges in measuring U, and individual hair samples are needed in follow-up studies to determine predictors of exposure.

Publ.-Id: 29520 - Permalink


Phase Selectivity in Cr and N Co-Doped TiO2 Films by Modulated Sputter Growth and Post-Deposition Flash-Lamp-Annealing
Gago, R.; Prucnal, S.; Hübner, R.; Munnik, F.; Esteban-Mendoza, D.; Jiménez, I.; Palomares, J.;
In this paper, we report on the phase selectivity in Cr and N co-doped TiO2 (TiO2:Cr,N) sputtered films by means of interface engineering. In particular, monolithic TiO2:Cr,N films produced by continuous growth conditions result in the formation of a mixed-phase oxide with dominant rutile character. On the contrary, modulated growth by starting with a single-phase anatase TiO2:N buffer layer, can be used to imprint the anatase structure to a subsequent TiO2:Cr,N layer. The robustness of the process with respect to the growth conditions has also been investigated, especially regarding the maximum Cr content (<5 at.%) for single-phase anatase formation. Furthermore, post-deposition flash-lamp-annealing (FLA) in modulated coatings was used to improve the as-grown anatase TiO2:Cr,N phase, as well as to induce dopant activation (N substitutional sites) and diffusion. In this way, Cr can be distributed through the whole film thickness from an initial modulated architecture while preserving the structural phase. Hence, the combination of interface engineering and millisecond-range-FLA opens new opportunities for tailoring the structure of TiO2-based functional materials.
Keywords: TiO2, flash lamp annealing, doping,

Publ.-Id: 29519 - Permalink


Update on the FLUKA geometry modeling
Müller, S.ORC
Update on FLUKA geometry modeling
Keywords: FLUKA, Mu2e
  • Lecture (others)
    Mu2e Simulation Workinggroup Meeting, 18.07.2019, Batavia, USA

Publ.-Id: 29516 - Permalink


Update on FLUKA simulation activities for the Mu2e experiment
Müller, S.ORC
Update on the FLUKA simulation for the Mu2e experiment
Keywords: FLUKA, Mu2e
  • Lecture (others)
    Mu2e collaboration meeting, 26.06.2019, Minneapolis, USA

Publ.-Id: 29515 - Permalink


Novel Thyristor-Based Pulsed Current Converter for a Medical Application - a Conceptual Introduction
Wettengel, S.; Lindenmueller, L.; Bernet, S.; Schramm, U.ORC; Kroll, F.ORC; Brack, F.-E.ORC; Pawelke, J.
A novel ion beam radiation therapy apparatus employing pulsed high magnetic field coils for transporting the ion beam has been proposed. In this paper a new pulsed current converter topology is introduced, which can be used as a pulsed power supply for the therapy apparatus. Thyristors are selected as the semiconductors used in the pulsed current converter. Since the planned operating point is outside of the typical range of the semiconductors, research has been done to predict their behavior during turn-off (the most critical phase of the pulse). A behavioral model has been derived and experimentally parametrized to predict the turn-off behavior and to optimize snubber design.
  • Contribution to proceedings
    PCIM Europe 2018; International Exhibition and Conference for Power Electronics, Intelligent Motion, Renewable Energy and Energy Management, 05.-07.06.2018, Nuremberg, Germany
    PCIM Europe 2018; International Exhibition and Conference for Power Electronics, Intelligent Motion, Renewable Energy and Energy Management, 978-3-8007-4646-0

Publ.-Id: 29512 - Permalink


A Statistical Approach for Analysis of Dissolution Rates Including Surface Morphology
Pedrosa, E. P.; Kurganskaya, I.; Fischer, C.; Luttge, A.;
Understanding mineral dissolution is relevant for natural and industrial processes that involve the interaction of crystalline solids and fluids. The dissolution of slow dissolving minerals is typically surface controlled as opposed to diffusion/transport controlled. At these conditions, the dissolution rate is no longer constant in time or space, an outcome observed in rate maps and correspondent rate spectra. The contribution and statistical prevalence of different dissolution mechanisms is not known. Aiming to contribute to close this gap, we present a statistical analysis of the variability of calcite dissolution rates at the nano- to micrometer scale. A calcite-cemented sandstone was used to perform flow experiments. Dissolution of the calcite-filled rock pores was measured using vertical scanning interferometry. The resultant types of surface morphologies influenced the outcome of dissolution. We provide a statistical description of these morphologies and show their temporal evolution as an alternative to the lack of rate spatial variability in rate constants. Crystal size impacts dissolution rates most probably due to the contribution of the crystal edges. We propose a new methodology to analyze the highest rates (tales of rate spectra) that represent the formation of deeper etch pits. These results have application to the parametrization and upscaling of geochemical kinetic models, the characterization of industrial solid materials and the fundamental understanding of crystal dissolution.
Keywords: dissolution kinetics; calcite; surface morphology;

Publ.-Id: 29511 - Permalink


Exploring new materials for optical thermometric sensing
Sharma, S.ORC; Beyer, J.; Fuchs, M.; Gloaguen, R.; Heitmann, J.
The luminescence intensity ratio (LIR) of emission from two thermally coupled excited states is one of the most popular temperature sensing schemes, which has proven to be reliable due to its non-invasive nature, minimal dependence on the measurement conditions, and high temperature-spatial resolution. However, it requires a special design effort to obtain stable luminescence emission, which can be used for any practical application, for example, optical thermometric sensing. In this work, we present our results on the influence of excitation-emission processes on the dynamical behaviour of charges, and their temperature dependence in a wide temperature range (300-870 K), on a single crystal of EuPO4. The EuPO4 host which previously did not appear suitable for temperature sensing, was successfully converted to a highly sensitive optical temperature sensor, by following appropriate experimental strategy. The coupling of two excited states of Eu3+ showed a relative sensitivity of 2.00 %K-1, while, the coupling between two ground states of Eu3+ showed a relative sensitivity of 0.34 %K-1. The results suggest that by optimizing experimental parameters, highly sensitive optical thermometric sensors can be prepared, with ease.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    2019 Spring Meeting of the European Materials Research Society (E-MRS), 27.-31.05.2019, Nice, France

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Publ.-Id: 29509 - Permalink


A Machine Learning Framework for Drill-Core Mineral Mapping Using Hyperspectral and High-Resolution Mineralogical Data Fusion
Contreras Acosta, I. C.ORC; Khodadadzadeh, M.; Tusa, L.; Ghamisi, P.; Gloaguen, R.
Mining companies heavily rely on drill-core samples during exploration campaigns as they provide valuable geological information to target important ore accumulations. Traditional core logging techniques are time-consuming and subjective. Hyperspectral (HS) imaging, an emerging technique in the mining industry, is used to complement the analysis by rapidly characterizing large amounts of drill-cores in a nondestructive and noninvasive manner. As the accurate analysis of drill-core HS data is becoming more and more important, we explore the use of machine learning techniques to improve speed and accuracy, and help to discover underlying relations within large datasets. The use of supervised techniques for drill-core HS data represents a challenge since quantitative reference data is frequently not available. Hence, we propose an innovative procedure to fuse high-resolution mineralogical analysis and HS data. We use an automatic high-resolution mineralogical imaging system (i.e., scanning electron microscopy-mineral liberation analysis) for generating training labels. We then resample the MLA image to the resolution of the HS data and adopt a soft labeling strategy for mineral mapping. We define the labels for the classes as mixtures of geological interest and use the classifiers (random forest and support vector machines) to map the entire drill-core. We validate our framework qualitatively and quantitatively. Thus, we demonstrate the ability of the proposed technique to fuse and up-scale high-resolution mineralogical analysis with drill-core HS data.
Keywords: Data fusion, drill-cores, hyperspectral (HS) data, machine learning, mineral liberation analysis (MLA), random forest (RF), support vector machine (SVM)
  • IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing (2020)
    Online First (2019) DOI: 10.1109/JSTARS.2019.2924292

Publ.-Id: 29508 - Permalink


Magnetoelastic coupling across the field-induced transition of uranium mononitride
Gorbunov, D.; Nomura, T.; Zvyagin, A. A.; Henriques, M. S.; Andreev, A. V.; Skourski, Y.; Zvyagina, G. A.; Troc, R.; Zherlitsyn, S.; Wosnitza, J.;
Uranium mononitride (UN) displays a spin-flop-like transition for magnetic field applied along all principal crystallographic directions just below 60 T. Here, we report on ultrasound and magnetocaloric-effect results for UN in pulsed magnetic fields up to 65 T. The field-induced phase transition causes a discontinuous temperature decrease, indicating a larger magnetic entropy above the transition. Furthermore, we find pronounced anomalies in the acoustic properties, which signals strong spin-lattice interactions. A further anomaly observed at fields slightly above the transition is likely related to the formation of magnetic domains. A model based on the exchange-striction coupling mechanism well reproduces the strong renormalization of the acoustic properties.

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Publ.-Id: 29502 - Permalink


Successive Trimming of a Permalloy Stripe to enhance the localized Edge Mode Spectrum probed by Ferromagnetic Resonance
Lenz, K.ORC; Schneider, T.; Hlawacek, G.; Narkowicz, R.; Stienen, S.; Lenz, M.; Lindner, J.
Finite-size effects in ultrathin magnetic films are a well-known feature. They usually play a role, when the surface and interface layers dominate over the volume contribution of the sample and have different properties, due to roughness, texture, hybridization, modified magnetic moment, or dipolar fields. For micro- and especially nanostructures these effects might be there as well—but at the side walls. Regarding the magnetization dynamics these effects lead to additional spin wave modes, e.g. localized spin wave modes (edge modes). It has been shown that these edge modes are influenced by the quality of the side walls, namely by angled side walls, edge roughness, beveled edges, or even magnetic dilution [1]. As these structures have to be prepared by means of lithography involving masks a certain edge roughness or even side wall slope are inevitable. Nevertheless, when it comes to micromagnetic simulations to corroborate or explain measurements these contributions are usually excluded from the model. Here we show, how successive trimming the sides of a 5 µm x 1 µm Permalloy stripe by a focused Ne ion beam improves the spin wave spectrum and enhances the edge mode spectrum as probed by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). To achieve the sensitivity to detect the FMR of the weak edge modes of a single Permalloy stripe we use planar microresonator FMR [2,3]. The experimental results are corroborated by micromagnetic simulations. Including just edge roughness of ~4 nm (rms) in the simulations is enough to perfectly match the FMR experimental data. The residual edge roughness is in the order of the grain size of the polycrystalline permalloy. Although the focused ion beam and its motion are able to cut the side walls perfectly straight and vertical with sub-nm precision, the Ne ions penetrate the side wall up to 15 nm (called straggling). This is due to the collision cascade with the Ni and Fe atoms of the Permalloy causing possible lateral damage of the Permalloy lattice. Hence, we attribute the residual roughness to the ion induced damage by the lateral penetration during trimming of the side walls, and a small remaining edge roughness due to changes in sputter yield for differently oriented Permalloy grains.

[1] R.D. McMichael, B.B. Maranville, Phys. Rev. B 74,024424 (2006).
[2] A. Banholzer et al., Nanotechnology 22, 295713 (2011).
[3] R. Narkowicz et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 084702 (2008).
Keywords: Magnetic nanostructures, ferromagnetic resonance, spin waves, edge modes, HIM
  • Poster
    International Conference on Magnetism ICM 2018, 15.-20.07.2018, San Francisco, United States of America
  • Poster
    9th Joint European Magnetic Symposia, JEMS 2018, 03.-07.09.2018, Mainz, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 29500 - Permalink


Colloidal Mercury-Doped CdSe Nanoplatelets with Dual Fluorescence
Galle, T.; Kazes, M.; Hübner, R.; Lox, J.; Khoshkhoo, M. S.; Sonntag, L.; Tietze, R.; Sayevich, V.; Oron, D.; Koitzsch, A.; Lesnyak, V.; Eychmüller, A.;
Quasi-two-dimensional (2D) CdSe nanoplatelets (NPLs) are distinguished by their unique optical properties in comparison to classical semiconductor nanocrystals, such as extremely narrow emission line widths, reduced Auger recombination, and relatively high absorption cross sections. Inherent to their anisotropic 2D structure, however, is the loss of continuous tunability of their photoluminescence (PL) properties due to stepwise growth. On top of that, limited experimental availability of NPLs of different thicknesses and ultimately the bulk band gap of CdSe constrain the achievable PL wavelengths. Here, we report on the doping of CdSe NPLs with mercury, which gives rise to additional PL in the red region of the visible spectrum and in the near-infrared region. We employ a seeded-growth method with injection solutions containing cadmium, selenium, and mercury. The resulting NPLs retain their anisotropic structure, are uniform in size and shape, and present significantly altered spectroscopic characteristics due to the existence of additional energetic states. We conclude that doping takes place by employing elemental analysis in combination with PL excitation spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and single-particle fluorescence spectroscopy, confirming single emitters being responsible for multiple distinct emission signals.

Publ.-Id: 29498 - Permalink


Trimming of permalloy stripes to enhance the localized edge mode spectrum probed by ferromagnetic resonance
Lenz, K.ORC; Schneider, T.; Hlawacek, G.; Narkowicz, R.; Stienen, S.; Kákay, A.; Lenz, M.; Fassbender, J.; Lindner, J.
Finite-size effects in ultrathin magnetic films are a well-known feature, i.e., when the surface or interfaces dominate the volume of the sample due to different roughness, texture, hybridization, modified magnetic moment, or dipolar fields. For nanostructures these effects could arise at the side walls as well. This leads to localized spin wave modes (edge modes).
It has been shown that the quality of the side walls (angled side walls or roughness) influence these modes [1]. During preparation of samples by lithography a certain edge roughness and side wall slope are sometimes inevitable. Nevertheless, in micromagnetic simulations these contributions are usually excluded from the model. We show, how successive trimming the sides of a 5 μm x 1 μm Permalloy stripe by a focused Ne ion beam improves the spin wave spectrum and enhances the edge mode spectrum as probed by planar microresonator ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) [2,3] as depicted in Figure 1. Including an rms edge roughness of ~2 nm (within the order of the permalloy grain size) in the simulations is enough to match the FMR data. Hence, we attribute the residual roughness to the ion induced damage by the lateral penetration during trimming of the side walls, and a small remaining edge roughness due to changes in the sputter yield for differently oriented Permalloy grains.
Keywords: ferromagnetic resonance, nanostructures, trimming, HIM, FMR, edge modes, spin waves
  • Poster
    Magnonics 2019, 28.07.-01.08.2019, Carovigno, Italy

Publ.-Id: 29497 - Permalink


Direct measurements of the magneto-caloric effect of MnFe4Si3 in pulsed magnetic fields
Maraytta, N.; Skourski, Y.; Voigt, J.; Friese, K.; Herrmann, M. G.; Perßon, J.; Wosnitza, J.; Salman, S. M.; Brückel, T.;
We have studied the magnetic and magnetocaloric response of MnFe4Si3 to pulsed and static magnetic fields up to 50 T. We determine the adiabatic temperature change ΔTad directly in pulsed fields and compare to the results of magnetization and specific heat measurements in static magnetic fields. The high ability of cycling even in fields μ0H = 50 T confirms the high structural stability of MnFe4Si3 against field changes, an important property for applications. The magnetic response to magnetic fields up to μ0H = 35 T shows that the anisotropy can be overcome by fields of approx. 4 T.

Publ.-Id: 29496 - Permalink


Magnetic structure and spin waves in the frustrated ferro-antiferromagnet Pb2VO(PO4)2
Bettler, S.; Landolt, F.; Aksoy, Ö. M.; Yan, Z.; Gvasaliya, S.; Qiu, Y.; Ressouche, E.; Beauvois, K.; Raymond, S.; Ponomaryov, A. N.; Zvyagin, S. A.; Zheludev, A.;
Single crystal neutron diffraction, inelastic neutron scattering, and electron spin resonance experiments are used to study the magnetic structure and spin waves in Pb2VO(PO4)2, a prototypical layered S = 1/2 ferromagnet with frustrating next-nearest neighbor antiferromagnetic interactions. The observed excitation spectrum is found to be inconsistent with a simple square lattice model previously proposed for this material. At least four distinct exchange coupling constants are required to reproduce the measured spin wave dispersion. The degree of magnetic frustration is correspondingly revised and found to be substantially smaller than in all previous estimates.

Publ.-Id: 29495 - Permalink


A semiconducting layered metal-organic framework magnet
Yang, C.; Dong, R.ORC; Wang, M.ORC; Petkov, P. S.ORC; Zhang, Z.ORC; Wang, M.; Han, P.ORC; Ballabio, M.; Bräuninger, S. A.; Liao, Z.; Zhang, J.ORC; Schwotzer, F.; Zschech, E.; Klauss, H.-H.; Cánovas, E.; Kaskel, S.ORC; Bonn, M.; Zhou, S.ORC; Heine, T.ORC; Feng, X.
The realization of ferromagnetism in semiconductors is an attractive avenue for the development of spintronic applications. Here, we report a semiconducting layered metal-organic framework (MOF), namely K3Fe2[(2,3,9,10,16,17,23,24-octahydroxy phthalocyaninato)Fe] (K3Fe2[PcFe-O8]) with spontaneous magnetization. This layered MOF features in-plane full π-d conjugation and exhibits semiconducting behavior with a room temperature carrier mobility of 15 ± 2 cm2 V−1 s−1 as determined by time-resolved Terahertz spectroscopy. Magnetization experiments and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy demonstrate the presence of long-range magnetic correlations in K3Fe2[PcFe-O8] arising from the magnetic coupling between iron centers via delocalized π electrons. The sample exhibits superparamagnetic features due to a distribution of crystal size and possesses magnetic hysteresis up to 350 K. Our work sets the stage for the development of spintronic materials exploiting magnetic MOF semiconductors.

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Publ.-Id: 29493 - Permalink


Strain-induced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and Gilbert damping of Tm3Fe5O12 thin films
Ciubotariu, O.; Semisalova, A.; Lenz, K.ORC; Albrecht, M.
In the attempt of implementing iron garnets with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in spintronics, the attention turned towards strain-grown iron garnets. One candidate is Tm3Fe5O12 (TmIG) which possesses an out-of-plane magnetic easy axis when grown under tensile strain. In this study, the effect of film thickness on the structural and magnetic properties of TmIG films including magnetic anisotropy, saturation magnetization, and Gilbert damping is investigated. TmIG films with thicknesses between 20 and 300 nm are epitaxially grown by pulsed laser deposition on substituted-Gd3Ga5O12(111) substrates. Structural characterization shows that films thinner than 200 nm show in-plane tensile strain, thus exhibiting PMA due to strain-induced magnetoelastic anisotropy. However, with increasing film thickness a relaxation of the unit cell is observed resulting in the rotation of the magnetic easy axis towards the sample plane due to the dominant shape anisotropy. Furthermore, the Gilbert damping parameter is found to be in the range of 0.02 ± 0.005.
Keywords: Thulium iron garnet, magnetic anisotropy, Gilbert damping
  • Poster
    Magnonics 2019, 28.07.-01.08.2019, Carovigno, Italy

Publ.-Id: 29492 - Permalink


Theranostic CAR T cell targeting: A brief review
Arndt, C.; Bachmann, M.; Bergmann, R.; Berndt, N.; Feldmann, A.; Koristka, S.;
More than 100 years ago Paul Ehrlich postulated that our immun system should be able to eliminate tumor cells. Just recently, the development of check point inhibitors, bispecific antibodies, and T cells genetically modified to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) underlines the true power of our immune system. T cells genetically modified with CARs can lead to complete remission of malignant hematologic diseases. However, they can also cause life-threatening side effects. In case of cytokine release syndrome, tumor lysis syndrome, or deadly side effects on the central nervous system, an emergency shut down of CAR T cells is needed. Targeting of tumor-associated antigens that are also expressed on vital tissues require a possibility to repeatedly switch the activity of CAR T cells on and off on demand and to follow the treatment by imaging. Theranostic, modular CARs such as the UniCAR system may help to overcome these problems.
Keywords: bispecific antibody, BiTE, chimeric antigen receptor, immunotherapy, T cells, UniCAR
  • Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals 62(2019)8, 533-540
    DOI: 10.1002/jlcr.3727

Publ.-Id: 29490 - Permalink


Spatial solitons in KTaxNb1-xO3 waveguides produced by swift carbon ion irradiation and femtosecond laser ablation
He, S.; Zhang, Z.; Liu, H.; Akhmadaliev, S.; Zhou, S.; Wang, X.; Wu, P.;
We report on the fabrication of planar waveguide and ridge waveguides in a KTN crystal by using swift heavy C5+ ions irradiation and femtosecond laser ablation. The reconstructed refractive index profile of the irradiated KTN waveguide illustrates an optical well and barrier distribution. The confocal Raman spectra suggest that the enhanced tetragonality and the lattice damage occurs in the waveguide region and the optical barrier area, respectively. The optical spatial solitons at 632.8 nm are observed from the planar waveguide and the ridge waveguides with a width of 60 μm and 20 μm, respectively, at room temperature.

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  • Secondary publication expected from 26.06.2020

Publ.-Id: 29486 - Permalink


Defect-induced magnetism in SiC
Zhou, S.ORC; Chen, X.
Defect-induced magnetism describes a magnetic phenomenon in materials containing neither unpaired 3d nor 4f  electrons. Therefore, it presents a challenge to the conventional understanding of magnetism and has remained under debate for over a decade. Different from graphite and oxides which are common research venues in defect-induced magnetism, SiC is commercially available at large scale and with high quality at the microelectronic grade. Therefore, SiC presents a suitable model system for studying defect-induced ferromagnetism and exploring possible applications. Understanding and controlling defect-induced magnetism in a semiconductor like SiC opens up the possibility for producing spintronic devices based on classical semiconductor technologies. Here, we review recent studies on defect-induced magnetism in SiC. We start with a brief description about defects in SiC. Then we summarize the experimental results on defect-induced magnetism in SiC, the microscopic origin of the magnetism and the magnetic coupling mechanism. We also propose several potential applications, particularly using magnetometry as a complementary method for quantitative characterization of defects in SiC. At the end, we list the challenges from our point of view, such as controlling defects in SiC regarding their charge states, distribution and local environment, and understanding defect-induced magnetism by local and elemental selective probe techniques.

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  • Secondary publication expected from 18.07.2020

Publ.-Id: 29485 - Permalink


Spectroscopic insights into U(IV) speciation in aqueous solution
Lehmann, S.ORC; Steudtner, R.; Gerber, U.ORC; Zimmermann, T.; Brendler, V.ORC
This work is focused on uranium as the major component of the nuclear fuel cycle. It is important to predict its environmental behavior for, e.g., the safety assessment of a future repository or the remediation of the various legacies of uranium mining and milling. Typically, diluted to highly saline aquifer systems under reducing conditions with carbonates, silicates, phosphates, chlorides and sulfates as important complexing agents are to be considered. However, predictions for U(IV) speciation often suffer from a sparsely populated thermodynamic data base [1], often due to a missing spectroscopic evaluation of species stoichiometry and structure.
This work combines absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies to reveal the speciation of U(IV) in solution in concentrations down to 10⁻⁶ M uranium. The set-up for time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence was optimized to allow the determination of fluorescence decay times of U(IV) in perchloric as well as in chloric acid with 2.5 ± 0.4 ns at room temperature and 152 ± 8.3 ns at liquid nitrogen temperature. By decreasing the temperature we gained an improved fine structure with a band splitting of the main peak at 410 nm and a redshift could be observed.
By evaluation of UV-vis based titration series (pH = 0 2, [U] = 10⁻⁴-10⁻⁵ M, [SO4] from 0 to 1.9·10⁻⁵ M) in the U(IV) sulfate system, complex formation constants for USO₄²⁺ and U(SO₄)₂(aq) could be derived, yielding 6.9 ± 0.3 and 11.8 ± 0.5, respectively, when extrapolated to infinite dilution. This log K values for the 1:1 complex is close to the NEA recommendation of 6.58 whereas our value for the 1:2 complex is about one order of magnitude higher than that selected in [1]. The NEA recommendations are exclusively based on liquid-liquid extraction experiments, with higher ionic strengths (up to 2 M) and U(IV) concentrations (up to 0.1 M) as applied in this work.
The potential of direct U(IV) spectroscopy for speciation analysis at environmentally relevant uranium concentrations was proven in this study. Eventually, all acquired information will increase confidence in respective U(IV) reactive transport modelling.
The authors gratefully acknowledge funding by the German Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy under the grant 02E11334B.
[1] R. Guillaumont et al. (2003). "Update on the chemical thermodynamics of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, americium and technetium., vol. 5 of Chemical Thermodynamics." Elsevier: 960 pp.
Keywords: tetravalent uranium, photometry, thermodynamics,
  • Poster
    EGU General Assembly 2019, 07.-12.04.2019, Wien, Österreich

Publ.-Id: 29484 - Permalink


Annual Report 2018 - Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research
Faßbender, J.ORC; Helm, M.; Zahn, P.
The Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research conducts materials research for future applications in, e.g., information technology. To this end, we make use of the various possibilities offered by our Ion Beam Center (IBC) for synthesis, modification, and analysis of thin films and nanostructures, as well as of the free-electron laser FELBE at HZDR for THz spectroscopy. The analyzed materials range from semiconductors and oxides to metals and magnetic materials. They are investigated with the goal to optimize their electronic, magnetic, optical as well as structural functionality. This research is embedded in the Helmholtz Association’s programme “From Matter to Materials and Life”. Six publications from last year are highlighted in this Annual Report to illustrate the wide scientific spectrum of our institute.
  • Open Access LogoWissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; HZDR-097 2019

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Publ.-Id: 29482 - Permalink


LOCA scenario-related zinc borate precipitation studies at lab scale
Harm, U.; Kryk, H.; Wiezorek, M.; Hampel, U.;
During the sump recirculation operation after a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a pressurized water reactor (PWR), coolant spilling out of the leak in the primary cooling circuit is collected in the reactor sump and recirculated to the reactor core by residual-heat removal pumps. The long-term contact of the boric acid containing coolant with hot-dip galvanized containment internals (e.g. grating treads, strainers, support grids) may cause corrosion of the corresponding materials forming zinc borates (ZnB) dissolved in the cooling water.
Investigations regarding such zinc corrosion processes, changes of the coolant chemistry and possible resulting in-core effects are subject of joint research projects of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf (HZDR), TU Dresden (TUD) and Zittau/Görlitz University of Applied Sciences (HSZG). Lab-scale experiments at HZDR and TUD are focused on elucidation of physico-chemical corrosion and precipitation processes as well as resulting fouling effects at hot surfaces.
Long-term experiments of up to three weeks in a lab scale facility were conducted to simulate the simultaneous zinc dissolution (in sump) and ZnB precipitation (in hot core regions) during sump recirculation operation under boundary conditions of selected PWR LOCA scenarios. This includes LOCA-related zinc dissolution (corrosion) rates as well as experimental simulation of previously calculated scenario-related temperature courses of the coolant in the sump and area-related decay heat power courses of the reactor core. Results indicate significant precipitations of different solid ZnB products during the experiments. It turned out that the period between the start of the sump recirculation operation and the start of the ZnB precipitation as well as the precipitation rate essentially depend on the specific LOCA scenario (e.g. leak size). The ZnB precipitates usually formed dense layers on hot surfaces of electrically heated PWR cladding tubes of the lab scale facility. Additionally, flocculation or formation of solid ZnB particles inside the fluid has been observed. In most experiments, the different types of precipitates (layers, flocs or particles) were quantified and in certain cases the chemical compositions of the solid ZnB species were determined using different chemical analysis methods.
Since an influence of the ZnB precipitates on the thermal hydraulics inside the core cannot be ruled out, the results obtained at lab-scale were complemented by corresponding experiments in semi-technical test facilities of the project partner HSZG.
The investigations are supported by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy under contract nos. 1501491 and 1501496.
Keywords: LOCA, loss-of-coolant accident, PWR, zinc borate, corrosion
  • Lecture (Conference)
    50th Annual Meeting on Nuclear Technology (AMNT 2019), 07.-08.05.2019, Berlin, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 29478 - Permalink


Qualification of a Photometer Probe for Local Concentration Measurement in Dense Bubbly Flows
Hampel, U.; Kryk, H.; Kipping, R.;
Topics of current research activities within the DFG priority program SPP 1740 “Reactive Bubbly Flows” are studies on local mass transfer and reaction processes in order to gain a deeper understanding about the coupling of hydrodynamics, mass transfer and reaction kinetics in reactive bubbly flows as well as its influence on yield and selectivity in case of complex chemical reactions. Precondition for experimental investigations is the availability of sensors for local concentration measurements of components in the liquid phase. Due to limitations of currently available non-invasive measuring techniques, local concentration measurements in dense bubbly flows at technical scale pose technological challenges. Therefore, a minimal-invasive photometer probe have been qualified to measure concentrations of intermediates and products within the liquid phase of dense bubbly flows with high temporal and spatial resolution.
This work was supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG), reactive bubbly flows (SPP 1740).
Keywords: PAT, photometer, multiphase flow, hydrodynamics, mass transfer, bubbly flow, chemical reaction, concentration measurement
  • Poster
    Jahrestreffen Reaktionstechnik 2019 gemeinsam mit der Fachgruppe Mehrphasenströmungen, 27.-29.05.2019, Würzburg, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 29477 - Permalink


Testpublikation
Frust, T.ORC; Starke, S.
Testabstract Testabstract Testabstract Testabstract Testabstract Testabstract..

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Publ.-Id: 29475 - Permalink


Multi-fluid models for gas-liquid flows: consolidation of CFD modelling
Lucas, D.;
This lecture presents the status and strategies for the consolidation of CFD-modelling in the multi-fluid framework. This is illustrated by the example of recent research on the further qualification of the baseline model for poly-disperse bubbly flows.
Keywords: CFD, multi-fluid, Euler-Euler, baseline model, bubbly flow
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    XIII Workshop & Summer School „Modelling of Multiphase Flows in Thermo-Chemical Systems”, 13.-15.06.2019, Wieżyca, near Gdańsk, Poland

Publ.-Id: 29469 - Permalink


Status and perspectives of CFD modelling of gas-liquid flows in the multi-fluid framework
Lucas, D.;
There is an increasing request to use CFD-methods for simulations on medium and large scale industrial applications, e.g. in chemical engineering, energy techniques and nuclear safety. For most of such applications the Euler-Euler two or multi-fluid approach is the only feasible one. Gas and liquid phases are represented by interpenetrating fields and the information on the interface gets lost during the averaging process which is applied to obtain the balance equations. To close these equations the corresponding local phenomena at the gas-liquid interfaces have to be considered by closure models. As recently discussed by Lucas et al. (2016) there is not yet consensus achieved in the community regarding the most appropriate closures which limits the reliability of CFD-simulations using the Euler-Euler approach. A so-called baseline model concept was proposed in that paper. Since the closure models have to reflect the local phenomena a case by case tuning is not meaningful and instead a fixed set of closure models should be defined for certain flow conditions and applied to different cases without any modification.

Different flow morphologies as bubbly flows, droplet flows and segregated flows with large interfaces have to be distinguished. These different approaches require different closure models. In addition for poly-disperse bubbly flows it may be necessary to divide the gas phase into sub-phases reflecting bubbles of different size respectively. At HZDR a baseline model for poly-disperse bubbly flows basing on the inhomogeneous MUSIG (iMUSIG) approach (Rzehak and Krepper, 2016) and a model for segregated flows basing on the AIAD model (Porombka and Höhne, 2016) have been established. Especially the baseline model for poly-disperse flows with fixed model formulations and model parameters was validated on a large number of experiments (more than 150) for different flow geometries, flow rates and material systems. There is already an acceptable agreement for many cases, but for some also clear deviations occur. It is the scientific challenge to identify the main reasons for these deviations and figure out a better model for the corresponding phenomenon. The baseline model strategy will be illustrated by the recent developments to improve the modelling of bubbly flows and a general strategy how to develop better models will be presented.

In many flow situations interfaces may vary over a large range of scales combining dispersed and segregated morphologies. To handle such flows the innovative GENTOP concept was developed (Hänsch et al., 2012). It combines the iMUSIG and AIAD approaches and allows also simulating transitions between the different morphologies. The well validated baseline models are thus part of GENTOP. Recently the concept was applied for a simulation of a boiling pipe which includes flow pattern transitions (Höhne et al., 2017). The second part of the lecture will report about these developments which aim to extend the range of applicability of CFD simulations.

The above mentioned approaches were first implemented and tested in the commercial CFD-code ANSYS-CFX. Presently a similar framework is established for the OpenSource code OpenFOAM. A GitLab based version control system allows a high level quality assurance and has a high potential for international co-operation. Joint efforts can be done to qualify the code system.
Keywords: CFD, multi-fluid, gas-liquid, bubbly flow, segregated flow
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    10th International Conference on Multiphase Flow, 19.-24.05.2019, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  • Contribution to proceedings
    10th International Conference on Multiphase Flow, 19.-24.05.2019, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

Publ.-Id: 29468 - Permalink


Message from the Guest Editor of the 16th Multiphase Flow Conference Special Issue
Lucas, D.;
Selected contributions of the 16th Multiphase Flow Conference at HZDR were published in a special issue of the Open Access Journal Experimental and Computational Multiphase Flow. In this contribution an overview on the conference and a short introduction to the single papers is given.
Keywords: multiphase flow, conference
  • Open Access LogoAbstract in refereed journal
    Experimental and Computational Multiphase Flow 1(2019), 231-232
    DOI: 10.1007/s42757-019-0037-7

Publ.-Id: 29466 - Permalink


Fundamentals in GPU programming
Bieberle, A.ORC
For the 2nd TOMOCON Summer School “Process Tomography & Data Processing”, that is conducted this time in Delft, a lecture will be given about parallel data processing programming using suitable architechtures, such as graphic processing units (GPU).
Keywords: Parallelism, GPU programming, CUDA
  • Lecture (Conference)
    2nd TOMOCON Summer School “Process Tomography & Data Processing, 01.-03.07.2019, Delft, Niederlande

Publ.-Id: 29463 - Permalink


Holistic Data Management as a Key Towards Reproducible Science in a Diverse and Dynamic Ecosystem
Juckeland, G.ORC
Eingeladener Vortrag an der RWTH Aachen
  • Open Access LogoLecture (others)
    IT Seminar der RWTH Aachen, 12.07.2019, Aachen, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 29459 - Permalink


Near-field phonon nanoscopy of oxides: SrTiO₃, LiNbO₃, and PbZr₀.₂Ti₀.₈O₃
Wehmeier, L.; Döring, J.; Lang, D.; Fehrenbacher, M.; Shafer, P.; Yu, P.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, X.; Ramesh, R.; Winnerl, S.; Eng, L. M.; Kehr, S. C.;
Resonant infrared near-field optical spectroscopy provides a highly material-specific response with sub-wavelength lateral resolution of about 10 nm. Here, we provide the near-field response of selected paraelectric and ferroelectric materials, i.e. SrTiO3, LiNbO3, and PbZr0:2Ti0:8O3, showing resonances in the wavelength range from 13.0 to 15.8 µm. We investigate these materials using scattering scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) in combination with a tunable midinfrared free-electron laser (FEL). Fundamentally, we demonstrate that phonon-induced resonant near-field excitation surprisingly is possible for both p- and s-polarized incident light, a fact that is of particular interest for the nanoscopic investigation of anisotropic and hyperbolic materials. Moreover, we show that near-field spectroscopy, as compared to far-field techniques, bears substantial advantages such as lower penetration depths, stronger confinement, and a high spatial resolution. The latter permits the investigation of minute material volumes, e.g. with nanoscale changes in crystallographic structure, which we prove here via near-field imaging of ferroelectric domain structures in PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 thin film.
Keywords: Near-field microscopy, ferroelectrica

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  • Secondary publication expected

Publ.-Id: 29449 - Permalink


Simulation of STM images and spectroscopy of single nitrogen-doped molecules with 5-7 membered rings on Au(111) surfaces
Nikipar, S.; Ryndyk, D. A.; Gemming, S.; Moresco, F.; Cuniberti, G.; Frauenheim, T.;
We consider STM images and spectroscopy (STS) of molecules on metal surfaces. We combine DFT based atomistic tight-binding model (DFTB approach) with Green function technique, which offers a framework to consider tip, molecule and surface as one integrated system and taking into account the tip geometry. Besides, it captures the interference and interaction effects. This approach can be applied for the investigation of finite-voltage effects and describe the high-energy molecular transport states. It allows to simulate quantitatively the I(V) current-voltage spectroscopy curves and dI/dV maps in both constant current and constant height modes. We applied our methods to nitrogen-doped molecules with 5-7 membered rings on Au(111) surface and showed that the electronic properties of molecules are strongly influenced by formation of azulene-motifs. We developed the integrated open software suite for quantum nanoscale modeling (TraNaS OpenSuite, tranas.org/opensuite) for convenient calculations of large-scale molecular nanosystems on metal surfaces.
Keywords: molecular electronics, STM, conductance calculations, density-functional tight binding
  • Poster
    DPG Frühjahrstagung, 31.03.-05.04.2019, Regensburg, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 29447 - Permalink


Electron Transport through single Mn-salen molecule: Theoretical Study
Lokamani, L.; Kilibarda, F.; Sendler, T.; Zahn, P.; Mortensen, M.; Gothelf, K. V.; Erbe, A.; Gemming, S.;
Metal-salen complexes, formed by the coordination of a metal cation and a N,N’-bis(salicylidene)ethylenediamine-based ligand, are promising candidates for molecular electronics, because of possible modulations of transport channels using different metal cations. One such candidate is Mn-salen complex.

Here, we first explore the electronic structure of single molecules using wave function (MS-CASSCF) and density-functional (DFT+U) methods. We then employ the non-equilibrium Green’s function (NEGF) technique to study electron transport through single molecules attached to gold electrodes under finite bias. We explore various docking configurations for the single molecule between the gold electrodes.

A comparison with experimental coupling constants and energy levels, obtained using mechanically controllable break junction (MCBJ) technique is also presented.
Keywords: molecular electronics, NEGF, density-functional theory, Hartree-Fock, ab-initio, complete active space, multiconfigurational approach, transport calculation
  • Lecture (Conference)
    DPG Frühjahrstagung, 31.03.-04.05.2019, Regensburg, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 29446 - Permalink


Statistical studies of random silicon-germanium alloys using electronic structure calculations
Roscher, W.; Fuchs, F.; Wagner, C.; Schuster, J.; Gemming, S.;
Random alloys are relevant for many applications. One example is silicon-germanium which is used for high frequency devices like heterojunction-bipolar transistors. We therefore investigate the electronic structure of Si1−xGex alloys in the entire composition range 0≤ x≤ 1. For our study we use density functional theory in combination with bulk models of the alloys. To describe the band gap precisely we use the pseudopotential projector shift method as implemented in QuantumATK 18.06.

We perform a random generation of Si1−xGex structures to get statistical distributions of the electronic properties. After optimizing the structure we evaluate the band structure by averaging equivalent directions in the Brillouin zone.

The mean of the band gap is in good agreement with experimental reference data. We also demonstrate wide variations of the band gap, which are in the range of about 10 %. Further properties, such as the lattice constant and the formation energy are studied as well. Finally, we investigated also the impact of additional carbon dopants in the silicon-germanium alloy.
Keywords: Silicon nanowires, germanium nanowires, random alloys, Monte-Carlo, grand canonical potential simulations, entropy corrections, density functional calculations, mixing enthalpy, mixing entropy
  • Poster
    DPG Frühjahrstagung, 31.03.-05.04.2019, Regensburg, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 29445 - Permalink


Understanding the formation of interlayer excitons in the case of MoS2 on GaSe.
Wagner, C.; Rahaman, M.; Zahn, D. R. T.; Gemming, S.;
The fabrication of hybrid van-der-Waals heterostructures of two-dimensional nano materials is an emerging field of study: The (weak) electronic interaction between two layers is often reasonably described by a perturbation of the physical effects of the isolated layers, such as electrostatic doping and screening of intralayer excitons. However, it turns out that this picture of the weak interaction is not exhaustive in terms of optical properties: the formation of bound excitons from electrons of one layer and the holes from another layer yields the formation of interlayer excitons. These states are measured experimentally by photoluminescence and photocurrents, e.g. in the case of MoS2 on GaSe due to type-II band alignment.

This contribution elucidates the conditions for the formation of interlayer excitons from a first-principles point of view. For this, first-principles studies of a minimal test system are conducted. One perspective is then to predict these states as a function of the heterostack in order to specifically taylor efficient solar cells.
Keywords: densit-function calculations, 2D materials, interlayer exciton, exciton, Bethe-Salpeter, two-particle excitations, 2D heterostructure
  • Lecture (Conference)
    DPG Frühjahrstagung, 31.03.-05.04.2019, Regensburg, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 29444 - Permalink


Understanding the electron transport through NiSi2-Si interfaces
Fuchs, F.; Gemming, S.; Schuster, J.;
Metal-semiconductor interfaces are of huge importance for applications and can be found in various field-effect transistors. We study the interface between NiSi2 and silicon on the basis of density functional theory and the NEGF formalism. Different crystal orientations and strain states are investigated systematically.

We focus on the tunneling phenomena of carriers through the Schottky contact at the interface, which are crucial for the on-current in transistors. The on-current is found to be strongly dependent on strain and orientation. It will be shown that the height of the Schottky barrier determines the tunneling current. However, not all changes in the current can be traced back to the barrier height. The modification of the electronic structure matter as well, which can be modeled based on the effective mass of the tunneling carriers. We have also extracted work functions of the isolated materials which we relate to the extracted Schottky barrier heights. It will be shown that the Schottky-Mott model fails for this material system. Better approaches will be discussed in our contribution.
Keywords: one-dimensional transport, density-functional theory, electronic structure, reconfigurable electronics, RFET, silicon nanowires, nickel silicides, 1D contacts
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    International Workshop "Correlations and Transport in one-dimensional structures", 04.-07.07.2019, Dresden, Deutschland
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Seminar Series on Topical Problems in Theoretical Physics, 20.03.2019, London, U.K.

Publ.-Id: 29443 - Permalink


Modeling the interaction of magnetically capped colloidal particles
Neumann, M.; Gemming, S.; Steinbach, G.; Erbe, A.;
Colloidal self-assembly bears significant potential for the bottom-up fabrication of advanced materials and micromechanical structures. A wide range of particles with different types of anisotropy have been recognized as promising precursors for controlled structure engineering. Here, we concentrate on particles that interact via polar fields, which are intrinsically anisotropic. More specifically, we focus on the assembly of micron-sized silica spheres which are partly covered by a thin ferromagnetic layer with an out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy. To study assemblies of such magnetic particles, we introduce a simple two-parameter model: The extended magnetization distribution is approximated by a current-carrying coil enclosed inside a hard sphere. The far field of that current reproduces the stray field of a point dipole model, the near field reflects an extended magnetization. Such a model employs only two parameters to describe the shape of the magnetization distribution: The radius and the position of the coil inside the sphere. We present stable assemblies as a function of both parameters. In the limit of very small coils the analytical solution for two particles with shifted point dipoles is correctly reproduced. By increasing the radius of the coil, we reproduce experimentally observed particle arrangements not covered by models based on single shifted dipoles.
Keywords: colloid, Janus particle, self-assembly, model potential, soft matter
  • Poster
    Frühjahrstagung der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft, 31.03.-05.04.2019, Regensburg, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 29442 - Permalink


Emerging Noble Metal Aerogels: State of the Art and a Look Forward
Du, R.; Fan, X.; Jin, X.; Hübner, R.; Hu, Y.; Eychmüller, A.;
Noble metal aerogels (NMAs), as the most important class of noble metal foams (NMFs), appear as emerging functional porous materials in the field of materials science. Combining the irreplaceable roles of noble metals in certain scenarios, as well as monolithic and porous features of aerogels, NMAs can potentially revolutionize diverse fields, such as catalysis, plasmonics, and biology. Despite profound progress, grand challenges remain in their fabrication process, including the efficient structure control, the comprehensive understanding of the formation mechanisms, and the generality of the fabrication strategies, thus inevitably retarding the material design and optimization. This Perspective focuses on the key progress, especially of the fabrication strategies for NMAs during the last two decades, while other NMFs are also succinctly introduced. Challenges and opportunities are summarized to highlight the unexploited space and future directions in expectation of stimulating the broad interest of interdisciplinary scientists.

Publ.-Id: 29431 - Permalink


Extending temperature sensing range using Eu3+ luminescence upto 865 K in a single crystal of EuPO4
Sharma, S.ORC; Köhler, T.; Beyer, J.; Fuchs, M.; Gloaguen, R.; Heitmann, J.
The temperature evaluation through the measurement of emission intensities (intensity ratio method) require two distinct bands; one of which is used as a reference, and the emission intensity of other is monitored as a function of a change in temperature. Herein, we report the influence of excitation wavelengths, and a coupling scheme between lanthanoid and defect emission from the host lattice, to extend the temperature sensing range by using a single crystal of europium (III) phosphate. The temperature dependence of emission intensity was studied for different excitation wavelengths: 365 (intraconfigurational 4f2 excitation), 338 (defect excitation), and 254 nm (O2- →Eu3+ charge-transfer excitation), in the temperature range, 293--865 K. We determined the Boltzmann equilibrium among different coupling schemes using a linear regression model to infer that for an excitation at 338 nm wavelength, and evaluating the intensity ratio between defect emission and the Eu3+ 5D0,1 → 7FJ transitions, the temperature sensing range can be extended upto at least 865 K, with relative sensitivity in the range, 0.33-1.94%K-1 (at 750 K). The results showed resolution of < 1 K with an excellent reproducibility, suggesting that the thermometers can be used with high reliability.
Keywords: photoluminescence, Eu3+ doping, temperature sensing, relative sensitivity

Publ.-Id: 29430 - Permalink


Achieving optimal laser-proton acceleration through multi-parameter interaction control
Obst-Hübl, L.ORC
Relativistic laser-driven plasmas can be the source of energetic proton beams and have received increasing attention due to their high potential as compact and cost-efficient medical particle accelerators for radiation therapy. As such, exploring viable routes to scale the maximum proton energy to the medically relevant regime remains the subject of ongoing efforts in the Field. This endeavor is inherently linked to the discernment and control of seminal aspects of the acceleration process, ranging on vast temporal and spatial ranges due to highly variable plasma densities and laser intensities within one single interaction. This thesis investigates laser-proton acceleration on various physical scales and the influence of realistic laser pulse parameters, to ultimately find an optimum regime for stable proton beam production with highest particle energies. Experimental studies following this objective were primarily conducted at the high-power titanium:sapphire laser system Draco 150 TW at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR). Efficient on-demand control of the temporal laser pulse history was established in the form of a plasma mirror filter combined with on-shot temporal pulse contrast characterization based on an advanced spectral interferometry diagnostic. This allowed for experiments with variable pulse contrast, thus providing additional handles for proton source optimization and additionally, extending the selection of applicable interaction targets to lower thicknesses and densities. Studies with novel target technologies such as ultra-thin liquid crystal films and solid hydrogen jets were performed, each at optimized acceleration conditions, resulting in excellent proton beams with high energies and particle numbers that promise to be highly scalable with increasing laser intensities. Elaborate diagnostic suites in combination with numerical simulations delivered an improved picture of the acceleration process, which generally remains difficult to assess experimentally on the microscopic spatial and ultrafast temporal scale. As an important result, the onset of relativistic target transparency was observed for ultra-thin liquid crystal films, an operation regime that may deliver increased proton energies when optimized. Proton acceleration results from the hydrogen jet agreed well with predictive particle-in-cell simulations, thus establishing a test bed for closely linked experimental and numerical studies into advanced acceleration mechanisms, as are for example associated with target transparency. Furthermore, an unexpected proton beam structuring effect was discovered that can play a significant role in experiments with transparent or very small targets. Formerly unrecognized by the community, this effect leads to the extension of spatial and temporal interaction scales beyond the initial proton acceleration in the laser focus, that need to be considered for appropriate interpretation of proton profile signatures.
  • Doctoral thesis
    TU Dresden, 2019
    Mentor: Dr. Karl Zeil
    150 Seiten
    DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3252952
  • Lecture (others)
    Verteidigungsvortrag, 18.06.2019, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 29429 - Permalink


Investigation of Bubble Plume Oscillations by Euler-Euler Simulation
Fleck, S.; Rzehak, R.;
For practical applications the Euler-Euler two-fluid model relies on suitable closure relations describing interfacial exchange processes. An ongoing effort at HZDR has led to a validated set of closures for adiabatic bubbly flows that is applicable under a rather broad range of conditions including flows in pipes and bubble columns. Up to now, however, only flows with stationary mean values have been considered. The present contribution extends the model validation to dynamic flow phenomena by considering a periodically oscillating bubble plume. Consequently, the turbulence model then runs in URANS mode. Literature data for a partially aerated flat rectangular bubble column are used for comparison. In particular, results for the plume oscillation period show good agreement between simulation and experiment.
Keywords: bubble columns, dispersed gas liquid multiphase flow, Euler-Euler two fluid model, closure relations, CFD simulation, model validation

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  • Secondary publication expected from 09.07.2020

Publ.-Id: 29428 - Permalink


Electron transport through NiSi2-Si contacts and their role in reconfigurable field-effect transistors
Fuchs, F.; Gemming, S.; Schuster, J.;
A model is presented which describes reconfigurable field-effect transistors (RFETs) with metal contacts, whose switching is controlled by manipulating the Schottky barriers at the contacts. The proposed modeling approach is able to bridge the gap between quantum effects on the atomic scale and the transistor switching. We apply the model to transistors with a silicon channel and NiSi2 contacts. All relevant crystal orientations are compared, focusing on the differences between electron and hole current, which can be as large as four orders of magnitude. Best symmetry is found for the < 110 > orientation, which makes this orientation most advantageous for RFETs. The observed differences are analyzed in terms of the Schottky barrier height at the interface. Our study indicates that the precise orientation of the interface relative to a given transport direction, perpendicular or tilted, is an important technology parameter, which has been underestimated during the previous development of RFETs. Most of the conclusions regarding the studied metal-semiconductor interface are also valid for other device architectures.
Keywords: density functional, nanowire, nanoelectronics, NanoNet, device modeling, interface, silicide, silicon

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Publ.-Id: 29427 - Permalink


Organic Iron Complexes Enhance Iron Transport Capacity along Estuarine Salinity Gradients
Herzog, S. D.; Kvashnina, K.; Persson, P.; Kritzberg, E.;
Rivers discharge a notable amount of Fe (1.5 x 109 mol yr−1) to coastal waters, but are still not considered important sources of bioavailable Fe to open marine waters. The reason is that the vast majority of riverine Fe is considered to be lost to the sediment due to aggregation during estuarine mixing. Recently however, several studies demonstrate relatively high stability of riverine Fe to salinity induced aggregation, and it has been proposed that organically complexed Fe (Fe-OM) can “survive” the salinity gradient, while Fe (oxy)hydroxides are prone to aggregation and selectively removed. In this study, we directly identified, by X-ray absorption spectroscopy, the occurrence of these two Fe phases across eight boreal rivers and confirmed a significant but variable contribution of Fe-OM in relation to Fe (oxy)hydroxides among river mouths. We further found that that Fe-OM was more prevalent at high flow conditions in spring than at low flow conditions during autumn, and that Fe-OM was more dominant in low-order streams in a catchment than at the river mouth. The stability of Fe to increasing salinity correlated well to the relative contribution of Fe-OM, i.e. confirming that organic complexes promote Fe transport capacity. This study suggests that boreal rivers may provide significant amounts of potentially bioavailable Fe to marine waters beyond the estuary, due to organic matter complexes

Publ.-Id: 29426 - Permalink


Dual-time-point 64Cu-PSMA-617-PET/CT in patients suffering from prostate cancer
Hoberück, S.; Wunderlich, G.; Michler, E.; Hölscher, T.; Walther, M.; Seppelt, D.; Platzek, I.; Zöphel, K.; Kotzerke, J.;
Regardless of its high positron energy, 68Ga-labeled PSMA ligands have become standard of care in metabolic prostate cancer imaging. 64Cu, a radionuclide with a much longer half-life (12.7 h), is available for PSMA labeling allowing imaging much later than 68Ga. In this study, the diagnostic performance of 64Cu-labeled PSMA was compared between early and late scans. Sixteen men (median age: 70 y) with prostate cancer in different stages underwent 64Cu-PSMA-617-PET/CT 2 and 22 hours post tracer injection. Pathologic and physiologic uptakes were analyzed for both points of time. Pathologic tracer accumulations occurred in 12 patients. Five patients presented with pathologic uptake in 17 different lymph nodes, two patients showed pathologic bone uptake in nine lesions, and seven patients had pathologic PSMA uptake in eight prostatic lesions. Physiologic uptake of the renal parenchyma, urine bladder, and salivary glands decreased over time, while the physiologic uptake of liver and bowel increased. In the present study, 64Cu-PSMA-617-PET demonstrated to be feasible for imaging prostate cancer for both the primary tumor site and metastases. Later imaging showed no additional, clinically relevant benefit compared with the early scans. At least the investigated time points we chose did not vindicate the additional expenditure.
Keywords: 64Cu, dual time, PET, prostate cancer, PSMA
  • Journal of Labelled Compounds and Radiopharmaceuticals 62(2019)8, 523-532
    DOI: 10.1002/jlcr.3745

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Publ.-Id: 29425 - Permalink


Spin textures and spin waves as seen by x-ray microscopy
Wintz, S.;
The investigation of spin-wave phenomena, also referred to as magnonics, plays an important role in present condensed matter research. This holds true, in particular, as spin waves are seen as signal carriers for future spintronic information processing devices, with a high potential to outperform present charge-based technologies in terms of energy efficiency and device miniaturization. Yet a successful implementation of magnonic technology will require the usage and control of spin waves with nanoscale wavelengths. Here, I will show that ferromagnetic spin textures in metallic systems can be used as nanoscale spin-wave emitters and wave guides. In particular, topological spin vortex cores prove to act as efficient and tunable generators for sub-100 nm waves, while domain walls can be utilized as quasi one-dimensional channels for spin-wave propagation and routing. The underlying spin dynamic processes were directly imaged by using time-resolved x-ray microscopy.
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Challenges & Opportunities in X-Ray Microscopy, 11.-15.02.2019, Kreuth (Schloss Ringberg), Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 29424 - Permalink


ExploreASL: a collaborative effort to process and explore multi-center ASL data
Mutsaerts, H. J.; Petr, J.; Groot, P.; Ingala, S.; Robertson, A.; Vaclavu, L.; Groote, I.; Kuijf, H.; O'Daly, O.; Zelaya, F.; Vandemaele, P.; Wink, A. M.; Kant, I.; Caan, M.; Morgan, C.; de Bresser, J.; Lysvik, E.; Schrantee, A.; Shirzadi, Z.; Kuijer, J. P. A.; Anazodo, U.; Richard, E.; Bokkers, R.; Reneman, L.; Masellis, M.; Achten, E.; Günther, M.; Macintosh, B.; Golay, X.; Hendrikse, J.; Chapell, M.; van Osch, M.; Thomas, D.; de Vita, E.; Bjornerud, A.; Nederveen, A.; Asllani, I.; Barkhof, F.;
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) has undergone significant development since its inception; yet, standardized images processing procedures remain elusive. We present ExploreASL, a robust open source ASL image processing pipeline for clinical studies. Initiated through the European COST action ASL network, this joint effort provides integration and analysis of both single- and multi-center datasets across different operating systems. ExploreASL is optimized for both native- and standard-space analyses, and provides visual and automatic quality control on all intermediate and final images, allowing exploration of ASL datasets from multiple perspectives.
  • Contribution to proceedings
    ISMRM 27th Annual Meeting & Exhibition, 11.06.2019, Montreal, Canada
    Proceedings of the ISMRM 27th Annual Meeting & Exhibition, 2705
  • Poster
    ISMRM 27th Annual Meeting & Exhibition, 11.06.2019, Montreal, Canada

Publ.-Id: 29422 - Permalink


Hemodynamic impairments in asymptomatic unilateral carotid artery stenosis are increased within individual watershed areas
Kaczmarz, S.; Goettler, J.; Petr, J.; Hansen, M. B.; Kufer, J.; Hock, A.; Sorg, C.; Zimmer, C.; Mouridsen, K.; Hyder, F.; Preibisch, C.;
Internal carotid-artery stenosis (ICAS) causes complex and not yet well understood physiological impairments, which currently limits treatment decisions. We present multimodal perfusion and oxygenation-related MRI-data from unilateral asymptomatic ICAS-patients and age-matched healthy controls. The major aim was to investigate hemodynamic impairments in ICAS within individually defined watershed areas (iWSA’s) to account for individual vascular configurations. We found statistically significant lateralization of hemodynamic parameters within iWSA’s - strongest in WM of iWSA’s. Therefore, our iWSA-based approach facilitates detection of even subtle hemodynamic changes in ICAS. Furthermore, we detected spatially widespread capillary flow heterogeneity increases which are promising future treatment indicators.
  • Contribution to proceedings
    ISMRM 27th Annual Meeting & Exhibition, 11.06.2019, Montreal, Canada
    Proceedings of the ISMRM 27th Annual Meeting & Exhibition, 3246
  • Poster
    ISMRM 27th Annual Meeting & Exhibition, 11.06.2019, Montreal, Canada

Publ.-Id: 29421 - Permalink


Recovery of cerebrovascular reactivity after asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis treatment is assessable by Breathhold-fMRI within global watershed areas
Kaczmarz, S.; Goettler, J.; Sollmann, N.; Kufer, J.; Hansen, M. B.; Hock, A.; Sorg, C.; Zimmer, C.; Mouridsen, K.; Hyder, F.; Preibisch, C.; Petr, J.;
Asymptomatic unilateral internal carotid-artery stenosis (ICAS) causes complex and currently poorly understood hemodynamic impairments which could possibly improve treatment decisions. Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) is an important biomarker of vascular health and can potentially serve to evaluate ICAS-treatment efficacy. We present perfusion MRI-data from a longitudinal study in 16 asymptomatic ICAS-patients before and after treatment plus 17 age-matched healthy controls. We hypothesize that CVR impairments in ICAS and their recovery after treatment can be assessed by Breathhold-fMRI analyzed by a data-driven approach. Our results demonstrate statistically significant CVR impairments within global watershed areas before treatment and significant CVR recovery after treatment.
  • Contribution to proceedings
    ISMRM 27th Annual Meeting & Exhibition, 11.06.2019, Montreal, Canada
    Proceedings of the ISMRM 27th Annual Meeting & Exhibition, 0739
  • Lecture (Conference)
    ISMRM 27th Annual Meeting & Exhibition, 11.06.2019, Montreal, Canada

Publ.-Id: 29420 - Permalink


Cerebral hypometabolism measured with intravascular T2-prepared tissue relaxation with inversion recovery (T2-TRIR) and pCASL in adults with sickle cell disease
Vaclavu, L.; Petersen, E. T.; Mutsaerts, H. J.; Petr, J.; Majoie, C. B.; Wood, J. C.; Vanbavel, E. T.; Biemond, B. J.; Nederveen, A. J.;
Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) quantifies the amount of oxygen consumed by the brain, and relies on continuous delivery of nutrients and oxygen via cerebral blood flow (CBF). In sickle cell disease (SCD), CBF is elevated to compensate for chronic anaemia. This study investigates CMRO2 in adults with SCD using T2-prepared tissue relaxation with inversion recovery (T2-TRIR). CBF increased after acetazolamide-induced vasodilation in both groups but CMRO2 reduced even further in SCD patients while it remained stable in controls. Our results suggest that cerebral shunting is exacerbated by high flow conditions.
  • Contribution to proceedings
    ISMRM 27th Annual Meeting & Exhibition, 11.06.2019, Montreal, Canada
    Proceedings of the ISMRM 27th Annual Meeting & Exhibition, 0291
  • Lecture (Conference)
    ISMRM 27th Annual Meeting & Exhibition, 11.06.2019, Montreal, Canada

Publ.-Id: 29419 - Permalink


A multi-site round robin assessment of ASL using a perfusion phantom
Oliver-Taylor, A.; Hampshire, T.; Mutsaerts, H.-J.; Clement, P.; Warnert, E.; Kuijer, J. P. A.; Baas, K.; Petr, J.; Siero, J. C. W.; Marques, J. P.; Sunaert, S.; Borra, R. J. H.; van Osch, M. J. P.; Golay, X.; Achten, E.;
Arterial Spin Labelling shows great promise for perfusion measurements; however, despite numerous volunteer reproducibility studies, comparisons have not been made using a phantom to establish differences due to the acquisition hardware and pulse sequences. We present data from a multi-site study using a perfusion phantom, targeting 3T MRI systems from a single vendor running the same software version.
  • Contribution to proceedings
    ISMRM 27th Annual Meeting & Exhibition, 11.06.2019, Montreal, Canada
    Proceedings of the ISMRM 27th Annual Meeting & Exhibition, 2653
  • Poster
    ISMRM 27th Annual Meeting & Exhibition, 11.06.2019, Montreal, Canada

Publ.-Id: 29418 - Permalink


Extra-neurite Perfusion Measurement with Combined Arterial Spin Labeling and Diffusion Weighted MRI
Asllani, I.; Petr, J.; Mutsaerts, H.-J.; Bozzali, M.; Cercignani, M.;
Introduction:
Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) is an MRI method that uses magnetically labeled endogenous water as a tracer for measuring cerebral perfusion in vivo1. The arterial water that is usually 'labeled' at a plane positioned at the base of the brain, perpendicular to the carotids. A post-labeling delay (PLD) is introduced prior to acquisition to allow labeled water to cross the vasculature and perfuse into the tissue1. Because of signal decay due to T1 relaxation, fast acquisition schemes are employed to ensure optimal SNR. Consequently, the spatial resolution of ASL is relatively low (~ 3 x 3 x 6 mm3). As such, the measured blood flow from a given voxel reflects a mixture of signals from gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and CSF, a phenomenon known as partial voluming (PV)2. To correct for the confounding effects of PV in ASL imaging, an algorithm (PVC) has been developed and already used by several studies2,3. The algorithm is based on GM and WM volume data obtained from the segmentation of the T1w image2, and makes no further distinction between different compartments within the same tissue type. Here, we investigated the potential of PVC ASL to map blood perfusion in the extra-neurite compartment (e.g., soma, glial cells4) and the intra-neurite (comprised of axons and axon terminals4) within the same tissue, independently. We applied the PVC algorithm using compartmental data from a diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) model, referred to as NODDI4. The underlying hypothesis was that the blood flow in the extra- and intra-neurite compartments would vary with the PLD; a short PLD acquisition would increase the flow in the extra-neurite compartment compared to the long PLD for which there should be an increased flow in the intra-neurite compartment instead.
Methods:
Theory
At any given voxel, the blood flow (fT) is given as:
fT=VFIn•fIn+VFEn•fEn+VFIso•fIs
where, VFIn, VFEn, VFIso represent respectively: the intra-neurite, extra-neurite, and non-tissue compartments obtained from NODDI4. By assuming that for each compartment blood flow is constant over a 'kernel', the equation can be re-written in vectorial form to reflect the flow at the voxel in the center of the kernel2, from which then each compartmental flow can be computed using linear regression as detailed in Asllani et al.2..

MRI protocol & image analysis
T1w (MPRAGE), NODDI, and ASL MRI images were obtained on 4 healthy participants (mean age = 44.5 ± 7.4 y, 2 men) a Siemens 3T system. To test the hypothesis that a shorter PLD would increase the signal in the extra-neurite GM compartment, ASL was acquired with a short (200ms) and long PLD (1800ms). Only results from voxels with GM content > 80% are presented.
Results:
Fig.1 shows the raw images that were used by the PVC algorithm to extract the flow from each compartment within the GM. For the long-PLD acquisition, average CBF in the extra- and intra-neurite compartments was 76 ± 10 mL/100g*min and 59 ± 8 mL/100g*min, respectively. As hypothesized, for the short-PLD, the CBF signal was contained primarily in the extra-neurite department (118 ± 17 mL/100g*min) with the intra-neurite compartment flow being essentially zero (-0.9 ± 0.6 mL/100g*min). Results from one participant are shown in Fig.2.
Supporting Image: Fig1.jpg
·Fig.1: ‘Raw’ NODDI and ASL images used by the PVC algorithm from one subject. Top row: MPRAGE and VFIn images; middle row: VFEn and VFISO; bottom row: CBF for short PLD (left) and long PLD (right).
Supporting Image: Fig2.jpg
·Fig.2: Top: Extra-neurite GM CBF from short (left) & long (right) PLD acquisitions. Bottom: axial and sagittal views of Intra-neurite CBF for long PLD with areas in blue indicating ~zero signal.

Conclusions:
We combined NODDI with PVC ASL MRI to distinguish between blood flow in the extra- and intra-neurite compartments within GM. While these initial results look promising, more work is needed to test the sensitivity of this method and its feasibility for clinical applications. For example, a larger PLD range is needed to test whether the method can be used to detect inter-neurite subcortical flow. If successful, this method could prove invaluable in mapping blood flow with high spatial specificity.
Keywords: Cerebral Blood Flow, Data analysis, fMRI CONTRAST MECHANISMS, MRI
  • Open Access LogoContribution to proceedings
    Organization for Human Brain Mapping Annual Meeting 2019, 09.-13.06.2019, Rome, Italy
  • Open Access LogoPoster
    Organization for Human Brain Mapping Annual Meeting 2019, 13.06.2019, Rome, Italy

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Publ.-Id: 29417 - Permalink


Density and Susceptibility: Geometallurgical Characterization of a Cassiterite Bearing Complex Skarn Ore From the Ore Mountains, Germany
Buchmann, M.; Schach, E.; Leißner, T.; Tolosana-Delgado, R.; Kern, M.; Krupko, N.; Rudolph, M.; Peuker, U. A.;
In mineral processing, density and magnetic susceptibility are two very fundamental properties. For the beneficiation of valuables to saleable concentrates a detailed understanding of these properties is essential. Especially when it comes to the processing of cassiterite, which is the main mineral for tin production, they become highly prominent. Due to the chemically inert character of cassiterite towards most industrial applied leaching agents, density and magnetic separation processes are mainly applied for its beneficiation. To guarantee an optimized utilization of the different operations not only cassiterite but also the different gangue minerals have to be considered.
In this study, a skarn ore is characterized by density and magnetic susceptibility. Therefore, the material was first split into different density classes by heavy liquid separation. The obtained classes were further separated by their susceptibility to finally obtain a density-susceptibility matrix. For this purpose, an isodynamic separator was used. A more detailed characterization of the materials is done via gas pycnometer, magnetic susceptibility balance and vibrating sample magnetometer to estimate the characteristics of density and susceptibility for the various classes. Further, the determination of the chemical assay and the mineral intergrowth by mineral liberation analysis helps to generate a three dimensional data base for detailed characterization of the present ore.
The objective of this study is to estimate potential material streams for a modular processing plant via characterization of the material for the entire deposit by the two afore mentioned characteristic properties. The established multidimensional data matrix, enables predictions for the separation properties of the material and contributes to the characterization of the deposit within the context of geometallurgy.
Keywords: Geometallurgy, susceptibility, density, skarn ore, cassiterite
  • Lecture (Conference)
    MPC 2018 - 29th International Mineral Processing Congress, 15.-21.09.2018, Moscow, Russian Federation

Publ.-Id: 29407 - Permalink


The smaller the valuables, the poorer the recovery – Is that always true?
Schach, E.; Leistner, T.; Rudolph, M.;
The recovery of valuables in a flotation process is known to depend on the particle size and to drop for very small particles. The lack of floatability of such particle fractions is often objected to poor particle-bubble collision efficiencies due to low inertial energies. We recently showed that very fine valuable particles do float well and that the overall flotation performance depends more on the size of the gangue particles. Those findings are in contradiction to many classic collision models in which the influence of fine gangue particles is neglected. In this study the effect of the fine gangue particles on the flotation process is investigated and discussed in more detail. Therefore flotation tests with different solid concentrations, particle size fractions and different hydrodynamic conditions are conducted, measuring the energy dissipation and analysing the obtained flotation products. In addition, the wettability of the valuables and the gangue particles is characterized.
  • Poster
    Flotation '17, 13.-16.11.2017, Cape Town, South Africa

Publ.-Id: 29405 - Permalink


Lift Forces on Solid Spherical Particles in Unbounded Flows
Shi, P.; Rzehak, R.;
The present work is concerned with the lift forces acting on particles immersed in an unbounded fluid. Both mechanisms due to rotation of the particle and vorticity of the fluid flow are considered. Focus is on solid spherical particles at Reynolds numbers up to 103 which are relevant for particulate flows in chemical and minerals engineering. A comprehensive review of existing results from analytical, numerical, and experimental studies is given. In particular in the simulation area many new data have appeared in the past 10 years since the earlier review of Loth [AIAA Journal 46 (2008), 801–809]. The available correlations are critically assessed by comparison to data from experiment and direct numerical simulation. Based on the comparison new correlations are proposed and gaps or inconsistencies in the data are identified. The case of wall-bounded flows will be considered in a sequel.
Keywords: lift force, particles, shear flow, particle rotation, correlation

Publ.-Id: 29402 - Permalink


Nanoscale n++-p junction formation in GeOI probed by tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and conductive atomic force microscopy
Prucnal, S.; Berencen, Y.; Wang, M.; Georgiev, Y.; Erbe, A.; Khan, M. B.; Böttger, R.; Hübner, R.; Schönherr, T.; Kalbacova, J.; Vines, L.; Facsko, S.ORC; Engler, M.; Zahn, D. R. T.; Knoch, J.; Helm, M.; Skorupa, W.; Zhou, S.ORC
Ge-on-Si and Ge-on-insulator (GeOI) are the most promising materials for the next-generation nanoelectronics that can be fully integrated with silicon technology. To this day, the fabrication of Ge-based transistors with a n-type channel doping above 5 × 1019 cm−3 remains challenging. Here, we report on n-type doping of Ge beyond the equilibrium solubility limit (ne ≈ 6 × 1020 cm−3) together with a nanoscale technique to inspect the dopant distribution in n++-p junctions in GeOI. The n++ layer in Ge is realized by P+ ion implantation followed by millisecond-flashlamp annealing. The electron concentration is found to be three times higher than the equilibrium solid solubility limit of P in Ge determined at 800 °C. The millisecond-flashlamp annealing process is used for the electrical activation of the implanted P dopant and to fully suppress its diffusion. The study of the P activation and distribution in implanted GeOI relies on the combination of Raman spectroscopy, conductive atomic force microscopy, and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The linear dependence between the Fano asymmetry parameter q and the active carrier concentration makes Raman spectroscopy a powerful tool to study the electrical properties of semiconductors.
We also demonstrate the high electrical activation efficiency together with the formation of ohmic contacts through Ni germanidation via a single-step flashlamp annealing process.
Keywords: GeOI, ion implantation, flash lamp annealing, doping, TERS

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  • Secondary publication expected from 28.06.2020

Publ.-Id: 29401 - Permalink


PIConGPU: Predictive Simulations of Laser-Particle Accelerators with Manycore Hardware
Huebl, A.ORC
The presented thesis establishes simulations on modern massively parallel computing hardware to investigate relativistic laser-driven plasmas. The latter are of special interest as they may provide a compact source for energetic ion beams. Computer simulations provide valuable insight into ultrafast plasma processes, evolving in the ultrahigh intensity (I0 ≫ 1018 W/cm2) focus of the ultrashort (𝜏0=30-500 fs) laser pulses driving the interaction. Such simulations require high numerical resolution and full geometric treatment for reliable predictions, which can only be addressed with high-performance computing. The open source particle-in-cell code PIConGPU, which is developed in the framework of this thesis, answers these demands, providing speed and scalability to run on the world's largest supercomputers. PIConGPU is designed with a modular and extensible implementation, allowing to compute on current and upcoming hardware from a single code base. Furthermore, challenges arising for generated data rates, reaching 1 PByte per simulation, are resolved with scalable data reduction techniques and novel workflows, such as interactive simulations.

Numerical studies are performed on two novel targets for laser-proton acceleration with near-critical and mass-limited properties. A micrometer-scale spherical target is explored with realistic temporal laser contrast, providing an interpretation for experimental results collected at the PW-class laser system PHELIX (𝜏0=500 fs pulse length). In this study, 3D modeling with the GPU supercomputer Titan enabled the identification of pre-expansion to near-critical target conditions, which uncovers a regime of volumetric laser-electron interaction generating a highly directed proton beam. Furthermore, a novel cryogenic hydrogen jet target is researched in close collaboration to experiments at the laser system DRACO (𝜏0=30 fs). This target system provides a unique setup for the isolated investigation of multi-species effects and their influence on the generated ion energy distribution. A novel analytical model provides a link between characteristic modulations in the ion energy spectra and ensemble properties of the microscopic electron distribution. In view of a potential experimental realization, parametric scans are performed confirming the feasibility of the proposed setup.
Keywords: laser-plasma acceleration, modeling, HPC, GPU, laser-ion acceleration, exascale computing, open source, open data
  • Doctoral thesis
    TU Dresden, 2019
    Mentor: Prof. Dr. Ulrich Schramm
    171 Seiten
    DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.3266820
  • Lecture (others)
    Dissertationsverteidigung, 25.06.2019, Dresden, Deutschland

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Publ.-Id: 29400 - Permalink


Joint project: Umwandlungsmechanismen in Bentonitbarrieren - Subproject B: Einfluss von mikrobiellen Prozessen auf die Bentonitumwandlung
Matschiavelli, N.; Drozdowski, J.; Kluge, S.; Arnold, T.; Cherkouk, A.;
Concerning the deep geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW), bentonite can be used because of its high swelling capacity and its low hydraulic conductivity as geo-technical barrier and buffering material in between the waste-containing canister (technical barrier) and the surrounding host rock (geological barrier). There are still many gaps in process understanding of bentonite transformations, especially in dependence of different temperatures and pore waters. Within the joint-project UMB (“Umwandlungsmechanismen in Bentonitbarrieren”), the co-operation partner Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) mbH (Repository Safety Analysis), the University of Greifswald (Institute for Geography and Geology), the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR, section of technical mineralogy), the Technical University of Munich (TUM; chair of theoretical chemistry, quantum chemistry) and the Helmholtz-Center Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR, Institute of Resource Ecology) are supposed to define criteria which facilitate the selection of suitable bentonites in order to use them in the deep geological repository of high-level radioactive waste. HZDR analyzed two different bentonites (B36 and SD80) regarding their microbial diversity and potential microbial activity. In dependence of repository-relevant parameters (temperature, pore water, presence of substrates), microcosm experiments were set up at the GRS, containing the respective bentonites and Opalinus Clay pore water or cap rock solution, respectively. The long-term batches were incubated one year and two years at different temperatures (25 °C, 60 °C and 90 °C) in gastight bottles. Additionally, HZDR set up B36 short-term microcosms with Opalinus Clay pore water, which incubated for three month at 30 °C with six sampling points monitoring the microbial diversity and geochemical parameters.
After one and two years of incubation at 25 °C, respectively, supplemented SD80 microcosms containing Opalinus Clay pore water showed the formation of black precipitates and fissures as well as the dominance of sulfate-reducing and spore-forming bacteria. The detected genera are able to reduce the present sulfate in order to form hydrogen sulfide. XRF spectroscopy analysis, done at the University of Greifswald, showed a decrease in sulfate concentration in the respective SD80 microcosms, supporting this surveillance. Similar observations were made for the two-year incubations. The microbial diversity of the B36 bentonite raw material is much different from the SD80 bentonite raw material. Similar to the diversity of SD80 bentonite, the microbial community of the B36 bentonite long-term incubations changed with respect to the applied pore water. Spore-forming organisms dominated the set ups which were supplied with Opalinus Clay pore water solution whereas halophilic microorganisms were found in set ups containing diluted cap rock solution. We were also successful in showing the dominance of thermophilic bacteria in Opalinus clay pore water-containing microcosms that incubated at 60 °C for two years. Additionally, we were able to enrich microorganism from Opalinus Clay pore water of both, B36 and SD80 bentonite long-term incubations. Similar to the long-term analysis, substrate-containing B36 short-term microcosms, containing Opalinus Clay pore water, showed also the dominance of spore-forming bacteria after three months of incubation. Furthermore, a slight decrease in lactate-concentration as well as an increase in ferrous iron and acetate-concentration was observed in the respective B36 microcosms. The presence of substrates and mesophilic incubation temperatures of 25 °C or 30 °C, respectively, promoted the growth of “microbial generalists” that are able to exist in a vegetative state. Extreme environmental conditions as elevated temperatures (60 °C) or high-salt concentrations promote the dominance of highly specialized microorganisms. Our data show, that the microbial diversity in the analyzed bentonites and, furthermore, the evolution of the respective microbial communities differs significantly from each other. Since not that much is known about intrinsic extremophilic microorganisms (metabolic activity and potential influence on the bentonite barrier material), our data stress the importance of further microbial investigations in order to prevent and reduce potential risks (e.g. corrosion, mineralogical changes), due to microbial activity within the repository.
  • Open Access LogoWissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; HZDR-103 2019

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Publ.-Id: 29398 - Permalink


Multiferroic spin-superfluid and spin-supersolid phases in MnCr2S4
Ruff, A.; Wang, Z.; Zherlitsyn, S.; Wosnitza, J.; Krohns, S.; Krug Von Nidda, H.-A.; Lunkenheimer, P.; Tsurkan, V.; Loidl, A.;
Spin supersolids and spin superfluids reveal complex canted spin structures with independent order of longitudinal and transverse spin components. This work addresses the question whether these exotic phases can lead to spin-driven ferroelectricity. Here we report the results of dielectric and pyrocurrent measurements of MnCr2S4 as function of temperature and magnetic field up to 60 T. This sulfide chromium spinel exhibits a Yafet-Kittel type spin structure at low temperatures. As function of external magnetic field, the manganese spins undergo a sequence of ordering patterns of the transverse and longitudinal spin components, which can be mapped onto phases as predicted by lattice-gas models including solid, liquid, super-fluid, and supersolid phases. By detailed dielectric and pyrocurrent measurements, we document a zoo of multiferroic phases with sizable ferroelectric polarization strongly varying from phase to phase. Using lattice-gas terminology, the title compound reveals multiferroic spin-superfluid and spin-supersolid phases, while the antiferromagnetic solid is paraelectric.

Publ.-Id: 29396 - Permalink


Biologische Wege zur Rohstoffsicherung – vom Nobelpreis zum Recycling
Lederer, F.;
Im Jahr 1985 entwickelte der Wissenschaftler George P. Smith eine Methode zur Identifizierung von kurzen Eiweißbruchstücken, die gezielt und selektiv ein Zielmaterial binden können. Für diese Methode der Evolution im Reagenzglas, welche auf der Verwendung von Bakteriophagen basiert, erhielt er im Jahr 2018 den Chemienobelpreis. Damals half ihm die Methode, Antikörper für bestimmte Krebszellen zu identifizieren. Die Wissenschaftler des Helmholtz-Instituts Freiberg für Ressourcentechnologie nutzen die Phage Surface Display genannte Methode für die Entwicklung hochspezifischer Bioangeln zum seletiven Recycling von Seltenen Erden aus Elektroschrott.
Keywords: Biotechnologie, Phage Surface Display, Bioangeln
  • Lecture (others)
    Lange Nacht der Wissenschaften 2019 in Dresden, 14.06.2019, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 29395 - Permalink


Metallgewinnung durch Mikrobiologie – Biologisch assistierte Prozesse in der Rohstofftechnologie
Lederer, F.;
Präsentation der Arbeitsbereiche Bioflotation, Biosorption und Biolaugung, die in der Abteilung Biotechnologie des HIF Schwerpunktmäßig untersucht werden. Vorstellung der Nachwuchsgruppe BioKollekt
Keywords: Phage Surface Display, BioKollekt, Bioflotation, Biolaugung, Biosorption
  • Lecture (others)
    Lehrveranstaltung Industrielle Mikrobiologie im Fachbereich Technische Mikrobiologie, 24.06.2019, Senftenberg, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 29394 - Permalink


Fermi surface investigation of the semimetal TaAs2
Butcher, T. A.; Hornung, J.; Förster, T.; Uhlarz, M.; Klotz, J.; Sheikin, I.; Wosnitza, J.; Kaczorowski, D.;
The transversal magnetoresistance associated with the semimetal TaAs2 shows a parabolic field dependence that rises unrestrictedly to 2800 at 14 T and 1.8 K. Here, we report the results of a comprehensive quantum-oscillation study. Angular-dependent de Haas–van Alphen (dHvA) data were obtained with the method of cantilever-torque magnetometry. These were compared with the results of density-functional theory calculations, which predict a Fermi surface with two kinds of electron pockets, as well as two types of hole pockets. Only the electron pockets could be xperimentally verified, whereas no evidence for the hole pockets is present in the measured dHvA frequencies.

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Publ.-Id: 29393 - Permalink


Fermi surface studies of the skutterudite superconductors LaPt4Ge12 and PrPt4Ge12
Bergk, B.; Klotz, J.; Förster, T.; Gumeniuk, R.; Leithe-Jasper, A.; Lorenz, V.; Schnelle, W.; Nicklas, M.; Rosner, H.; Grin, Y.; Wosnitza, J.;
We report on comprehensive de Haas–van Alphen (dHvA) and electronic band-structure studies of the superconducting skutterudites LaPt4Ge12 (Tc = 8.3 K) and PrPt4Ge12 (Tc = 7.9 K). Both materials show very rich spectra of dHvA oscillations with similar and only slightly varying angular-dependent frequencies. The spectral richness can partly be rationalized by the elaborated electronic band structures resulting in several Fermi surfaces built by six different bands. The effective cyclotron masses of both superconductors lie between about 0.5 and 1.1 times the free-electron mass. Although these values are small, we find moderate mass enhancements between about 2 and 4 when comparing to the calculated masses. Our results evidence the localized character of the 4f electrons in the Pr compound and are in line with an electron-phonon mediated multiband superconductivity, largely identical for both compounds.

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Publ.-Id: 29392 - Permalink


Hole compensation effect in III-Mn-V dilute ferromagnetic semiconductors
Xu, C.ORC; Wang, M.; Yuan, Y.; Larkin, G.; Helm, M.; Zhou, S.
A systematic study of hole compensation effect on magnetic properties, which is controlled by defect compensation through ion irradiation, in (Ga,Mn)As, (In,Mn)As and (Ga,Mn)P is represented in this work. In all materials, both Curie temperature and magnetization decrease upon increasing the hole compensation, confirming the description of hole mediated
erromagnetism according to the p -d Zener model. The material dependence of Curie temperature and magnetization versus hole compensation reveals that the manipulation of magnetic properties in III-Mn-V dilute ferromagnetic semiconductors by ion irradiation is strongly influenced by the energy level location of the produced defect relative to the band edges in
emiconductors.
Keywords: dilute ferromagnetic semiconductors, the Curie temperature, magnetization, compensation effect, ion irradiation

Publ.-Id: 29391 - Permalink


Presenting Non-Invasive and Fully Acceptable Exploration Technologies - The INFACT Project
Viezzoli, A.; Roffey, S.; Wijns, C.; Fernandez, I.; Blanco, J. M.;
Despite its rich history of mining and residual mineral wealth, current conditions within the EU present a number of social, political, legislative, cost, technical and physical obstacles to raw material exploration: obstacles to be overcome by innovation, dialogue, and reform. The Innovative, Non-invasive and Fully Acceptable Exploration Technologies (INFACT) project, within the Horizon 2020 program, will work to mitigate each and every one of these obstacles.
Specific to exploration geophysics, the project will facilitate the development of innovative airborne geophysical and remote sensing technologies (less-invasive than classical exploration methods) that promise to penetrate to new depths, reach new sensitivities and resolve new parameters. The project will also set the EU as a leader on the world stage by establishing permanent infrastructure (reference sites) to drive innovation in the next generation of exploration tools: tools that are cost-effective, designed for EU conditions and its raw materials strategy, and high-performing in terms of minimum environmental impact, social acceptability, and technical performance. These reference sites will provide long-term targets over which successive new technologies can be tested against previous ones.
  • Poster
    2nd Conference on Geophysics for Mineral Exploration and Mining, 09.-12.09.2018, Porto, Portugal
    DOI: 10.3997/2214-4609.201802752

Publ.-Id: 29390 - Permalink


Investigations on potential methods for the long-term monitoring of the state of fuel elements in dry storage casks: recent results
Hampel, U.; Wagner, M.; Schmidt, S.; Fiß, D.; Reinicke, S.; Kratzsch, A.;
Until a repository is available in deep geological formations, there is a need in Germany for the safe interim storage of spent fuel elements at the power plant sites. It is assumed that considerable periods of more than 50 years will have to be taken into account. Spent fuel elements are stored in Germany in transport and storage casks of the CASTOR type.
A material-scientific question currently being investigated in depth internationally concerns the long-term integrity of the fuel rod cladding tubes during dry storage and thus the safety during transport to the final repository and during secondary packaging. The absorption of hydrogen in the cladding tube during reactor operation leads to the precipitation of hydrides. If the cladding tube temperature increases during reloading or dry storage, a radial reorientation of the hydrides is conceivable due to the tangential stresses caused by the internal rod pressure. This type of hydride arrangement considerably reduces the brittle fracture toughness. A long-term cladding tube failure is conceivable due to a long-term increase in the internal rod pressure (production of gaseous fission products) and a long-term decrease in the cladding tube temperature (reduction of brittle fracture toughness).
Due to the existing uncertainties with regard to the concrete physical processes, the question arises as to the possibility of monitoring the cask contents. Invasive procedures, such as internal probes, are mainly ruled out for reasons of licensing. On the other hand, the massive construction of the containers with a wall thickness of at least 47 cm on all sides limits the spectrum of non-invasive testing and condition monitoring procedures that can be used. Within the DCS-Monitor project, four non-invasive measuring methods are investigated with regard to their suitability for the condition monitoring of the cask inventory by simulations and experiments. For this purpose, damage scenarios of the cask inventory were assumed in a CASTOR V/19, which were identified on the basis of investigations on damage mechanisms. In the following, the recent investigation results of the project are presented.
  • Contribution to proceedings
    3rd Workshop on Safety of Extended Dry Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel, 05.-07.06.2019, Garching, Deutschland
  • Lecture (Conference)
    3rd Workshop on Safety of Extended Dry Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuel, 05.-07.06.2019, Garching, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 29389 - Permalink


Tunable large field magnetoconductance of ZnO, ZnMnO, and ZnCoO thin films
Vegesna, S. V.; Bürger, D.; Patra, R. K.; Dellith, J.; Abendroth, B.; Skorupa, I.; Schmidt, O. G.; Schmidt, H.;
Magnetoconductivity of ten ZnO, Zn1-x Cox O, and Zn1-x MnxO thin films with nominal concentrations of 2.0 at.% and 0.1 at.% of Co2+ and Mn2+ ions, respectively, has been analyzed in the temperature range from 5 K to 200 K in in-plane and out-of-plane magnetic fields up to 6 T. The formation of a highly conducting surface layer can be controlled during thin film deposition, leading to a large variation of the sheet resistance, namely, from 2 × 103 ω /□ to 1 × 10 5 ω/□ at room temperature. Depending on the thickness of the highly conducting surface layer, a single two-dimensional (2D), a single three-dimensional (3D), or a two-dimensional and three-dimensional (2D + 3D) parallel conducting model was chosen to analyze the measured magnetoconductivity of the magnetic ZnO thin films with different electron spins (S = 5 / 2 for Zn 1 - x Mn x O and S = 3 / 2 for Zn1-x Cox O) and with different Landé g -factors (isotropic for 3D Zn1-x Mnx O and 2D Zn1-x Cox O and anisotropic for 2D Zn1-x Mnx O and 3D Zn1-x Cox O).

Publ.-Id: 29383 - Permalink


Fundamentals and Applications of Hybrid LWFA-PWFA
Hidding, B.; Beaton, A.; Boulton, L.; Corde, S.; Doepp, A.; Habib, F. A.; Heinemann, T.; Irman, A.; Karsch, S.; Kirwan, G.; Knetsch, A.; Manahan, G. G.; Martinez De La Ossa, A.; Nutter, A.; Scherkl, P.; Schramm, U.; Ullmann, D.;
Fundamental similarities and differences between laser-driven plasma wakefield acceleration (LWFA) and particle-driven plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA) are discussed.
The complementary features enable the conception and development of novel hybrid plasma accelerators, which allow previously not accessible compact solutions for high quality electron bunch generation and arising applications. Very high energy gains can be realized by electron beam drivers even in single stages because PWFA is practically dephasing-free and not diffraction-limited.
These electron driver beams for PWFA in turn can be produced in compact LWFA stages. In various hybrid approaches, these PWFA systems can be spiked with ionizing laser pulses to realize tunable and high-quality electron sources via optical density downramp injection (also known as plasma torch) or plasma photocathodes (also known as Trojan Horse) and via wakefield-induced injection (also known as WII). These hybrids can act as beam energy, brightness and quality transformers, and partially have built-in stabilizing features. They thus offer compact pathways towards beams with unprecedented emittance and brightness, which may have transformative impact for light sources and photon science applications. Furthermore, they allow the study of PWFA-specific challenges in compact setups in addition to large linac-based facilities, such as fundamental beam–plasma interaction physics, to develop novel diagnostics, and to develop contributions such as ultralow emittance test beams or other building blocks and schemes which support future plasma-based collider concepts.
Keywords: plasma physics; accelerators; electron beams; light sources; photon science

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Publ.-Id: 29382 - Permalink


Which transition metal atoms can be embedded into two-dimensional molybdenum dichalcogenides and add magnetism?
Karthikeyan, J.; Komsa, H.-P.; Batzill, M.; Krasheninnikov, A. V.ORC
As compared to bulk solids, large surface-to-volume ratio of two-dimensional (2D) materials may open new opportunities for post-synthesis introduction of impurities into these systems by, e.g., vapor deposition. However, it does not work for graphene or h-BN, as the dopant atoms prefer clustering on the surface of the material instead of getting integrated into the atomic network. Using extensive first-principles calculations, we show that counterintuitively most transition metal (TM) atoms can be embedded into the atomic network of the pristine molybdenum dichalcogenides (MoDCs) upon atom deposition at moderate temperatures either as interstitials or substitutional im- purities, especially in MoTe2, which has the largest spacing between the host atoms. We further demonstrate that many impurity configurations have localized magnetic moments. By analyzing the trends in energetics and values of the magnetic moments across the periodic table, we rationalize the results through the values of TM atomic radii and the number of (s + d) electrons available for bonding, and suggest the most promising TMs for inducing magnetism in MoDCs. Our results are in line with the available experimental data and should further guide the experimental effort towards a simple post-synthesis doping of 2D MoDCs and adding new functionalities to these materials.
Keywords: 2D materials, electronic structure calcualtions

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  • Secondary publication expected from 24.06.2020

Publ.-Id: 29380 - Permalink


Application of Magnetism on Curved Surfaces
Makarov, D.;
Extending 2D structures into 3D space has become a general trend in multiple disciplines, including electronics, photonics, plasmonics and magnetics. This approach provides means to modify conventional or to launch novel functionalities by tailoring curvature and 3D shape. We study 3D curved magnetic thin films where new fundamental effects emerge from the interplay of the geometry of an object and topology of a magnetic sub-system. On the other hand, we explore the application potential of these 3D magnetic architectures for the realization of mechanically shapeable magnetoelectronics for automotive but also virtual and augmented reality appliances.
Keywords: flexible magnetoelectronics, virtual reality
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    European Forum for Science, Research and Innovation, 24.-25.06.2019, Dresden, Germany

Publ.-Id: 29375 - Permalink


A series of tetravalent Pu, Np, U and Th complexes of a salen type ligand
Radoske, T.ORC; Kaden, P.ORC; Walter, O.; Kloditz, R.; Patzschke, M.ORC; Stumpf, T.; März, J.ORC
Fundamental actinide (An) coordination chemistry is still rather scarcely explored though it can provide a deep insight into the bonding situation and bonding trends across the An series. Characteristic of actinides is their huge variety of possible oxidation states, typically ranging from +II to +VII for early An. A suitable approach to explore fundamental physical-chemical properties of actinides is to study series of isostructural An compounds in which the An possesses the same oxidation state. Changes in e.g. the binding situation or magnetic effects among the An series allow insights into their unique electronic properties mainly originating from the 5f-electrons. The tetravalent actinides (An(IV)) are particularly suitable for this kind of systematic studies, as this is the largest accessible series within the early actinides.
Against this background, we performed the current study focusing on a systematic comparison of isostructural An(IV) complexes of Th, U, Np and Pu with a salen type ligand (H2L).
All syntheses and characterizations are conducted under inert, water-free nitrogen atmosphere. SC-XRD results prove that an isostructural complex series was achieved with a molecular unit where two ligands coordinate tetradentately to the An with all oxygen and nitrogen donor atoms. The resulting eightfold coordination environment exhibits a distorted square antiprismatic coordination geometry around the An center. Moreover, the relevant complexes are characterized in solution by NMR spectroscopy displaying characteristic paramagnetic effects according to the unpaired f-electrons. Interestingly, the paramagnetic contributions to the 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts reach their maximum with [NpL2], and are drastically lower for [PuL2]. The acquired experimental results are further supported by quantum chemical calculations to study the electronic structure of the complexes.
Keywords: tetravalent actinide complexes coordination chemistry paramagnetic effects
  • Lecture (Conference)
    49èmes Journées des Actinides, 14.-18.04.2019, Erice, Italy

Publ.-Id: 29374 - Permalink


Cerebral Oxygen Metabolism Measurements with MRI in Adults with Sickle Cell Disease: PF742
Vaclavu, L.; Petersen, E.; Mutsaerts, H.; Petr, J.; Majoie, C.; Wood, J.; Vanbavel, E.; Nederveen, A.; Biemond, B.;
MRI studies have demonstrated a high prevalence of silent cerebral infarcts (SCI) in both children and adults with sickle cell disease (SCD). SCI are associated with cognitive impairment and lesion progression in adults with SCD. Disrupted oxygen transport can contribute to cerebral ischemic lesions, despite the compensatory elevation in cerebral blood flow (CBF) in SCD. Investigating the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) may therefore give insight into the hemodynamic etiology of SCI in SCD patients. We hypothesized that CMRO2 is reduced in adult patients with SCD as a result of chronic anemia and that vasodilation can improve CMRO2 by generating an increase in blood and oxygen flow.
  • Open Access LogoPoster
    24th Annual Congress of the European Hematology Association, 13.06.2019, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  • Open Access LogoContribution to proceedings
    24th Annual Congress of the European Hematology Association, 13.06.2019, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
    Hemasphere, 324-325
    DOI: 10.1097/01.HS9.0000561252.50212.c6

Publ.-Id: 29373 - Permalink


Using Agile Development Platforms for Continuous Integration, Code Review and Collaboration
Schlegel, F.;
The reality of scientific software development is of a more or less agile nature. As such, modern code development platforms such as GitHub or GitLab are a great fit to support this process. With their components (issues, projects, continuous integration, etc.) they match the agile development components, merge request enforce a cross-check for all code changes. While a lot of other development workflows are possible, this talk will present the best practice established for large and small projects at HZDR for using these platforms for software development projects.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Platform for Advanced Scientific Computing (PASC) Conference 2019, 12.-14.06.2019, Zürich, Schweiz

Publ.-Id: 29372 - Permalink


Synthesis and Reactivity of Tetravalent Actinide Amidinates
Schöne, S.ORC; März, J.; Kaden, P.
A series of tetravalent actinide amidinates was synthesized and characterized in solution and in solid state. Quantum chemical calculations support findings based on bonding analysis. Furthermore the reactivity of the complexes is presented.
  • Lecture (others)
    FENABIUM Projekttreffen März 2019, 27.02.2019, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 29371 - Permalink


Enantiopure Tetravalent Actinide Amidinates – Synthesis and Reactivity
Schöne, S.ORC; Kloditz, R.; März, J.; Kaden, P.; Patzschke, M.; Roesky, P. W.; Stumpf, T.
In contrast to the dominant trivalent state for the lanthanide series (Ln(III)), a wide variety of oxidation states (from II to VII) of actinides (An) makes their chemistry intricate but attractive. Especially the early An thorium (Th), uranium (U), neptunium (Np), and plutonium (Pu) form highly charged cations with the oxidation state +IV (An4+), which are of particular interest for coordination chemistry due to their strong interaction with ligands.
The focus of our investigations lies in the comprehensive characterization of An(IV) complexes with ligands bearing soft donor atoms, such as nitrogen (N), both in the solid state and in solution. The present study focuses particularly on the interaction of An(IV) (Th, U, Np) with N-donor ligands of amidinate type, which could be considered as a simplified model of naturally occurring N-donor organic compounds.
Recently, the trivalent lanthanide complexes with the chiral benzamidine, (S,S)-N,N‘-Bis-(1-phenylethyl)-benzamidine ((S)-HPEBA), have been successfully synthesized.[1,2] Mono- and bis-amidinate complexes of the later lanthanides (Er, Yb, Lu) were obtained using a salt metathesis approach. Only for the larger samarium(III) a homoleptic tris-amidinate was accessible.
We have extended this approach to the tetravalent An, and successfully synthesized the first transuranic amidinate complexes. Moreover, we have obtained the first enantiopure amidinate complexes of An(IV) [AnCl((S)-PEBA)3] (An = Th, U, and Np) as well as the analogous Ce(IV) compound, a chemical analog of An(IV). The tris-amidinate complexes have been structurally characterized in solid state and in solution showing a comparable complex geometry.
Due to the presence of a Cl- ligand in the An coordination sphere, it could be speculated that the complex should be reactive. Thus, the reactivity of the complexes has been demonstrated by successful reduction with potassium graphite to homoleptic trivalent actinide amidinates [An((S)-PEBA)3] (An = U, Np).
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Journées des Actinides 2019, 14.-18.04.2019, Erice, Italien

Publ.-Id: 29370 - Permalink


Comprehensive real space bonding analysis of tetravalent f-element complexes with Schiff-base ligands
Kloditz, R.; Radoske, T.; Patzschke, M.; Stumpf, T.;
The contribution of the f-orbitals to chemical bonding leads to the rich chemistry of the actinides. This is in contrast to the lanthanides, where it is known that this contribution is less important. Of special interest is the influence of these orbitals on the bonding character of actinides and lanthanides with organic ligands reflecting natural binding motifs.
This study compares the different bonding behavior of tetravalent actinides and lanthanides with the Schiff base salen (see Fig. 1, left) by means of real-space bonding analysis. Our approach makes use of the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM), plots of the non-covalent interactions (NCI) and density differences complemented by natural population analysis (NPA). Especially the local properties at the bond critical points (Fig. 1, right), for instance charge, density, ellipticity and others, can be used to characterize a bond’s order, strength, and covalent contribution. In addition, thermodynamic calculations on the stability of these complexes are presented since the difference in stability is a direct consequence of the different interaction strengths of the f elements.
First results reveal a strong interaction of the actinides, i.e. Th to Pu, with the oxygen of salen characterized by a high electron density concentration between the atoms. In contrast, the interaction between the actinides and the nitrogen of salen is much weaker. The delocalization index, density and Laplacian reveal a significant increase of covalency for Pa to Pu compared to Th and Ce being an indicator of the contribution of the f-electrons. Tetravalent Ce as a lanthanide analogue of Th is expected to show a similar bonding behavior, but, surprisingly, this is not the case for all investigated bonding properties.
Such a detailed analysis of the electronic properties of actinide compounds will help to improve understanding of their behavior in the environment as well as in technical processes and leads to the possibility to predict properties of unknown complexes.
Keywords: Actinides, Quantum chemistry, DFT, Bonding, Covalency
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Journees des Actinides, 14.-18.04.2019, Erice, Italien

Publ.-Id: 29369 - Permalink


Hybrid LWFA–PWFA staging as a beam energy and brightness transformer: conceptual design and simulations
Martinez De La Ossa, A.; Assmann, R. W.; Bussmann, M.; Corde, S.; Couperus Cabadağ, J. P.; Debus, A.; Döpp, A.; Ferran Pousa, A.; Gilljohann, M. F.; Heinemann, T.; Hidding, B.; Irman, A.; Karsch, S.; Kononenko, O.; Kurz, T.; Osterhoff, J.; Pausch, R.; Schöbel, S.; Schramm, U.ORC
We present a conceptual design for a hybrid laserdriven plasma wakefield accelerator (LWFA) to beam-driven plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA). In this set-up, the output beams from an LWFA stage are used as input beams of a new PWFA stage. In the PWFA stage, a new witness beam of largely increased quality can be produced and accelerated to higher energies. The feasibility and the potential of this concept is shown through exemplary particle-in-cell simulations.
In addition, preliminary simulation results for a proof-of-concept experiment in Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany) are shown.
Keywords: laser plasma accelerator, LWFA, PWFA

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  • Secondary publication expected from 25.06.2020

Publ.-Id: 29368 - Permalink


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