Publications Repository - Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf

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30007 Publications
Design of high-temperature solar-selective coatings based on aluminium titanium oxynitrides AlyTi1-y(OxN1-x). Part 2: Experimental validation and durability tests at high temperature
Escobar-Galindo, R.; Guillén, E.; Heras, I.; Rincón-Llorente, G.; Alcón-Camas, M.; Lungwitz, F.; Munnik, F.; Schumann, E.; Azkona, I.; Krause, M.
The durability of two solar-selective aluminium titanium oxynitride multilayer coatings was studied under conditions simulating realistic operation of central receiver power plants. The coatings were deposited by cathodic vacuum arc applying an optimized design concept for complete solar-selective coating (SSC) stacks. Compositional, structural and optical characterization of initial and final stacks was performed by scanning electron microscopy, elastic recoil detection, UV-Vis-NIR-IR spectrophotometry and X-Ray diffraction. The design concept of the solar selective coatings was validated by an excellent agreement between simulated and initial experimental stacking order, composition and optical properties.

Both SSC stacks were stable in single stage tests of 12 hours at 650°C. At 800°C, they underwent a structural transformation by full oxidation and they lost their solar selectivity. During cyclic durability tests, multilayer 1, comprised of TiN, Al0.64Ti0.36N and an Al1.37Ti0.54O top layer, fulfilled the performance criterion (PC) ≤ 5% for 300 symmetric, 3 hours long cycles at 600°C in air. Multilayer 2, which was constituted of four AlyTi1-y(OxN1-x) layers, met the performance criterion for 250 cycles (750 hours), but was more sensitive to these harsh conditions. With regard to the degradation mechanisms, the coarser microstructure of multilayer 1 is more resistant against oxidation than multilayer 2 with its graded oxygen content. These results confirm that the designed SSCs based on AlyTi1-y(OxN1-x) materials withstand breakdown at 600ºC in air. Therefore, they can be an exciting candidate material for concentrated solar power applications at high temperature.
Keywords: Solar selective coatings, thermal stability, optical properties, concentrated solar power, optical simulation, oxynitrides

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  • Secondary publication expected from 23.04.2019

Publ.-Id: 27734 - Permalink


Cluster tool for in situ processing and comprehensive characterization of thin films at high temperatures
Wenisch, R.; Lungwitz, F.; Hanf, D.; Heller, R.; Zscharschuch, J.; Hübner, R.; von Borany, J.; Abrasonis, G.; Gemming, S.; Escobar Galindo, R.; Krause, M.
A new cluster tool for in situ real-time processing and depth-resolved compositional, structural and optical characterization of thin films at temperatures from -100 to 800 °C is described. The implemented techniques comprise magnetron sputtering, ion irradiation, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, Raman spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry. The capability of the cluster tool is demonstrated for a layer stack MgO/ amorphous Si (~60 nm)/ Ag (~30 nm), deposited at room temperature and crystallized with partial layer exchange by heating up to 650°C. Its initial and final composition, stacking order and structure were monitored in situ in real time and a reaction progress was defined as a function of time and temperature.
Keywords: Cluster tool, thin films, in situ, high temperature, Rutherford backscattering, Raman spectroscopy, ellipsometry, metal-induced crystallization

Publ.-Id: 27732 - Permalink


Phytotoxicity of polymetallic mine wastes from southern Tuscany and Saxony
Franzaring⁠⁠, J.; Ancora⁠, S.; Paoli⁠, L.; Fongoh⁠, A. H.; Büttner⁠, P.; Fangmeier⁠, A.; Schlosser⁠, S.; Monaci, F.
Restoration potential of mine wastes or approaches to improve soil conditions and to ameliorate phytotoxicity on these sites may be simulated in standardized greenhouse experiments. Plants can be cultivated side by side on materials from different origins in dilution series with defined admixtures of certain aggregates. Mine wastes used in the present study originated from Fenice Capanne (FC, Tuscany, Italy) and Altenberg (ALT, Saxony, Germany). Tailings of the Italian site contain high concentrations of lead, zinc, arsenic and sulphur while tin, wolfram, molybdenum and lithium are highly elevated in the German mine waste. We tested growth responses of five crop species and analyzed concentrations of various metals and nutrients in the shoot to evaluate the toxicity of the FC mine waste and found oilseed rape being the most and corn the least resistant crop. Interestingly, oilseed rape accumulated seven times higher levels of lead than corn without showing adverse effects on productivity. In a subsequent comparison of FC and ALT mine waste, we cultivated different species of buckwheat (Fagopyrum spec.), a fast growing genus that evolved in mountain areas and that has been shown to be tolerant to low pH and high concentrations of metals. We found that the FC mine waste was more toxic than the ALT substrate in F. tataricum and F. esculentum. However, lower admixtures of FC material (10%) resulted in stronger growth reductions than higher proportions (25%) of the mine waste which was primarily related to the slightly lower pH and higher availability of essential metals due to the admixture of sand. These results confirm the importance of managing the soil chemical and physical characteristics of wastelands and call for the development of assisted reclamation to prepare sites for regular biomass production.
Keywords: Mine wastes, Phytoremediation, Heavy metals, Oilseed rape, Buckwheat, Soil amendment

Publ.-Id: 27721 - Permalink


Stability of melt flow during magnetic sonication in a floating zone configuration
Grants, I.; Gerbeth, G.
This paper considers the linear stability of a liquid metal flow driven by superimposed alternating and static axial magnetic fields in the floating zone configuration. A simple model is constructed that assumes a slight axial variation of the flow-driving radial magnetic force and a low-to-moderate skin effect. This force drives two symmetrical flow tori. Formation of the field-parallel layer is observed for a strong static field. In this regime the instability sets in as a standing azimuthal wave around the circumference of the cylindrical melt volume near its midplane. The length of this wave scales with the thickness of the parallel layer. The instability criterion may be formulated in terms of an interaction parameter reaching its critical value at around 525.
Keywords: -

Publ.-Id: 27720 - Permalink


High-speed X-ray CT imaging of a strongly cavitating nozzle flow
Bauer, D.; Barthel, F.; Hampel, U.
Examining or imaging of internal structures in flows with cavitation is still one of the greatest challenges in this field of research. In a specially designed nozzle, a strong cavitation region (CR) is generated with a liquid core (LC) in the center, surrounded by vapour. While it is almost not feasible to visualize the inside of the CR with visible light, it is shown that with high-speed X-ray computed tomography it is possible to visualize the dynamics of the unsteady cavitational flow structures inside the CR. The observed phenomena start with a ring of cavitation and small amounts of vapour inside the LC at / near the entrance of the cavitation channel. Further downstream the cavitation is growing rapidly and cavitation structures, as string cavitation can be identified inside the LC. In addition the results are compared with former time averaged CT images of the same nozzle and with results obtained with high-speed videography.
Keywords: Cavitation Flow, ROFEX, Ultrafast X-ray CT

Publ.-Id: 27719 - Permalink


A baseline closure concept for simulating bubbly flow with phase change: interfacial heat transfer coefficient
Liao, Y.; Krepper, E.; Lucas, D.
In line with the best practice guidelines for computational fluid dynamics in nuclear reactor safety, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden – Rossendorf proposed an Euler-Euler baseline closure concept some years ago. Simulations with a fixed set of closures may help to identify model inadequacy and facilitate the further improvement. Currently, the baseline model concerns interfacial momentum and turbulent kinetic energy exchange as well as bubble coalescence and breakup. It has been tested for a wide range of isothermal applications with different geometrical configurations and material systems. In the present work, the baseline model is extended to non-isothermal flows by including a heuristic model for interfacial heat transfer coefficient. The extended baseline model is validated for both bubble-growing in superheated liquid and -condensing in sub-cooled liquid. The baseline model proposal is independent on the use of a certain CFD code. The presented simulation is carried out with the commercial software ANSYS CFX by employing the best practice guidelines. The simulated liquid temperature, gas volume fraction, vapor bubble size and velocity are compared with the measured ones. The effectivity of the model is demonstrated by the general good agreement.
  • Contribution to proceedings
    CFD4NRS-7 OECD-NEA & IAEA Workshop, 04.-06.09.2018, Shanghai, China

Publ.-Id: 27711 - Permalink


Cfd modelling of flashing instability in natural circulation cooling systems
Liao, Y.; Schuster, C.; Hu, S.; Lucas, D.
Passive cooling systems driven by natural circulation are common design features of proposals for advanced reactors. The natural circulation systems are inherently more unstable than forced circulation ones due to its nonlinear nature and low driving force. Any disturbance, e.g. flashing or boiling inception, in the driving force will affect the flow which in turn will influence the driving force leading to an oscillatory behavior. Owing to safety concerns, flashing instability particularly for advanced boiling water reactors has been broadly investigated, and many test facilities have been constructed in the past. A number of numerical analyses of experimental test cases are available. Nevertheless, there exists a need to update the method from one-dimensional system codes to high-resolution computational fluid dynamics (CFD). In the present work flashing-induced instability behavior and flow pattern in the riser of the GENEVA facility, which is a downscale of a reactor containment passive cooling system, is investigated using the commercial CFD code ANSYS CFX. A two-fluid model is adopted for the unstable turbulent gas-liquid flow, and the HZDR baseline closure is used to model interphase mass, momentum, heat transfer as well as bubble-induced turbulence. The simulated fluid temperature, pressure and local void fraction at different heights of the riser are compared with the measured ones. The limitation and possibility of the CFD technique for such complex two-phase scenarios are discussed, and suggestions for improving the predictability of simulations are made.
  • Contribution to proceedings
    26th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering, ICONE26, 23.-26.07.2018, Hammersmith, London, England

Publ.-Id: 27710 - Permalink


Reprocessing of a southern Chilean Zn tailing by flotation - a case study
Babel, B.; Penz, M.; Schach, E.; Böhme, S.; Rudolph, M.
The reprocessing of tailings can have economic and environmental benefits compared to the processing of primary ore deposits. In this paper we present the characterization of a tailings dam in southern Chile by means of mineralogical and geochemical investigations focusing on sphalerite and trace elements with the aim to investigate a potential reprocessing. The assessment is followed by a flotation study, focusing on the recovery of sphalerite with a high selectivity towards sulfidic and non-sulfidic gangue minerals. An in-depth analysis of a selected test based on mineral liberation analysis data is used to refine the liberation, concentration and flotation weighting function for future investigations.
Keywords: Geometallurgy; Flotation; Sphalerite; Tailings; Reprocessing

Publ.-Id: 27707 - Permalink


Real space bonding and stability analysis of tetravalent f-element complexes with N-, O-donor ligands
Kloditz, R.; Radoske, T.; Patzschke, M.; Stumpf, T.
N-/O-donor ligands are promising complexing ligands for actinides in high-level liquid wastes. Especially the covalency of the An–N/O bonds and a comparison to lanthanides, e.g. Ce, is of interest for these complexes. Thus, the bond character for [M(salen)2] with M = Ce, Th, Pa, U, Np, Pu was investigated. Furthermore the stability of the complexes is compared and correlated with the bonding character.
Keywords: real-space bonding analysis, stability analysis, DFT, actinides, Schiff bases
  • Poster
    16th International Congress of Quantum Chemistry, 18.-23.06.2018, Menton, Frankreich

Publ.-Id: 27690 - Permalink


Investigation of a wetland contaminated by uranium mine tailings in Central France
Fichtner, A.; Sachs, S.; Rossberg, A.; Scheinost, A. C.; Arnold, T.; Montavon, G.; Stumpf, T.
The release of uranium from mine tailings may present a hazard to the environment, which is the reason for the monitoring of the relevant storage sites in many countries. Studying the behavior of released radionuclides at these sites serves to better estimate the local risk and can help to improve the understanding of the geochemistry of the involved contaminants, e.g. for the application in transport modelling.
The storage site Roffin, located in the Region of Auvergne, France, contains approximately 30 000 t of mill tailings from the adjacent processing plant of the same name, which operated from 1947 to 1956. After the shutdown of the plant, the responsible operator has remodeled the site several times over the decades, in order to meet updated environmental standards [1].
Recent gamma-ray surveys have shown elevated radiation levels alongside a creek downstream of the storage site, especially in a wetland area in some two hundred meters distance of the site. Drill cores taken in this area show uranium concentrations up to 2000 ppm in the upper 30 cm, with peak concentrations in a whitish,clayey layer with a thickness of about 5 cm at a depth of 20 cm. Besides this anomalous layer, the soil is of the histosol type, with very high contents of organic matter and mostly saturated with water. The goal of our study is to identify the involved uranium species in the solid and aqueous phases, in order to understand the influence of discharge history and geochemistry on the risk presented by this contamination.
Sequential extractions performed on the different layers of the soil following the protocol of Tessier et al. [2] indicate a majority of the uranium to be bound to soil organic matter. Yet scanning electron microscopy analysis (SEM) of the white layer shows the presence of particles containing high uranium concentrations with sizes around 10 μm. Energy dispersive X-ray spectra (EDS) of some of these particles give compositions corresponding to a specific mineral processed in the plant, which is Parsonsite [Pb2(UO2)(PO4)2]. Dating the soil with the C-14 of the soil organic matter and the depth profile of Cs-137 from nuclear fallout further suggests that the origin of the white layer is connected to the active period of the site. X-ray absorption spectroscopy performed on the soil shows a variable distribution of U(IV) and U(VI) in the different layers. Porewater obtained by centrifugation contains uranium concentrations up to 1000 ppb.
Further studies aim to quantify the distribution of uranium between the different solid phases of the soil, as well as the identification of the main species in the porewater.

[1] Himeur, N., Andres, C.: Bilan environnemental - Sites miniers du Puy-de-Dôme. AREVA Operational Report (2010).
[2] Tessier, A., Campbell, P.G.C., Bisson, M.: Sequential Extraction Procedure for the Speciation of Particulate Trace Metals. Anal. Chem. (1979) Issue 51, pp. 844-851.
Keywords: Uranium, wetland, mine tailing, speciation, characterization
  • Contribution to proceedings
    RadChem 2018-18th Radiochemical Conference, 13.-18.05.2018, Mariánské Lázně, Czech Republic
    Czech Chemical Society Symposium Series, 18th Radiochemical Conference, Mariánské Lázně, Czech Republic, 13-18 May 2018, Booklet of Abstracts, 214
  • Poster
    RadChem 2018-18th Radiochemical Conference, 13.-18.05.2018, Mariánské Lázně, Czech Republic
  • Poster
    8. RCA-Workshop, 12.-14.06.2018, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 27689 - Permalink


Zero Overhead Modern C++ for Mapping to Any Programming Model
Huebl, A.ORC; Matthes, A.ORC; Worpitz, B.; Zenker, E.ORC; Widera, R.ORC; Juckeland, G.ORC; Bussmann, M.ORC
Towards exascale computing, today's HPC systems have become heterogeneous and diverse. Accounting for both host and accelerator, the TOP10 supercomputers in 11/2017 alone provided as much as 11 different computing architectures. On top of the hardware follow the accompanying programming models: from directive based, implicit and explicit descriptions up to task-based. Scientific code developers are facing a tough choice as commitment to a specific hardware and/or programming model narrows down potential target systems. With limited development resources but usually multi-decade long project lifetimes, maintaining multiple implementations of the same algorithms to widen platform support is unfeasible for most teams. Alpaka is a standard C++, compile-time meta-programming library providing a unified, explicit, parallel programming model. On typical MPI+X parallelized applications, Alpaka enables developers to describe shared-memory, in-node parallelism. Zero-overhead abstraction is achieved by compile-time specializing C++ templates to native backends (e.g. CUDA, OpenMP, TBB, ...). Alpaka stays with modern C++ as a standardized, widely supported language without introducing pre-processor or pragma-based annotations to the user directly. It naturally allows inlining, kernel fusion and code-reuse on a single-source programming paradigm. With such, abstractions and control within the final software stack are achievable without duplicating implementations leading to a maintainable code base even for large applications.
Keywords: HPC, performance portability, programming model, open source, alpaka, cuda, gpu, openpower, portability, high performance computing
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Platform for Advanced Scientific Computing (PASC) Conference 2018, 02.-04.07.2018, Basel, Switzerland
    DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.1304272

Publ.-Id: 27685 - Permalink


Wide acceptance measurement of K/K+ ratio from Ni+Ni collisions at 1.91A GeV
Piasecki, K.; Herrmann, N.; Averbeck, R.; Andronic, A.; Barret, V.; Basrak, Z.; Bastid, N.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Berger, M.; Buehler, P.; Cargnelli, M.; Čaplar, R.; Cordier, E.; Crochet, P.; Czerwiakowa, O.; Deppner, I.; Dupieux, P.; Dželalija, M.; Fabbietti, L.; Fodor, Z.; Gasik, P.; Gašparić, I.; Grishkin, Y.; Hartmann, O. N.; Hildenbrand, K. D.; Hong, B.; Kang, T. I.; Kecskemeti, J.; Kim, Y. J.; Kirejczyk, M.; Kiš, M.; Koczon, P.; Korolija, M.; Kotte, R.; Lebedev, A.; Leifels, Y.; Le Fèvre, A.; Liu, J. L.; Lopez, X.; Mangiarotti, A.; Manko, V.; Marton, J.; Matulewicz, T.; Merschmeyer, M.; Münzer, R.; Pelte, D.; Petrovici, M.; Rami, F.; Reischl, A.; Reisdorf, W.; Ryu, M. S.; Schmidt, P.; Schüttauf, A.; Seres, Z.; Sikora, B.; Sim, K. S.; Simion, V.; Siwek-Wilczyńska, K.; Smolyankin, V.; Stoicea, G.; Suzuki, K.; Tymiński, Z.; Wagner, P.; Weber, I.; Widmann, E.; Wiśniewski, K.; Xiao, Z. G.; Xu, H. S.; Yushmanov, I.; Zhang, Y.; Zhilin, A.; Zinyuk, V.; Zmeskal, J.
The FOPI Collaboration at GSI SIS-18 synchrotron measured the charged kaons from central and semi-central collisions of Ni+Ni at the beam energy of 1.91A GeV. We present the distribution of K−/K+ ratio on the plane of energy vs polar angle in the nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass frame, with and without the subtraction of the contribution of φ(1020) meson decays to the K− yield. The acceptance of the current experiment is substantially wider compared to the previous measurement of the same colliding system. The K−/K+ ratio is expected to be sensitive to the in-medium modifications of basic kaon properties like mass. Recent results obtained by the HADES Collaboration at 1.23A and 1.76A GeV indicate, that no mass-shift effect is needed to explain the difference between energy slopes of charged kaon spectra within uncertainties. The K−/K+ ratios obtained in this experiment, even after correction for the contribution due to the φ(1020) meson decays, decrease with increasing kinetic energy, as generally predicted in models assuming mass modifications.

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Publ.-Id: 27681 - Permalink


Two-phase flow experiments and measuring techniques @ HZDR
Lucas, D.
TOPFLOW-experiments on vertical pipes and within the TOPFLOW pressure chamber are presented. Innovative measuring techniques as wire-mesh sensors and ultrafast X-ray tomography provide detailed information on the interfacial structure in gas-liquid flows. Details on these measuring techniques are discussed and experiments on flows under adiabatic conditions as well as flows with phase transfer are presented.
Keywords: wire-mesh sensor, ultrafast X-ray tomography, pipe flow, pressure chamber, TOPFLOW
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Lectures on multiphase CFD at Central South University, School of Energy Science and Engineering, 06.-08.06.2018, Changsha, China

Publ.-Id: 27676 - Permalink


The Institute of Fluid Dynamics at HZDR
Lucas, D.
The Institute of Fluid Dynamics within the HZDR was introduced in frame of a lecture series at Central South University inn Changsha, China. Special focus was on the activities of the CFD-department.
Keywords: HZDR, multiphase flow, CFD
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Lectures on multiphase CFD at Central South University, School of Energy Science and Engineering, 06.06.2018, Changsha, China

Publ.-Id: 27675 - Permalink


CFD-modelling for bubbly flows in medium and large scales
Lucas, D.; Liao, Y.; Ma, T.; Krepper, E.; Ziegenhein, T.
For gas-liquid flows in large and medium scale industrial applications the Euler-Euler approach is frequently used and for many problems it is the only feasible one. During the derivation of the basic conservation equations the information on the interface gets lost and all interfacial exchange between gas and liquid has to be reflected by appropriate closure models. They have to reflect local phenomena that usually are similar in different global flow situations as bubble columns, pipe flows and others. For this reason a unified setup for closure models should be applicable without any modification for such a spectrum of flow situations. The HZDR baseline model for bubbly flows defines such a set of closures. It was applied to more than 150 different cases indicating a good overall performance, but showing also the limits of the present model. For this reason the model has to be improved continuously.
Recently a new model for bubble-induced turbulence in the RANS framework was included into the baseline model. It was developed basing on DNS of a bubbly channel flow. Other activities aim on the lateral lift force, which is closely connected to the bubble shape. Weak points in the present setup are the near wall simulation and the consideration of swarm effects. For these issues more basic research is required to improve the understanding of the phenomena and to derive better closure models. The present model also shows clear deviations from experimental findings for cases with high liquid superficial velocities which are connected with large gradients in the liquid flow field and a high turbulence level.
The focus of the presentation is on recent and ongoing activities to improve closure models and on the requirements for further improvements.
Keywords: CFD, bubbly flow, Euler-Euler, baseline
  • Lecture (Conference)
    8th European-Japanese Two-Phase Flow Group Meeting, 22.-26.04.2018, New York, USA

Publ.-Id: 27672 - Permalink


Rohstoff-Forschung in Freiberg: „Excellent with the potential to become outstanding“
Gutzmer, J.
The presentation is an invited keynote for the 12. Sächsischer Rohstofftag organised by the Geokompetenzzentrum Freiberg. The presentation focused on the interaction of different stakeholders in the resource technology landscape in Freiberg, including research, education and public institutions such as geological survey or the mining authority. Case studies were presented to illustrate the process and success of interaction. Recommendations were given to illustrate how the stakeholders could collaborate even more effectively.
Keywords: Freiberg, Saxony, resource technology
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    12. Sächsischer Rohstofftag, 21.-22.06.2018, Dresden, Germany

Publ.-Id: 27666 - Permalink


Attachment of colloidal particles to a fluidic interface – Aplication to the flotation process
Lecrivain, G.; Yamamoto, R.; Taniguchi, T.; Hampel, U.
The attachment of colloidal particles to the fluidic surface of immersed fluid droplets is central to a wide variety of industrial applications, among which stand out the stabilisation of emulsion (Jansen et al., 2011) and the recovery of minerals by gas bubbles (Albijanic et al., 2010), a process known as forth flotation. Flotation, which is here of primary interest, is a separation process which plays a major role in the mining industry. It is employed to recover a vast array of different valuable commodities such as rare earth minerals essential to the manufacture of high-tech products. The process essentially involves the attachment of hydrophobised colloidal particles to the surface of rising air bubbles. The commercially valueless hydrophilic material settles down the flotation. Experimental and numerical works dealing with the attachment of spherical and non-spherical particles to a fluidic interface are here presented (See Figure 1). Using an optical microbubble sensor the various microprocesses (Lecrivain et al, 2015) associated with the colloidal attachment of elongated fibres are first investigated. In a second stage, direct numerical simulations are used to simulate the dynamics of such particles at a fluidic interface. Unlike spherical colloidal particles, it is found that plate-like particles attach more rapidly to a fluidic interface and are subsequently harder to dislodge when subject to an external force.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Jahrestreffen Merseburg / Jahrestreffen der ProcessNet-Fachgruppen Mechanische Flüssigkeitsabtrennung, Trocknung und Grenzflächenbestimmte Systeme und Prozesse, 26.-28.02.2018, Halle-Merseburg, Germany

Publ.-Id: 27664 - Permalink


Silver Accumulation in the Green Microalga Coccomyxa actinabiotis: Toxicity, in Situ Speciation, and Localization Investigated Using Synchrotron XAS, XRD, and TEM
Leonardo, T.; Farhi, E.; Pouget, S.; Motellier, S.; Boisson, A. M.; Banerjee, D.; Rebeille, F.; Den Auwer, C.; Rivasseau, C.
Microalgae are good candidates for toxic metal remediation biotechnologies.
This study explores the cellular processes implemented by the green microalga Coccomyxa actinabiotis to take up and cope with silver over the concentration range of 10−7 to 10−2 M Ag+. Understanding these processes enables us to assess the potential of this microalga for applications for bioremediation. Silver in situ speciation and localization were investigated using X-ray absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Silver toxicity was evaluated by monitoring microalgal growth and photochemical parameters. Different accumulation mechanisms were brought out depending on silver concentration. At low micromolar concentration, microalgae fixed all silver initially present in solution, trapping it inside the cells into the cytosol, mainly as unreduced Ag(I) bound with molecules containing sulfur. Silver was efficiently detoxified. When concentration increased, silver spread throughout the cell and particularly entered the chloroplast, where it damaged the photosystem. Most silver was reduced to Ag(0) and aggregated to form crystalline silver nanoparticles of face-centered cubic structure with a mean size of 10 nm. An additional minor interaction of silver with molecules containing sulfur indicated the concomitant existence of the mechanism observed at low concentration or nanoparticle capping. Nanoparticles were observed in chloroplasts, in mitochondria, on the plasma membrane, on cytosolic membrane structures, and in vacuoles. Above 10−4MAg+, damages were irreversible, and photosynthesis and growth were definitely inhibited. However, high silver amounts remained confined inside microalgae, showing their potential for the bioremediation of contaminated water.
Keywords: Algae Ag Coccomyxa actinabiotis EXAFS

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  • Secondary publication expected

Publ.-Id: 27656 - Permalink


A novel fluorescence anisotropy‐based assay to investigate the GTP-binding site of human tissue transglutaminase
Hauser, C.; Kasprzyk, R.; Wodtke, R.; Kowalska, J.; Löser, R.; Jemielity, J.; Pietsch, M.
Tissue transglutaminase (TGase 2) is a multifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the formation of covalent crosslinks between protein-bound glutamine and primary amine substrates (transamidase activity) but also functions as a GTP-binding protein (Gh protein). These two functions are associated with an “open” and a “closed” conformation, respectively, being tightly regulated by Ca2+ and GDP/GTP levels. In recent years, several assays for the transamidase activity have been published [1], leaving the GTP-binding function virtually untouched.
Here, we report a novel assay to quantify the GTP-binding activity of human TGase 2, which follows the increase in fluorescence anisotropy of an optimized fluorescein-labeled GTP probe upon binding to the protein. Validity of the assay was ensured by means of the (endogenous) ligands GTP, GTPγS and GDP showing inhibitory potencies (IC50) for displacement of the new probe comparable to reported values [2]. ATP, commonly not considered as being an inhibitor of TGase 2, was found to diminish binding of the probe to TGase 2 at unphysiologically high concentrations. The binding assay was then applied for the characterization of a small library of GDP and GTP analogs to obtain structure-activity relationships.
In addition, assays quantifying the transamidase [3] and GTP-binding activities, respectively, were subjected to a titration with calcium chloride (Ca2+) to elucidate its influence on the conformation of TGase 2. Exclusive interaction of ligands/substrates with the GTP binding site and with the active site were found in the absence of Ca2+ and at [Ca2+] > 10 mM, respectively. Both assays exhibit an activity of ~60% at [Ca2+] = 0.5 mM, with this intermediate calcium concentration being applicable to identify ligands of both the active and the GTP-binding site at the same time. This finding was confirmed in both assays by means of GTPγS and recently reported N6-acryloyllysine piperazides [4,5] shown to irreversibly interact with the active-site cysteine residue.


[1] Pietsch et al., Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2013, 23, 6528.
[2] Schaertl et al., J. Biomol. Screen. 2010, 15, 478.
[3] Hauser et al., Amino Acids 2017, 49, 567.
[4] Wityak et al., ACS Med. Chem. Lett. 2012, 3, 1024.
[5] Wodtke et al., J. Med. Chem. 2018, accepted.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Transglutaminases in Human Disease Processes, 17.-21.06.2018, Les Diablerets, Schweiz

Publ.-Id: 27652 - Permalink


Advanced thermal processing of group-IV materials and beyond
Rebohle, L.; Skorupa, W.; Prucnal, S.; Berencén, Y.; Zhou, S.; Helm, M.
One of the main issues in semiconductor research is doping and crystallization. To meet the high standards of today’s microelectronic industry, especially in the context of nanostructures, more and more non-equilibrium processing technologies has been entered. This applies, above all, to thermal processing which usually has to activate dopants and anneal out defects, but has to suppress diffusion and segregation at the same time. This presentation is focused on the use of millisecond flash lamp annealing (FLA) for advanced thermal processing of group-IV materials including Si, Ge and GeSn alloys. FLA is able to exceed the solid solubility limit of dopants which is discussed for the cases of P and Sn in thin Ge films as well as for Se in Si nanowires. Moreover, the specific conditions of FLA determine whether a thin amorphous film on a crystalline substrate, e.g. an amorphous Ge layer on Ge after ion implantation, recrystallizes in a poly- or monocrystalline way. Finally, perspectives of FLA for other materials will be presented.
Keywords: flash lamp annealing, ion implantation, hyperdoping of silicon, Sn doping of germanium, silicon nanowire
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    European Materials Research Society Spring Meeting 2018, 18.-22.06.2018, Strasbourg, France

Publ.-Id: 27648 - Permalink


Crystallization of thin amorphous silicon films on glass by magnetron sputtering and flash lamp annealing
Rebohle, L.; Neubert, M.; Schumann, T.; Skorupa, W.
Flash lamp annealing (FLA) is an innovative annealing method already used in semiconductor industry, for flexible electronics and for thin, functional coatings on glass. Due to the short time scale of milliseconds, FLA is cost and time effective, suitable for temperature-sensible substrates and allows the exploitation of non-equilibrium crystallization processes.
In this contribution we present a new approach in which magnetron sputtering is combined with FLA. In detail, thin polycrystalline Si films have been fabricated and characterized with respect to their structural, optical and electrical properties. Special focus is set on the non-equilibrium crystallization process within the millisecond time scale. Furthermore, strategies to avoid thermal stress, to minimize defects and to obtain layers with a low electrical resistivity are discussed.
Keywords: flash lamp annealing, magnetron sputtering, amorphous silicon
  • Lecture (Conference)
    European Materials Research Society Spring Meeting 2018, 18.-22.06.2018, Strasbourg, France

Publ.-Id: 27647 - Permalink


Sputtering in combination with flash lamp annealing for thin film deposition on glass
Rebohle, L.; Neubert, M.; Schumann, T.; Skorupa, W.
Flash lamp annealing (FLA) is an innovative annealing method already used in semiconductor industry, for flexible electronics and for thin, functional coatings on glass. Due to the short time scale of milliseconds, FLA is cost and time effective, suitable for temperature-sensible substrates and allows the exploitation of non-equilibrium processes. Recently, FLA was combined with atomic layer deposition to improve the properties and functionality of thin films by in-situ annealing.
In this contribution we present a new approach in which magnetron sputtering is combined with FLA. Whereas the first part covers technological aspects of this new approach, the second part reports on first experiments to fabricate thin films (e.g. polycrystalline silicon) on glass carriers and thin glass foils. The improvement of sputtered films by post-deposition treatment is a general issue in order to achieve the desired structural, optical and electrical properties. In detail, the functionalization process on the millisecond time scale and strategies to avoid thermal stress, to minimize defects and to obtain layers with a low electrical resistivity are discussed.
Keywords: Flash lamp annealing, magnetron sputtering, amorphes Silicon,
  • Poster
    ICCG 12 – Conference on Coatings on Glass and Plastics, 11.-15.06.2018, Würzburg, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 27646 - Permalink


The Precession Dynamo Experiment at HZDR
Giesecke, A.; Vogt, T.; Gundrum, T.; Stefani, F.
Cosmic magnetic fields are ubiquitous phenomena that are observed on all scales, from planets and stars to galaxies and clusters of galaxies. The origin of these fields involves the formation of electrical currents by means of complex flows of conducting fluids or plasmas.
Fluid flow induced magnetic fields via this dynamo effect have also been observed in experiments, which, however, require considerable technical efforts due to the significantly smaller scales available in the laboratory. The project DRESDYN (DREsden Sodium facility for DYNamo and thermohydraulic studies) conducted at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) provides a new platform for a variety of liquid sodium experiments devoted to problems of geo- and astrophysical magnetohydrodynamics. The most ambitious experiment within this project is a precession driven dynamo experiment that currently is under construction and will consist of a cylinder filled with liquid sodium that simultaneously rotates around two axes. The experiment is motivated by the idea of a precession-driven flow as a complementary energy source for the geodynamo or the ancient lunar dynamo.
In our presentation we will address corresponding numerical and experimental examinations aimed at an optimization of the precession driven flow with regard to improve the dynamo process in the planned experiment. Both approaches show that in the strongly nonlinear regime the flow is essentially composed of the directly forced primary Kelvin mode and higher modes in terms of standing inertial waves that arise from nonlinear self-interactions. A peculiarity is the resonance-like emergence of an axisymmetric mode that represents a double roll structure in the meridional plane. Kinematic simulations of the magnetic field evolution induced by the time-averaged flow yield dynamo action at critical magnetic Reynolds numbers around Rm_crit ∼430, which is well within the range of the planned liquid sodium experiment.
Keywords: Dynamo Precession DRESDYN
  • Lecture (Conference)
    The Third Russian Conference on Magnetohydrodynamics, 18.-21.06.2018, Perm, Russia

Publ.-Id: 27645 - Permalink


Sensitive, Selective and Biodegradable – New biosorbents for metal recovery
Braun, R.ORC; Matys, S.ORC; Schoenberger, N.; Jain, R.; Lederer, F.ORC; Pollmann, K.ORC
Low concentrated heavy metal ions are causing diverse problems for conventional metal processing. Artificial peptides with metal binding affinities are a new, innovative challenger for conventional metal recovery. They combine high specificity and sensitivity and being biodegradable, they do not add additional environmental pressure, therefore they are of high potential for geobiotechnology.
Here, we aimed for the development of novel peptidic bio-materials for the recovery of cobalt and nickel. Combining Phage Surface Display Technology (PSD) with deep sequencing approaches, suitable sequences were identified and genetically optimized for heterologous expression and production. Methods used for characterizing the peptide metal interaction, were e.g. quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and UV/Vis spectroscopy. Our system can be adapted to many different purposes/materials and the identified motifs can provide information for a deeper understanding of bio-inorganic interactions, leading to the discovery of novel metal-interacting biomolecules.
Introduction. With biomining first applie
Keywords: phage display; biosorption; peptide; biohydrometallurgy; metallopeptide; metal binding, bioremediation
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Sustainable Minerals '19, 14.-15.06.2018, Windhoek, Namibia

Publ.-Id: 27644 - Permalink


Heavy metal binding peptides – biosorbents with economic and ecological potential
Braun, R.ORC; Matys, S.ORC; Schoenberger, N.; Jain, R.; Lederer, F.ORC; Pollmann, K.ORC
Critical heavy metal concentrations can be found in environmental and/or industrial systems. Removal of metals for detoxification (bioremediation) and recovery of metals (geobiotechnology) from natural water bodies or waste waters is challenging because of low concentrated metal ions. Artificial peptides, that are able to bind metal ions, are of great potential as they combine unique sensitivity and high specificity.
Here we present the development of peptide-based biosorptive materials for heavy metal removal, including identification, adaptation and characterization of specific peptides binding nickel and cobalt. Using Phage Surface Display (PSD) and deep sequencing we identified and produced metal binding peptides. Metal-peptide interactions were studied using e.g. quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D), and UV/Vis spectroscopy. With this study we provide a system that can be adapted to other materials and knowledge about the nature of metal-peptide interaction, which may lead to the discovery of novel metal-interacting biomolecules, e.g. enzymes and peptides.
Keywords: phage display; biosorption; peptide; biohydrometallurgy; metallopeptide; metal binding, bioremediation
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Biohydrometallurgy '18, 12.-13.06.2018, Windhoek, Namibia

Publ.-Id: 27643 - Permalink


Sensitive, selective and biodegradable – new biosorbents for metal recovery
Braun, R.ORC; Matys, S.ORC; Schoenberger, N.; Jain, R.; Lederer, F.ORC; Pollmann, K.ORC
Low concentrated heavy metal ions are causing diverse problems for conventional metal processing. Artificial peptides with metal binding affinities are a new, innovative challenger for conventional metal recovery. They combine high specificity and sensitivity and being biodegradable, they do not add additional environmental pressure, therefore they are of high potential for geobiotechnology.
Here, we aimed for the development of novel peptidic bio-materials for the recovery of cobalt and nickel. Combining Phage Surface Display Technology (PSD) with deep sequencing approaches, suitable sequences were identified and genetically optimized for heterologous expression and production. Methods used for characterizing the peptide metal interaction, were e.g. quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and UV/Vis spectroscopy. Our system can be adapted to many different purposes/materials and the identified motifs can provide information for a deeper understanding of bio-inorganic interactions, leading to the discovery of novel metal-interacting biomolecules.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    69. BHT - Freiberger Universitätsforum, 06.-08.06.2018, Freiberg, Germany

Publ.-Id: 27642 - Permalink


Heavy metal biosorbents – New approaches for old problems
Braun, R.ORC; Matys, S.ORC; Jain, R.; Schoenberger, N.; Lederer, F.ORC; Pollmann, K.
Low concentrations of heavy metal ions are causing diverse problems from the environmental and economic viewpoints. Conventional metal processing is complicated, both from a technical and economic perspective with low heavy metal concentrations e.g. in mine tailing waste waters. Additionally, even in low concentrations particular heavy metal ions are highly toxic and do have a severe influence on environmental systems. Artificial peptides with special metal binding affinities are therefore a new, innovative challenger for conventional metal recovery methods. They combine high specificity and sensitivity and being biodegradable, they do not add additional environmental pressure, therefore they are of high potential both for geobiotechnology and bioremediation.
In the present study we aimed for the development of novel bio-based materials of peptidic nature for the recovery of cobalt and nickel. Combining Phage Surface Display Technology (PSD) with deep sequencing approaches, suitable sequences were identified and subsequently genetically optimized for heterologous expression, production and purification. Different methods were used for characterizing the peptide metal interaction, e.g. quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D), fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) and UV/Vis spectroscopy. The developed system can be adapted to many different purposes and desired materials and the identified motifs can provide information for a deeper understanding of bio-inorganic interactions, potentially leading to the discovery of novel metal-interacting biomolecules, e.g. enzymes and peptides.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    3rd Green & Sustainable Chemistry Conference, 13.-16.05.2018, Berlin, Germany

Publ.-Id: 27641 - Permalink


A simple route to synchronized nucleation of self-catalyzed GaAs nanowires on Si for sub-Poissonian length distributions
Tauchnitz, T.ORC; Berdnikov, Y.; Dubrovskii, V. G.ORC; Schneider, H.; Helm, M.; Dimakis, E.ORC
The achievement of sub-Poissonian length distributions (LDs) in VLS-grown III-V nanowire (NW) ensembles, as theoretically predicted by Glas and Dubrovskii, requires synchronized nucleation of all NWs on their substrate. This is especially challenging for self-catalyzed GaAs NWs on a natively-oxidized Si(111) substrate because their nucleation involves a sequence of different physical mechanisms: the formation of Ga droplets at random positions on the substrate, their interaction with SiOx and the formation of nano-sized holes, and finally the droplet-assisted nucleation of GaAs inside these holes.
Here, we demonstrate that it is possible to achieve highly-synchronized nucleation of MBE-grown GaAs NWs and, thus, very narrow LDs if a simple in situ procedure is employed prior to the growth in order to decouple the formation of SiOx holes from the subsequent nucleation of NWs. This procedure consists of three steps (substrate annealing – Ga deposition – substrate annealing) and produces SiOx holes (free of Ga droplets) of controlled size and number density.
Our study compares the LD of GaAs NWs grown on Si substrates with different size or number density of SiOx holes. The results were fitted with a continuum-growth theoretical model that accounts for nucleation fluctuations, kinetic fluctuations and nucleation antibunching in individual NWs. We have found that the formation of large-enough holes before the initiation of the NW growth can shorten the characteristic nucleation time of the NWs by one order of magnitude and narrow the LD by a factor of 2. The LD was further improved by decreasing the number density of SiOx holes/GaAs NWs, which is attributed to the suppression of beam-shadowing effects. In the best case, we obtained GaAs NWs that exhibit a remarkably short characteristic nucleation time of 10 ms and a sub-Poissonian LD. All in all, our results (unpublished) not only prove the validity of theoretical considerations about the sub-Poissonian LD for self-catalyzed NWs, but also demonstrate a simple route to low-cost fabrication (without substrate patterning) of GaAs NW-based devices with controllable number density and length uniformity.
Keywords: surface modification, SiOx holes, synchronized nucleation
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Nanowire Week 2018, 11.-15.06.2018, Hamilton, Ontario, Kanada

Publ.-Id: 27640 - Permalink


Preparation of nanowire cross-sections by ultramicrotomy
Formanek, P.; Hübner, R.; Balaghi, L.; Wagner, J.; Dimakis, E.
Preparation of nanowire cross-sections by ultramicrotomy
  • Lecture (others)
    6. Sächsisches TEM-Präparatorentreffen, 10.04.2018, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 27639 - Permalink


DFT studies on the nature of Y-Ti-O nanoclusters in bcc Fe
Vallinayagam, M.; Posselt, M.; Faßbender, J.
Nanostructured Ferritic Alloys (NFA) are promising candidates for structural materials of future fusion and fission reactors. They consist of a ferritic or ferritic/martensitic Fe-Cr matrix with a high dispersion of nanometer-size yttria-based oxide particles. In this research project the nature of the yttria-based oxide nanoclusters in a bcc Fe matrix is investigated by Density Functional Theory (DFT). The main goal of the studies is the better understanding of structure, energetics and composition of the clusters.
In the first part of the work three types of structures are considered: (i) clusters consisting of parts of the bixbyite (Y2O3) or pyrochlore (Y2Ti2O7) structure embedded in bcc Fe, (ii) clusters with Y, Ti, and O on bcc sites, and (iii) clusters with of Y, Ti, on bcc sites and O on octahedral interstitial sites of the bcc lattice. Simulation cells containing the three different structures but the same composition of atoms (Fe, Y, Ti, O) are considered, and relaxation calculations are performed using the DFT code VASP. It is found that in the three cases the energetics, i.e. the total binding energy of the clusters, is very similar. This contradicts the statement of Barnard et al. [1] that type (i) structures are most favorable. Further alternative cluster models with a core similar to the NaCl structure and an oxygen atom in the center are constructed and investigated in the second part of the work. For the compositions considered some of these clusters are more stable than those investigated before. Finally, the binding energy of O, Y, Ti atoms, and of the vacancy to selected cluster structures was studied. Oxygen and the vacancy are strongly attracted by the nanoclusters, while the interaction with metal atoms is weaker.
[1] L. Barnard et al. Acta Mater. 60, 935 (2012)
Keywords: Y-Ti-O nanoclusters in Fe, Density Functional Theory
  • Poster
    The 14th International Conference on Computer Simulation of Radiation Effects in Solids (COSIRES 2018), 18.-22.06.2018, Shanghai, China

Publ.-Id: 27634 - Permalink


Diffusion of oxygen in bcc Fe under the influence of other foreign atoms
Wang, X.; Posselt, M.; Faßbender, J.
Density Functional Theory (DFT) and Atomistic Kinetic Monte Carlo (AKMC) simulations are applied to investigate the diffusion of oxygen in bcc Fe under the influence of substitutional foreign atoms, such as Al, Si, P, S, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Y, Mo, and W. These atoms are assumed to be immobile since their diffusion coefficient is much smaller than that of oxygen.
In the first part of the work jumps of oxygen in pure bcc Fe, between first-, second-, and third-neighbor octahedral interstitial sites are investigated by DFT. It is found that the first-neighbor jump is most relevant with the tetrahedral site as the saddle point. The second-neighbor jump consists of two consecutive first-neighbor jumps whereas the barrier of the third-neighbor jump is too high to be significant for the diffusion process. In the second part DFT is applied to determine the modified migration barriers, i.e. for the oxygen jump between the first and the second neighbor of the substitutional foreign atom, etc. Si, P, Ni, Mo and W influence the migration barriers of oxygen and their interaction energy with O is mainly repulsive. While Al, Cr and Mn have also a significant influence on the barriers they show strong attractive interactions. The strongest modification of the barriers is found for S, Ti, and Y where deep attractive states exist. At large distance from the solutes the O migration barriers converge to the value for pure Fe. The most relevant migration paths are first-neighbor jumps between (modified) octahedral sites with (modified) tetrahedral sites as saddle points. Finally, the diffusion coefficient of oxygen is determined by AKMC simulations on a rigid lattice, considering a dilute iron alloy and using the migration barriers calculated by DFT. Si, P, Ni, Mo, and W have almost no influence on the diffusivity of O, i.e. it is nearly identical to that in pure bcc Fe. The presence of Al, Cr, Mn, S, Ti, and Y causes a reduction of the mobility of oxygen. The strongest decrease of the diffusion coefficient is obtained for the foreign atoms S, Ti, and Y.
Keywords: Diffusion of oxygen in iron, Density Functional Theory, Atomistic Monte Carlo simulations
  • Poster
    The 14th International Conference on Computer Simulation of Radiation Effects in Solids (COSIRES 2018), 18.-22.06.2018, Shanghai, China

Publ.-Id: 27633 - Permalink


Nanoindentation and nanoscratching of a ferrite/austenite iron bi-crystal: An atomistic study
Al Motasem, A. T.; Posselt, M.; Bergström, J.
Molecular dynamics simulations are applied to investigate the wear/friction behavior of a ferrite/austenite iron bi-crystal, as a model system for duplex stainless steels. The plasticity of the ferrite phase is dominated by dislocations while both dislocations and stacking faults are the primary cause of plastic deformation of the austenite phase. Interestingly, the responses of tribological parameters vary depending on the scratch direction. For instance, the scratch hardness is increased by about 46% whereas the friction coefficient is reduced by about 22% when scratch starts from austenite to ferrite. At the interface, a local softening/hardening occurs because of dislocation-interface interaction. The present results demonstrate that martensitic phase transformation is responsible for experimentally observed high amount of ferrite of the pile-up.
Keywords: Atomistic simulation Ferrite Austenite Wear

Publ.-Id: 27632 - Permalink


Comparison of FIB Resolution for Different Ion Species in Imaging and Writing Mode
Bischoff, L.; Pilz, W.; Hlawacek, G.; Mazarov, P.; Bauerdick, S.; Gierak, J.
Focused Ion Beam (FIB) processing, which is nearly exclusively based on gallium Liquid Metal Ion Sources (LMIS) [1] expands more and more to other ion species also by implementation of other types of ion sources. Many applications in nano-technology could benefit from ion species other than gallium, like local doping by ion implantation, ion beam mixing, ion beam synthesis [2], or direct milling using various ions [3]. The application of Gas Field Ion Sources (GFIS) opens the sub-nm range for ion microscopy in the case of He [4].
A key parameter of FIB applications is the spatial resolution in terms of full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the beam profile, which can be described by e.g. two Gaussian functions or a Holtsmark distribution. Three main parts contribute to the obtainable resolution: a source term containing the virtual source size and the magnification, the spherical aberration, describing geometrical effects and the chromatic aberration depending on the energy spread of the ion source [5]. All contents are influenced by the ion source itself as well as the performance of the ion optics. For an optimum image resolution another shape of the beam profile with a sharp tip should be chosen by a suited alignment than for surface patterning by ion milling where more parallel slopes of the distribution a preferred. For a minimum feature size the beam interaction with the surface as well as the combination of ion species and target material must be put into consideration.
In this contribution the beam resolution will be basic discussed for a broad spectrum of ions beginning for light species, Helium Ion Microscope (Fig. 1) and Be from an AuSiBe LMAIS in a mass separated FIB (Fig. 2) up to very heavy ones, like Au, Bi and polyatomic clusters from them. The obtainable FIB resolution in the image and the patterning mode will be compared and discussed.

[1] J. Gierak; Focused ion beam technology and ultimate applications, Sem. Sci. Technol. 24 (2009), 1.
[2] L. Bischoff, P. Mazarov, L. Bruchhaus and J. Gierak; Liquid metal alloy ion sources – An alternative for focused ion beam technology, Appl. Phys. Rev. 3 (2016), 021101.
[3] S. Bauerdick et al.; Multispecies focused ion beam lithography system and its applications, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 31 (2013), 06F404-1.
[4] G. Hlawacek, V. Veligura, R. van Gastel, and B. Poelsema; Helium ion microscopy, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 32 (2014), 020801-1.
[5] R.G. Forbes in Charged Particle Optics, ed. J. Orloff, CRC Press (2009).
Keywords: Focused ion beam, Liquid Metal Alloy Ion Source, Helium microscope
  • Lecture (Conference)
    2nd EUFN Workshop 2018, 19.-20.06.2018, Grenoble, France

Publ.-Id: 27627 - Permalink


Rayleigh–Ritz based expansion method for wakefields in dielectrically lined rectangular waveguides
Reimann, F.; Michel, P.; Lehnert, U.; van Rienen, U.
n this work, a semi-analytical method for determining wakefields in dielectrically lined rectangular waveguides is presented. This approach is based on a Rayleigh–Ritz method to analytically identify the eigenmodes of the structure, which is currently studied for the application as a so-called ‘wakefield dechirper’. The electric field is subsequently determined through an eigenmode expansion, and the wakefield is calculated from the electric field. By virtue of using an analytic ansatz throughout the wakefield determination, an expression for the Green's function wakefield is found.

The semi-analytical method is then benchmarked against simulations using purely numerical approaches. Compared to numerical approaches, the advantages of the presented method are the independence from any need of discretisation, the computational efficiency of the method's presented Python-based implementation and finally the opportunity to calculate a true Green's function wakefield. From this Green's function, the wake potentials of different bunch shapes can be obtained via convolution.
Keywords: Wakefields Wakefield dechirping Eigenmode expansion Green's function

Publ.-Id: 27626 - Permalink


Magnetic-field-induced quadrupolar ordering and the crystal electric field effect in the distorted kagome lattice antiferromagnet Dy3Ru4Al12
Ishii, I.; Mizuno, T.; Takezawa, K.; Kumano, S.; Kawamoto, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Gorbunov, D. I.; Henriques, M. S.; Andreev, A. V.
To investigate the 4f -electronic states under a crystal electric field (CEF) and the phase transition inDy3Ru4Al12
with the antiferromagnetic transition temperature TN = 7 K, we performed ultrasonic measurements on a single-crystalline sample at zero magnetic field and under fields. The transverse elastic modulus C44 shows a characteristic elastic softening. The CEF analyses indicate that the softening is caused by an interlevel quadrupole interaction between the ground and excited Kramers doublets. Under fields, we found a magnetic-field-induced phase transition along both the [100] and [001] directions in addition to the antiferromagnetic ordering. A plausible origin of the field-induced transition is quadrupolar ordering, which is estimated from our CEF calculation. These results and the negative sign of a quadrupole-quadrupole coupling constant suggest that the effect of geometrical frustration alignment due to the kagome lattice also appears on the electric quadrupoles of the Dy ions with the antiferroquadrupolar-type interaction.

Publ.-Id: 27625 - Permalink


OC-0594: Postoperative [11C]MET-PET predicts radiochemotherapy outcome in glioblastoma: a prospective trial
Krause, M.; Seidlitz, A.; Löck, S.; Jentsch, C.; Platzek, I.; Zöphel, K.; Petr, J.; van den Hoff, J.; Steinbach, J.; Krex, D.; Schackert, G.; Falk, M.; Baumann, M.; Beuthien-Baumann, B.
Despite combined modality treatment involving surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy, a relevant percentage of chordoma and chondrosarcoma patients develop a local recurrence. In a previous study, we identified optic apparatus and/or brainstem compression, histology and GTV volume as prognostic factors for the risk of local failure. The present study aims to analyze patterns of recurrence and correlate local control with a detailed dosimetric analysis.

Publ.-Id: 27624 - Permalink


EP-2137: Development of a modular MRI processing workflow for volumetric analysis of healthy brain tissue
Gommlich, A.; Petr, J.; Raschke, F.; van den Hoff, J.; Krause, M.; Troost, E.
An inherent problem of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based analyses of morphological tissue changes is the absence of a ground truth. A particular issue in cerebral imaging is the lack of consensus regarding the order and manner, in which registration and segmentation algorithms are employed to evaluate volumes and longitudinal changes of different tissue types, e.g., grey and white matter (GM and WM).
Considering shortcomings of a procedure widely applied for global segmentation of the entire brain we developed a modular MRI processing workflow particularly suitable for volumetric analysis of the contralateral hemisphere in brain tumor patients.

Publ.-Id: 27623 - Permalink


Electron mobility and lifetime in GaAs/In𝑥Ga1−𝑥As core/shell nanowires studied by optical pump – THz probe spectroscopy
Fotev, I.; Balaghi, L.; Hübner, R.; Schmidt, J.; Hähnel, M.; Schneider, H.; Helm, M.; Dimakis, E.; Pashkin, A.
We utilize ultrafast optical pump – terahertz probe spectroscopy in order to investigate charge carrier response of GaAs/In𝑥Ga1−𝑥As core/shell nanowires (NWs) produced by molecular beam epitaxy. The NWs were ≈2 𝜇m long. The GaAs core diameter was 25nm and the InGaAs shell thickness was 80 nm. We studied the shells with different compositions, from 𝑥 = 0.20 to 𝑥 = 0.44.
From the pump-probe measurements we extracted terahertz photoconductivity of NWs and used the localized surface plasmon model to fit the results. The charge carrier lifetimes were estimated to be around 80–100 ps while the extracted electron mobilities reach 3700 cm2V−1s−1 at room temperature. Even without a surface passivation shell, these values are higher than those in previously studied GaAs/AlGaAs core/shell nanowires, but still lower than the ones for bulk InGaAs. Possible reasons (sources of electron scattering) which affect the mobility will be discussed.
Keywords: nanowires; terahertz; mobility
  • Lecture (Conference)
    DPG Spring Meeting 2018, 11.-16.03.2018, Berlin, Germany

Publ.-Id: 27620 - Permalink


Nonlinear Plasmonic Response of Doped GaAs Nanowires Observed in sSNIM
Lang, D.; Balaghi, L.; Dimakis, E.; Hübner, R.; Kehr, S. C.; Eng, L. M.; Pashkin, A.; Winnerl, S.; Schneider, H.; Helm, M.
We present nanoscopic infrared-optical investigations on highly n-type doped GaAs-based nanowires, revealing interesting nonlinear phenomena such as a pronounced redshift of the plasma resonance by the strong THz fields of a free-electron laser.
Keywords: nanowires, nonlinear plasmonics, free-electron laser, terahertz, s-SNOM, nanoscopy
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), 14.-18.05.2018, San José, USA

Publ.-Id: 27619 - Permalink


Enhancing the Magnetic Moment of Ferrimagnetic NiCo2O4 via Ion Irradiation driven Oxygen Vacancies
Pandey, P.; Bitla, Y.; Zschornak, M.; Wang, M.; Xu, C.; Grenzer, J.; Meyer, D. C.; Chin, Y. Y.; Lin, H. J.; Chen, C. T.; Gemming, S.; Helm, M.; Chu, Y. H.; Zhou, S.ORC
Ion irradiation has emerged as a powerful tool for the efficient control of uniaxial lattice expansion to fine tune and modulate the otherwise inaccessible complex correlated phases in oxide thin-films. We report the fine tuning of the magnetic moment, ferromagneticparamagnetic and metal-insulator transition temperatures in the NiCo2O4 inverse-spinel oxide by creating oxygen deficiencies, employing high energy He-ion irradiation. Tailoring of oxygen vacancies and consequently a uniaxial lattice expansion in the out-of-plane direction drives the system towards the increase of the magnetic moment by two-times in magnitude.
The magnetic moment increases with the He-ion irradiation fluence up to 2.5×1016/cm2 . Our results are corroborated well by spin-polarized electronic structure calculations with density functional theory and X-ray absorption spectroscopic data which show peak-height change and energy shift of Co-L2,3 and Ni-L2,3 edges driven by the oxygen vacancies. These results demonstrate a new pathway of tailoring oxygen vacancies via He-ion irradiation, useful for designing new functionalities in other complex oxide thin-films.

Publ.-Id: 27617 - Permalink


Vergleich der Wirkung von Alpha- und Protonenstrahlung an Normal- und Tumorzellen
Maucksch, U.; Runge, R.; Wetzig, K.; Naumann, A.; Freudenberg, R.; Lühr, A.; Beyreuther, E.; von Neubeck, C.; Kotzerke, J.
Ziel:
Für Alpha-Strahler ist bekannt, dass diese aufgrund eines hohen linearer Energietransfers (LET) bei gleicher Dosis eine höhere relative biologische Wirksamkeit (RBE) im Vergleich zu Gammastrahlern zeigen. Als Ursache werden die hohe lokale Dosisdeposition sowie die erhöhte Wahrscheinlichkeit für DNA-Doppelstrangbrüche (DSB) angenommen. Für Protonenstrahlung ist eine RBE von 1,1 zu erwarten. Untersucht wurde die Wirksamkeit von 150 MeV Protonenbestrahlung im Vergleich zum Alpha-Emitter Ra-223 auf das verwendete Zellsystem.
Methodik:
Die Wirkung der Protonenbestrahlung und des Alpha-Emitters Ra-223 wurde durch Bestrahlung der Schilddrüsennormalgewebszelllinie FRTL-5 sowie der Tumorzelllinie FaDu überprüft. Die Protonenbestrahlung im Dosisbereich von 0,5 bis 10 Gy erfolgte mit 3 Gy/min am Protonenstrahl der Universitätsprotonentherapie Dresden. Um Dosispunkte zwischen 0,125 und 2 Gy des Alpha-Strahlers Ra-223 zu applizieren, wurden die Zellen mit verschiedene Aktivitätskonzentrationen über 24 h inkubiert. Das klonogene Zellüberleben und die Anzahl der residualen DNA-DSB (H2AX-Assay) wurden 24 h nach Bestrahlung untersucht.
Ergebnisse:
Aus den Dosiswirkungskurven des Koloniebildungsassays wurde die Dosis für 37 % Überleben (D37) für die Normalzelllinie FRTL-5 nach Protonenbestrahlung mit 2,96 Gy und für Ra-223 mit 0,35 Gy bestimmt. Die Tumorzelllinie FaDu zeigte nach Protonenbestrahlung eine D37 von 2,32 Gy und nach Inkubation von Ra-223 eine D37 von 0,31 Gy. Für beide Zelllinien war die Anzahl an residualen DNA-DSB (H2AX-Assay) nach Protonenbestrahlung signifikant geringer als bei Bestrahlung mit Ra-223.
Schlussfolgerung:
Der erhöhte LET des Alpha-Strahlers Ra-223 (max. 250 keV/µm) führt zu einem geringenen Zellüberleben und zu einer höheren Anzahl der residualen DNA-DSB im Vergleich zur Protonenbestrahlung (LET ca. 2 keV/µm).
  • Lecture (Conference)
    56. Jahrestagung der Deutschen gesellschaft für Nuklearmedizin, 18.-21.04.2018, Bremen, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 27616 - Permalink


Local probe of irradiation induced structural changes and orbital magnetism in Fe60Al40 thin films via order-disorder phase transition
La Torre, E.; Smekhova, A.; Schmitz-Antoniak, C.; Ollefs, K.; Eggert, B.; Cöster, B.; Walecki, D.; Wilhelm, F.; Rogalev, A.; Lindner, J.; Bali, R.; Banerjee, R.; Sanyal, B.; Wende, H.
Hard X-ray absorption and magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy have been applied to study the consequential changes of the local environment around Fe atoms and their orbital polarizations in Fe60Al40 thin films of 40 nm thickness along the order-disorder (B2→A2) phase transition initiated by 20keV Ne+ ion-irradiation with fluences of (0.75 - 6) × 1014 ions cm-2. The analysis of the extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectra measured at the Fe K-edge at room temperature revealed an increased number of Fe-Fe nearest-neighbors from 3.47(7) to 5.0(1) and ~ 1% of volume expansion through the transition. The visualization of the Fe and Al nearest neighbors rearrangement in the first coordination shell of Fe absorbers via the transition was carried out by wavelet transformations. The obtained changes in Fe coordination are evidently reflected in the XMCD spectra which show an increased orbital magnetic moment of Fe atoms and a pronounced magnetic multi-electronic excitations peak at ~60 eV above the edge. The amplitudes of both peaks demonstrated similar dependencies on the irradiation fluence. The results of self-consistent DFT calculations on relaxed Fe60Al40 model structures for the ordered (B2) and the disordered (A2) phases are consistent with the experimental findings and point to the formation of Fe-rich regions in the films studied.
Keywords: Chemical disorder, ion-irradiation, magnetism, EXAFS, wavelet transform, XMCD, DFT

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Publ.-Id: 27611 - Permalink


Large-scale self-organized gold nanostructures with bidirectional plasmon resonances for SERS
Schreiber, B.; Gkogkou, D.; Dedelaite, L.; Kerbusch, J.; Hübner, R.; Sheremet, E.; Zahn, D. R. T.; Ramanavicius, A.; Facsko, S.; Rodriguez, R. D.
Efficient substrates for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) are under constant development, since time-consuming and costly fabrication routines are often an issue for high-throughput spectroscopy applications. In this research, we use a two-step fabrication method to produce self- organized parallel-oriented plasmonic gold nanostructures. The fabrication routine is ready for wafer-scale production involving only low-energy ion beam irradiation and metal deposition. The optical spectroscopy features of the resulting structures show a successful bidirectional plasmonic response. The localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) of each direction are independent from each other and can be tuned by the fabrication parameters. This ability to tune the LSPR characteristics allows the development of optimized plasmonic nanostructures to match different laser excitations and optical transitions for any arbitrary analyte. Moreover, in this study, we probe the polarization and wavelength dependence of such bidirectional plasmonic nanostructures by a complementary spectroscopic ellipsometry and Raman spectroscopy analysis. We observe a significant signal amplification by the SERS substrates and determine enhancement factors of over a thousand times. We also perform finite element method-based calculations of the electromagnetic enhancement for the SERS signal provided by the plasmonic nanostructures. The calculations are based on realistic models constructed using the same particle sizes and shapes experimentally determined by scanning electron microscopy. The spatial distribution of electric field enhancement shows some dispersion in the LSPR, which is a direct consequence of the semi-random distribution of hotspots. The signal enhancement is highly efficient, making our SERS substrates attractive candidates for high-throughput chemical sensing applications in which directionality, chemical stability, and large-scale fabrication are essential requirements.

Publ.-Id: 27608 - Permalink


Strain engineering in lattice-mismatched core/shell nanowires: extending the properties of GaAs
Balaghi, L.; Bussone, G.; Grifone, R.; Hübner, R.; Grenzer, J.; Shan, S.; Fotev, I.; Pashkin, A.; Ghorbani-Asl, M.; Krasheninnikov, A.; Wolf, D.; Hlawacek, G.; Schneider, H.; Helm, M.; Dimakis, E.
Strain engineering in core/shell nanowires (NWs) can be an alternative route to tailor the properties of III-V semiconductors without changing their chemical composition. In particular, we demonstrate that the GaAs core in GaAs/InxGa1-xAs or GaAs/InxAl1-xAs core/shell NWs can sustain unusually large misfit strains that would have been impossible in equivalent thin-film heterostructures, and undergoes a significant modification of its electronic properties.
Self-catalyzed core/shell NWs were grown on SiOx/Si(111) by MBE (Fig. 1a). The growth conditions were optimized in order to minimize the bending of the NWs, a phenomenon that originates from the large misfit between the core and the shell. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering measurements showed that for a given core diameter, the magnitude and the spatial distribution of the built-in misfit strain can be regulated via the composition and the thickness of the shell. Beyond a critical shell thickness (Fig. 1b), we obtain a heavily tensile-strained core and a strain-free shell. The tensile strain of the core exhibits a quasi-hydrostatic character and causes the reduction of the GaAs band gap energy in accordance with our theoretical predictions (deformation potential theory and first principle calculations), reaching the remarkable value of 40% (0.87 eV at 300 K) for 7% of strain (x = 0.54). Signatures of valence-band splitting were also identified in polarization-resolved photoluminescence measurements, as a result of the strain anisotropy in GaAs. Presuming a reduced effective mass of electrons in the tensile-strained core of GaAs/InxAl1-xAs NWs (core diameter = 22 nm, x = 0.39–0.49), the corresponding electron mobility was measured by optical-pump THz-probe spectroscopy to be in the range of 4000 cm2/V·s at 300 K. These values are the highest reported, even in comparison to GaAs/AlxGa1-xAs NWs with double the core thickness.
In conclusion, our results (unpublished) demonstrate the possibility to resemble to a large extent the fundamental properties of InxGa1-xAs alloys using strained GaAs NWs grown epitaxially on Si (Fig. 1c). This could open a new dimension in the design of nano-photonics and nano-electronics, surmounting issues with phase separation, surface segregation or alloy disorder that typically exist in ternary alloys and limit the device performance.
Keywords: optoelectronics, band gap reduction, InxGa1-xAs
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Nanowire Week, 11.-15.06.2018, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada

Publ.-Id: 27606 - Permalink


Implanting Germanium into Graphene
Tripathi, M.; Markevich, A.; Böttger, R.; Facsko, S.; Besley, E.; Kotakoski, J.; Susi, T.
Incorporating heteroatoms into the graphene lattice may be used to tailor its electronic, mechanical and chemical properties, although directly observed substitutions have thus far been limited to incidental Si impurities and P, N and B dopants introduced using low-energy ion implantation. We present here the heaviest impurity to date, namely 74Ge+ ions implanted into monolayer graphene. Although sample contamination remains an issue, atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging and quantitative image simulations show that Ge can either directly substitute single atoms, bonding to three carbon neighbors in a buckled out-of-plane configuration, or occupy an in-plane position in a divacancy. First-principles molecular dynamics provides further atomistic insight into the implantation process, revealing a strong chemical effect that enables implantation below the graphene displacement threshold energy. Our results demonstrate that heavy atoms can be implanted into the graphene lattice, pointing a way toward advanced applications such as single-atom catalysis with graphene as the template.
Keywords: heteroatom doping; ion implantation; molecular dynamics; scanning transmission electron microscopy

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Publ.-Id: 27605 - Permalink


Wechselwirkungs- und Transportuntersuchungen dreiwertiger Radiometalle in Ton unter Berücksichtigung des Einflusses von Fulvinsäure und erhöhten Salinitäten
Poetsch, M.
The storage of radioactive waste demands for evidence of security over a long period. Mainly because of its high sorption capacity as well as favourable geomechanical properties, clay is being explored as one of the potential host rocks for a final repository. This work contributes to the understanding of interactions between trivalent lanthanides (as analogues for trivalent actinides), fulvic acid and Opalinus clay regarding high ionic strength. High salinity and natural organic matter are both known to facilitate migration of toxic or radioactive metals in geochemical systems, but little is known on their combined effect.
The complex system was split into three binary systems with the following interactions: lanthanides (Tb, Eu) and Opalinus clay, lanthanides and fulvic acid, Opalinus clay and fulvic acid.
The binary systems were investigated at pH of 5 and 7 with variable amounts of NaCl, MgCl2 or CaCl2 within a range of 0 - 4 mol L-1. The sorption of the lanthanides and fulvic acid onto the Opalinus clay was investigated in batch experiments, employing 160Tb, 152Eu and 14C as radiotracers. For the investigation of the complexation behaviour of Tb(III) and Eu(III) with fulvic acid, time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy was used.
A combined Kd approach (Linear Additive Model) was tested for suitability in predicting solid-liquid distribution of metals in the presence of organic matter based on the interactions in the constituent subsystems. The metal-ion interactions with fulvic acid were modelled by using the NICA-Donnan approach. To reproduce the migration behaviour of lanthanides in clay, a diffusion-based process was modelled.
This study has shown that there is no synergism in the mobilising effects of fulvic acid and electrolytes at in-situ pH. On the contrary, a mitigating effect of ionic strength was evidenced, based on the fact that metal binding is suppressed while adsorption of humic matter is hardly influenced.
  • Doctoral thesis
    Universität Leipzig, 2018
    Mentor: Lippold, Holger
    106 Seiten

Publ.-Id: 27603 - Permalink


THz spectroscopy of solids with a free-electron laser
Helm, M.
I will start describing the Dresden free-electron laser FELBE as an intense, tunable, pulsed and narrowband source of infrared and THz radiation and the unique opportunities it offers for the spectroscopy of low-energy excitations in solids. In particular, the FEL can be used for nonlinear optical experiments, for time-resolved pump-probe studies, and also for near-field microscopy. I will mainly discuss nonlinear experiments on excitons in semiconductor quantum wells and pump-probe studies of the relaxation dynamics in graphene. If time permits, I will also introduce the new superradiant THz radiation source TELBE.
Keywords: free electron laser, terahertz, graphene
  • Lecture (others)
    Kolloquium am Max-Born-Institut Berlin, 13.06.2018, Berlin, Germany

Publ.-Id: 27602 - Permalink


Isolated Proton Bunch Acceleration by a Petawatt Laser Pulse
Hilz, P.ORC; Ostermayr, T. M.ORC; Huebl, A.ORC; Bagnoud, V.; Borm, B.; Bussmann, M.ORC; Gallei, M.; Gebhard, J.; Haffa, D.; Hartmann, J.; Kluge, T.ORC; Lindner, F. H.; Neumayr, P.; Schaefer, C. G.; Schramm, U.ORC; Thirolf, P. G.; Rösch, T. F.; Wagner, F.; Zielbauer, B.; Schreiber, J.ORC
Often, the interpretation of experiments concerning the manipulation of the energy distribution of laser-accelerated ion bunches is complicated by the multitude of competing dynamic processes simultaneously contributing to recorded ion signals. Here we demonstrate experimentally the acceleration of a clean proton bunch. This was achieved with a microscopic and three-dimensionally confined near critical density plasma, which evolves from a 1μm diameter plastic sphere, which is levitated and positioned with micrometer precision in the focus of a Petawatt laser pulse. The emitted proton bunch is reproducibly observed with central energies between 20 and 40 MeV and narrow energy spread (down to 25%) showing almost no low-energetic background. Together with three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations we track the complete acceleration process, evidencing the transition from organized acceleration to Coulomb repulsion. This reveals limitations of current high power lasers and viable paths to optimize laser-driven ion sources.
Keywords: laser-plasma interaction, laser-ion acceleration, accelerator research, paul trap, experiment, HPC, simulation, PIConGPU

Publ.-Id: 27599 - Permalink


cupla - C++ User interface for the Platform independent Library Alpaka
Widera, R.ORC
cupla [qχɑpˈlɑʔ] is a simple user interface for the platform independent parallel kernel acceleration library alpaka. It follows a similar concept as the NVIDIA® CUDA® API by providing a software layer to manage accelerator devices. alpaka is used as backend for cupla.
  • Software in the HZDR data repository RODARE
    Publication date: 2018-06-10
    DOI: 10.14278/rodare.29
    License: LGPL-3.0

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Publ.-Id: 27585 - Permalink


C++ & Python API for Scientific I/O with openPMD
Koller, F.ORC; Huebl, A.ORC

openPMD is an open metadata format for open data workflows in open science. This library provides a common high-level API for openPMD writing and reading. It provides a common interface to I/O libraries and file formats such as HDF5 and ADIOS. Where supported, openPMD-api implements both serial and MPI parallel I/O capabilities.

Keywords: openPMD; Open Science; Open Data; HDF5; ADIOS; data; MPI; HPC; research; file-format; file-handling
  • Software in the HZDR data repository RODARE
    Publication date: 2018-06-18
    DOI: 10.14278/rodare.27
    License: LGPL-3.0

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Publ.-Id: 27579 - Permalink


Amphiphilic Siderophore Marinobactin for Froth Flotation Process
Schrader, S.; Kutschke, S.; Rudolph, M.; Pollmann, K.
The consumption of metallic raw materials increased in the last years. The coverage of demand is getting more difficult, because both primary and secondary raw materials become more and more complex. To find a solution, some new ways have to be gone, like the combination of biotechnology with classic processing methods.
The idea of this work is the biotechnological production of siderophores for the application in the classic froth flotation process. Siderophores are small organic molecules with a high affinity for binding Fe(III) and to form strong complexes also with other metals. They are produced by microorganisms (aerobic bacteria and fungi) and some plants to equalize the low bioavailability of iron in their environment. Especially the group of amphiphilic siderophores are very interesting. The hydrophilic part, carrying hydroxamate groups, is responsible for the binding of the metals. Flotation agents produced by the chemical industry with the same functional groups have already been applied successfully in this processing method. It can be suggested siderophores carrying the same functional groups, also work well as collectors. The fatty acid tail, that is representing the hydrophobic part, gets in contact with the bubble and spares additional chemicals and further working steps for making the target mineral particles hydrophobic.
This work includes on the one hand the biotechnological production of the marine siderophore marinobactin for the first time using a bioreactor and optimized conditions to make the production more efficient. On the other hand, the produced siderophore is tested in different froth flotation micro scale experiments like “Bubble-pick-up-test” and micro flotation in the Halimond Tube. These results show for the first time that amphiphilic siderophores are working in the froth flotation process and supply first concepts about the required concentration of siderophores in this processing process. In addition, the results also include interaction studies of different metals.
The application of amphiphilic siderophores as biochemicals in the froth flotation process can change the classic processing method in a more sustainable process – the bioflotation process. This will reduce the usage of other chemical agents. Moreover the specific metal binding of siderophores changes flotation in a more purposeful and efficient process.
Keywords: Bioflotation, Flotation, Siderophore, Marinobactin
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Applied Biotechnology in Mining, 25.-27.04.2018, Dnipro, Ukraine

Publ.-Id: 27577 - Permalink


Re-irradiation of recurrent gliomas: pooled analysis and validation of an established prognostic score-report of the Radiation Oncology Group (ROG) of the German Cancer Consortium (DKTK)
Combs, S.; Niyazi, M.; Adeberg, S.; Bougatf, N.; Kaul, D.; Fleischmann, D.; Gruen, A.; Fokas, E.; Rodel, C.; Eckert, F.; Paulsen, F.; Oehlke, O.; Grosu, A.; Seidlitz, A.; Lattermann, A.; Krause, M.; Baumann, M.; Guberina, M.; Stuschke, M.; Budach, V.; Belka, C.; Debus, J.; Kessel, K.
The heterogeneity of high-grade glioma recurrences remains an ongoing challenge for the interdisciplinary neurooncology team. Response to re-irradiation (re-RT) is heterogeneous, and survival data depend on prognostic factors such as tumor volume, primary histology, age, the possibility of reresection, or time between primary diagnosis and initial RT and re-RT. in the present pooled analysis, we gathered data from radiooncology centers of the DKTK Consortium and used it to validate the established prognostic score by Combs et al. and its modification by Kessel et al. Data consisted of a large independent, multicenter cohort of 565 high-grade glioma patients treated with re-RT from 1997 to 2016 and a median dose of 36 Gy. Primary RT was between 1986 and 2015 with a median dose of 60 Gy. Median age was 54 years; median follow-up was 7.1 months. Median OS after re-RT was 7.5, 9.5, and 13.8 months for WHO IV, III, and I/II gliomas, respectively. All six prognostic factors were tested for their significance on OS. Aside from the time from primary RT to re-RT (P = 0.074) and the reresection status (P = 0.101), all factors (primary histology, age, KPS, and tumor volume) were significant. Both the original and new score showed a highly significant influence on survival with P < 0.001. Both prognostic scores successfully predict survival after re-RT and can easily be applied in the routine clinical workflow. Now, further prognostic features need to be found to even improve treatment decisions regarding neurooncological interventions for recurrent glioma patients.
Keywords: Outcome, prognostic score, recurrent glioma, re-irradiation

Publ.-Id: 27576 - Permalink


Atomic scale reversible opto-structural switching of few atom luminescent silver clusters confined in LTA zeolites
Aghakhani, S.; Grandjean, D.; Baekelant, W.; Coutiño-Gonzalez, E.; Fron, E.; Kvashnina, K.; Roeffaers, M. B. J.; Hofkens, J.; Lievens, B. F.; Sels, P.
Luminescent silver clusters (AgCLs) stabilized inside partially Ag exchanged Na LTA zeolites show a remarkable reversible on–off switching of their green-yellowish luminescence that is easily tuned by a hydration and dehydration cycle, making them very promising materials for sensing applications. We have used a unique combination of photoluminescence (PL), UV-visible-NIR Diffuse Reflectance (DRS), X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), Fourier Transform-Infrared (FTIR) and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopies to unravel the atomic-scale structural changes responsible for the reversible optical behavior of the confined AgCLs in LTA zeolites. Water coordinated, diamagnetic, tetrahedral AgCLs [Ag4(H2O)4]2+ with Ag atoms positioned along the axis of the sodalite six-membered rings are at the origin of the broad and intense green-yellowish luminescence in the hydrated sample. Upon dehydration, the luminescent [Ag4(H2O)4]2+ clusters are transformed into non-luminescent (dark), diamagnetic, octahedral AgCLs [Ag6(OF)14]2+ with Ag atoms interacting strongly with zeolite framework oxygen (OF) of the sodalite four-membered rings. This highly responsive on–off switching reveals that besides quantum confinement and molecular-size, coordinated water and framework oxygen ligands strongly affect the organization of AgCLs valence electrons and play a crucial role in the opto-structural properties of AgCLs.

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  • Secondary publication expected from 04.06.2019

Publ.-Id: 27571 - Permalink


Flow Structures in a Weakly Turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard Convection affected by a Horizontal Magnetic Field
Vogt, T.; Yanagisawa, T.; Ishimi, W.; Tasaka, Y.; Eckert, S.
MHD Rayleigh-Bénard convection was studied experimentally using the eutectic metal alloy GaInSn inside a box having a square horizontal cross section and an aspect ratio of 5. Flow measurements were performed by means of ultrasound Doppler velocimetry that can capture time variations of instantaneous velocity profiles. Applying a horizontal magnetic field organizes the convective motion into a flow pattern of quasi-two dimensional rolls arranged parallel to the magnetic field [1], [2]. If the Rayleigh number (Ra) is increased over a certain threshold Ra/Q, whereby Q is the Chandrasekhar number, the flow undergoes a transition to turbulence. Besides the primary convection rolls the measurements reveal regular flow oscillations arising from 2D and 3D deformations of the rolls, Ekman-pumping induced flow as well as smaller side vortices that develop around the convection rolls [3]. Our findings demonstrate the importance to take 3D flow effects into account in order to explain the observed flow structures, which are often considered as quasi 2D. The comparison between the experiments and accompanying direct numerical simulations shows a very good agreement.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RAYLEIGH BÉNARD TURBULENCE, 14.-18.05.2018, Enschede, Netherlands
  • Open Access LogoContribution to proceedings
    INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RAYLEIGH BÉNARD TURBULENCE, 14.-18.05.2018, Enschede, Netherlands

Publ.-Id: 27570 - Permalink


Large-scale circulations of turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a finite liquid metal layer
Akashi, M.; Tasaka, Y.; Yanagisawa, T.; Vogt, T.; Murai, Y.; Eckert, S.
Large-scale circulations of Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a finite liquid metal layer were examined experimentally by means of ultrasonic Doppler velocimetry. The fluid layer with aspect ratio of five and L = 40 mm in height was filled with eutectic alloy of GaInSn (Prandtl number, Pr = 0.03), and multiple ultrasonic transducers for the velocimetry were mounted in the side wall of the vessel to capture 3D structures of the convection.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RAYLEIGH BÉNARD TURBULENCE, 14.-18.05.2018, Enschede, Netherlands

Publ.-Id: 27569 - Permalink


LSC Oscillations in a Liquid Metal
Vogt, T.; Horn, S.; Grannan, A.; Aurnou, J.
We present experimental results of liquid metal Rayleigh Bénard convection in a Gamma = D/H = 2 cylindrical tank. The tank is filled with liquid gallium that has a Prandtl-number Pr = 0.03. Ultrasound Doppler velocimetry is used in this study to measure the instantaneous velocity distribution along four different measuring lines. This technique is a useful tool to measure the velocities in opaque fluids, such as liquid metals non-invasively. Furthermore, a total number of 29 thermocouples is used to monitor the temperature in the experiment. Thus, the experimental set-up allows for a simultaneous analysis of the velocity and temperature field. We observed a strong oscillatory behaviour of the LSC in both, the velocity and temperature signal whose characteristic behaviour remains unchanged over the investigated range of 7x10^4 < Ra < 6x10^6. We analysed the three dimensional structure of the oscillation and compare the results to direct numerical simulation, which are in excellent agreement to the experimental observation.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RAYLEIGH BÉNARD TURBULENCE, 14.-18.05.2018, Enschede, Netherlands
  • Open Access LogoContribution to proceedings
    INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON RAYLEIGH BÉNARD TURBULENCE, 14.-18.05.2018, Enschede, Netherlands

Publ.-Id: 27568 - Permalink


Architecture and mineral potential of the Paleoproterozoic Karrat Group, West Greenland - Results of the 2017 Season
Rosa, D.; Bernstein, S.; Dewolfe, M. Y.; Dziggel, A.; Grocott, J.; Guarnieri, P.; Kolb, J.; Partin, C. A.; Sørensen, E.-V.; Zimmermann, R.
The main goal of the 2017 field season was to revise the geological maps of the southern area of Karrat Group exposures. This revision will encompass the 1:100 000 sheets of Maarmorilik 71V.2 Syd, Nuugaatsiaq 71V.2 Nord, Pannertooq 72V.2 Syd, and Svartenhuk 71V.1 Nord, originally compiled between 1980 and 1991. This third field season followed up on fieldwork carried out in 2015 and 2016 and, as the other two field seasons, was jointly financed by the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) and the Ministry of Mineral Resources of Greenland (MMR).
Within this framework, and since the focus of the first two seasons had been on the Paleo- proterozoic Karrat Group, the 2017 fieldwork targeted Archean rocks, namely in Panner- tooq (head of Ukkusissat Fjord), Upernivik Ø, Kigarsima/Tornit and the area south of Maarmorilik. This work led to the identification, in what was originally mapped as Archean orthogneiss, of significant paragneiss and quartzite sequences, of uncertain age. These supracrustal sequences often appear infolded with Archean orthogneiss, so some of them could possibly be unrelated to the stratigraphy of the Karrat Group. Similar infolding ob- served in the Qeqertarssuaq Formation, mapped in Kangilleq Fjord, suggests that this for- mation could possibly also be unrelated to the Karrat Group, as traditionally defined. Cor- roborating this interpretation is the fact that higher-P metamorphic assemblages, evi- denced by garnet amphibolite and kyanite micaschist, were documented in the Qeqertars- suaq Formation, but not in overlying formations. This contrasting metamorphic evolution can be interpreted as evidence for an early thermal event, prior to Qaarsukassak Formation deposition. Alternatively, the disparate metamorphic conditions could be accounted for by juxtaposition of different tectonic units during the Rinkian orogeny. T o further constrain the depositional ages of the paragneiss and quartzite (including those of the Qeqertarssuaq Formation), follow up detrital zircon geochronology is warranted. However, regardless of what the subsequent analytical work reveals, these findings appear to already imply signifi- cant revisions to the existing maps.
Within the Paleoproterozoic volcano-sedimentary succession, fieldwork allowed for the identification of the presence of the Qaarsukassak Formation (informal) in Kussinersuaq (Umiammakku Isbræ), Rinks Isbræ, Qingaarssuaq (Kangerlussuaq Fjord), Kigarsima/T ornit (Kangerluarsuk Fjord) and Kangerluarsuup Sermia. This formation hosts the stratabound mineralisation in the Rio Tinto Zinc (RTZ) Discovery area (Kangerluarsuk Fjord), where it was first defined. While no primary Zn mineralisation was observed at the defined localities, with only faint zinc zap responses obtained at Kussinersuaq, and other localities not tested for mineralisation, these findings significantly stretch the areal extent of the stratabound Zn- hosting Qaarsukassak Formation, and are therefore of economic significance. Detailed follow up photogeological mapping and interpretation of hyperspectral scenes of this min- eralisation host should consequently be carried out. Further work within the Paleoprotero- zoic Karrat Group, included the study of the mafic volcanic rocks of the Kangilleq Fm (in- formal), was aimed at recognising horizons with distinct geochemical signatures (alkaline vs. subalkaline), as identified in samples collected in previous seasons, in order to elucidate petrogenesis of the volcanic rocks.
The structural setting and metamorphism of the Prøven Igneous Complex (PIC) is key to understanding the geological evolution of the region and its lower contacts and some internal structures were studied. This work demonstrated that the PIC comprises one or more tabular intrusions. In the west, near Upernavik, the complex was emplaced close to the basement-cover contact. Farther to the east and south, it seems to have been emplaced at a higher stratigraphic position within the Paleoproterozoic sedimentary sequence. Subse- quently, the complex was displaced to the NW (north side of the PIC) and SE (south side of the PIC). Wherever it was studied, both North and South, this contact is a shear zone. The PIC contains abundant enclaves of meta-sedimentary rocks, particularly near the lower contact. The enclaves are most likely to be from a Paleoproterozoic sequence - the Karrat Group - although this assumption is unproven. In the instances where possible cross- cutting intrusive relations are found with meta-sedimentary rocks at the base of the PIC, the cross-cutting igneous rocks are late syn-tectonic biotite granite and leucogranites, rather than elements of the PIC proper. Earlier workers assumed that these late syn-tectonic granites and the PIC were part of the same magmatic event and were both late syn- tectonic. Our new field evidence from the northern contact of the PIC, consistent with re- cently published geochronology (Sanborn-Barrie et al. 2017), shows that the PIC was af- fected by intense fabric formation and folding and that its contacts with its host rocks, where we have seen them, are always concordant as a consequence of intense defor- mation. We conclude that the published interpretation that the PIC was emplaced relatively late during Rinkian orogenic evolution should be rejected (Grocott & Pulvertaft, 1990 and references therein).
  • Other report
    København, Danmark: Danmarks of Grønlands geologiske undersøgelse, 2018
    102 Seiten

Publ.-Id: 27564 - Permalink


Parametric resonances in periodically perturbed dynamo models
Giesecke, A.; Stefani, F.
I present results on kinematic dynsamo models driven by an axisymmetric large scale flow impacted by periodic perturbations due to azimuthally propagating vortices. I found a strong impact on growth rates and frequencies with regimes of parametric resonances whenn the frequency of the perturbation is twice the frequency of the unperturbed case. These models behave similar to rotating mechanical systems subject to periodic distortions that are described by the Matthieu equation. A possible application are dynamo experiments like VKS dynamo in Cadarache or convection driven planetary dynamos that are influenced by tidal forces.
Keywords: dynamo DRESDYN
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Planetary-Stellar Connection: The Sun's Lesson, 07.-09.05.2018, Freiburg, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 27559 - Permalink


Local structural effects of Eu3+ incorporation into xenotime-type solid solutions with different host cations
Xiao, B.; Lösch, H.; Huittinen, N.ORC; Schmidt, M.ORC
In this study, the effect of host cations on the local structure around the dopant site of materials from the xenotime family is systematically studied on the molecular level. A series of six Eu3+-doped xenotime-type single crystals (Tb, Y, Ho, Er Yb, and LuPO4) have been grown and spectroscopically analyzed using polarization−dependent laser−induced luminescence spectroscopy (p−TRLFS). Our results demonstrate that the structural disorder changes in a non-linear manner with a structural break between Yb3+ and Lu3+. Despite adopting identical crystal structures, the solid solutions of these materials vary significantly, and differ from monazite solid solutions. Similar Eu3+ incorporation behavior with a strongly distorted dopant site is found for the early members of the xenotime family, while LuPO4 with the largest host vs. dopant radii mismatch is anomalous in that it contains the most symmetrical lattice site. This goes along with a significantly stronger crystal field, indicating a shorter Eu – O bond distance, as well as a strong vibronic coupling to external translational lattice vibrations. The p−TRLFS analysis confirms the breakdown of the crystallographic site symmetry from D2d to C1 in YPO4, whereas a small distortion of the crystallographic site in LuPO4 results in an S4 point symmetry for the Eu3+ cation. The lattice with the smallest cation host site is no longer sufficiently flexible to make room for Eu3+ and instead “forces” the guest ion to occupy a less distorted Lu3+ site.
Keywords: Xenotime, Incorporation, TRLFS, Luminescence, Eu3+

Publ.-Id: 27557 - Permalink


Temporal Evolution of Calcite Surface Dissolution Kinetics
Bibi, I.; Arvidson, R. S.; Fischer, C.; Luttge, A.
This brief paper presents a rare dataset: a set of quantitative, topographic measurements of a dissolving calcite crystal over a relatively large and fixed field of view (~400 μm) and long total reaction time (>6h). Using a vertical scanning interferometer and patented fluid flow cell, surface height maps of a dissolving calcite crystal were produced by periodically and repetitively removing reactant fluid, rapidly acquiring a height dataset, and returning the sample to a wetted, reacting state. These reaction-measurement cycles were accomplished without changing the crystal surface position relative to the instrument’s optic axis, with an approximate frequency of one data acquisition per six minutes’ reaction (~10/h). In the standard fashion, computed differences in surface height over time yield a detailed velocity map of the retreating surface as a function of time. This dataset thus constitutes a near-continuous record of reaction, and can be used to both understand the relationship between changes in the overall dissolution rate of the surface and the morphology of the surface itself, particularly the relationship of a) large, persistent features (e.g., etch pits related to screw dislocations; b) small, short-lived features (e.g., so-called pancake pits probably related to point defects); c) complex features that reflect organization on a large scale over a long period of time (i.e., coalescent “super” steps), to surface normal retreat and stepwave formation. Although roughly similar in frequency of observation to anin situ AFM fluid cell, this VSI method reveals details of the interaction of surface features over a significantly larger scale, yielding insight into the role of various components in terms of their contribution to the cumulative dissolution rate as a function of space and time.

Publ.-Id: 27556 - Permalink


Self-Diffusion in Amorphous Silicon by Local Bond Rearrangements
Kirschbaum, J.; Teuber, T.; Donner, A.; Radek, M.; Bougeard, D.; Lundsgaard Hansen, J.; Nylandsted Larsen, A.; Posselt, M.; Bracht, H.; Böttger, R.
Experiments on self-diffusion in amorphous silicon (Si) were performed at temperatures between 460 to 600° C. The amorphous structure was prepared by Si ion implantation of single crystalline Si isotope multilayers epitaxially grown on a silicon-on-insulator wafer. The Si isotope profiles before and after annealing were determined by means of secondary ion mass spectrometry. Isothermal diffusion experiments reveal that structural relaxation does not cause any significant intermixing of the isotope interfaces whereas self-diffusion is significant before the structure recrystallizes. The temperature dependence of self-diffusion is described by an Arrhenius law with an activation enthalpy Q =2.70 +- 0.11eV and preexponential factor D0=5.5(+11.1 -3.7) × 10−2 cm2 s−1. Remarkably, Q equals the activation enthalpy of hydrogen diffusion in amorphous Si, the migration of bond defects determining boron diffusion, and the activation enthalpy of solid phase epitaxial recrystallization reported in the literature. This close agreement provides strong evidence that self-diffusion is mediated by local bond rearrangements rather than by the migration of extended defects as suggested by Strauß et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 025901 (2016)).
Keywords: amorphous Si, self-diffusion, isotope multilayers

Publ.-Id: 27555 - Permalink


Design, validation and testing of new receiver coatings for concentrated solar power
Krause, M.; Heras, I.; Lungwitz, F.; Wenisch, R.; Schumann, E.; Janke, D.; Guillén, E.; Munnik, F.; Azkona, I.; Gemming, S.; Escobar-Galindo, R.
Increasing central receiver solar plant’s operation temperature from 550°C to about 800°C would improve the energy conversion efficiency by 15 to 20%. Absorber coatings appropriate for such conditions have to outperform the state-of-the-art pigment paint Pyromark® that has an absorptivity α > 95% but a high emittance (ε ~ 80%). The development of environmentally stable solar-selective coatings (SSC) for these temperatures requires new concepts of design and thermal testing. Multilayer SSC based on [AlyTi1-y(OxN1-x)] absorbers were designed after an extensive microstructural characterization and optical simulations. Based on excellent simulation performance values of α = 88-94% and εRT = 4.8-13.6%, complete coating stacks were experimentally validated and tested in vacuum and in air up to temperatures of 800°C [1]. Thermal stability in vacuum up to 800°C is shown by in situ Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), Raman spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) for individual layers as well as for complete SSC. Regarding in-air stability, the most stable SSC fulfilled the standard performance criterion PC ≤ 5% for 300 symmetric, 3 hours long cyclic tests between 300°C and 600°C. Another promising and simpler coating concept to be presented is based on a metal-doped transparent conductive oxide acting as solar-selective transmitter on top of a blackbody. The onset of the infrared reflectivity is tuneable by variation of the parameters during reactive magnetron sputtering deposition, thus matching the specific temperature requirements during solar applications. Thermal stability up to 800°C in vacuum is demonstrated by in situ RBS and SE.

Financial support by the EU, grant No. 645725, project FRIENDS2, and the HGF via the W3 program (S.G.) is gratefully acknowledged.

[1] I. Heras, et al. , Design of high-temperature solar-selective coatings based on aluminium titanium oxynitrides [AlyTi1-y(OxN1-x)]. Part 1: Advanced microstructural characterisation and optical simulation. Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells 176 (2018) 81-92
Keywords: Solar selective coatings, oxynitrides, TCO's, thermosolar energy, in situ analysis, cluster tool
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    5th European Conference in Nanofilms (ECNF), 20.-22.03.2018, Cranfield, United Kingdom

Publ.-Id: 27553 - Permalink


Percolated Si:SiO2 Nanocomposites: Oven- vs. Millisecond Laser-induced Crystallization of SiOx Thin Films
Schumann, E.; Hübner, R.; Grenzer, J.; Gemming, S.; Krause, M.ORC
Three-dimensional nanocomposite networks consisting of percolated Si nanowires in a SiOx matrix, Si:SiO2, were studied. The structures were obtained by reactive ion beam sputter deposition of SiOx (x~0.6) thin films at 450 °C and subsequent crystallization using conventional oven as well as millisecond line focus laser annealing. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, cross-sectional and energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy were applied for sample characterization. While oven annealing resulted in a mean Si wire diameter of 10 nm and a crystallinity of 72 % within the Si volume, almost single-domain Si structures with 30 nm in diameter and almost free of amorphous Si were obtained by millisecond laser application. The structural differences are attributed to the different crystallization processes: Conventional oven tempering proceeds via solid state, millisecond laser application via liquid phase crystallization of Si. The 5 orders of magnitude larger diffusion constant in the liquid phase is responsible for the three times larger Si nanostructure diameter. In conclusion, laser annealing offers not only significantly shorter process times but moreover a superior structural order of nano-Si compared to conventional heating.
Keywords: silicon; nanostructures; percolated networks; nanocomposites; thin films; laser processing; phase separation; liquid phase crystallization

Publ.-Id: 27552 - Permalink


Synthesis and radiofluorination of a novel monocarboxylate transporter 1 inhibitor for tumor imaging by PET
Sadeghzadeh, M.; Moldovan, R.-P.; Wenzel, B.; Fischer, S.; Teodoro, R.; Ludwig, F.-A.; Gurrapu, S.; Drewes, L. R.; Brust, P.
Monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) is an integral plasma membrane protein that bi-directionally transports lactate and ketone bodies and is highly expressed in non-hypoxic regions of human colon, brain, breast, lung and other tumors. Accordingly, MCT1 inhibitors are regarded to be of potential clinical use. In the current study we developed a new 18F-labeled radioligand for in vivo imaging of MCT1-overexpressing brain tumors by PET.
A new fluorinated analogue of α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (RM231) was synthesized from m-anisidine via alkylation, ortho formylation and Knoevenagel condensation in 50% overall yield. Its MCT1 inhibition activity was evaluated via [14C]lactate uptake assay on rat brain endothelial 4 cells. The mesylated precursor was similarly prepared in 52% overall yield. Radiosynthesis of [18F]RM231 was achieved by a two-step reaction, starting with the radiofluorination using [18F]-K2CO3-K222 complex followed by protective group removal via hydrolysis under optimized reaction conditions.
RM231 showed relatively high MCT1 inhibition activity (IC50 = 12 nM). The radiolabeled intermediate was obtained by an optimized procedure (acetonitrile, 5.5 mg of K222, 0.7 mg of K2CO3, 12-15 GBq of K18F, 100 ̊C, 8 min) with 44-50% yield determined by radio-HPLC analysis (N=3, non-isolated). The final product was obtained by hydrolysis with TFA in dry dichloromethane at room temperature for 10 minutes with 29% yield (radio-HPLC, non-isolated).[18F]RM231 could be obtained after separation using semi-preparative HPLC (RP C18 column; 30% ACN, 20 mM NH4CO2H). Currently, attempts are made to stabilize and formulate the final product appropriately for biological investigation. The newly developed MCT1 radioligand is anticipated to be a useful agent for imaging of the tumors with PET. Accordingly, animal studies on the new radiotracer are currently under investigation.
Keywords: Monocarboxylate transporter 1, α-Cyanocinnamic acid derivatives, Radiofluorination, Fluorine-18, Brain tumors.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    18th Radiochemical Conference, 13.-18.05.2018, Mariánské Lázně, Czeck Republic

Publ.-Id: 27549 - Permalink


Erratum: Three new low-energy resonances in the 22Ne(p,γ)23Na reaction
Cavanna, F.; Depalo, R.; Aliotta, M.; Anders, M.; Bemmerer, D.; Best, A.; Böltzig, A.; Broggini, C.; Bruno, C. G.; Caciolli, A.; Corvisiero, P.; Davinson, T.; Di Leva, A.; Elekes, Z.; Ferraro, F.; Formicola, A.; Fülöp, Z.; Gervino, G.; Guglielmetti, A.; Gustavino, C.; Gyürky, G.; Imbriani, G.; Junker, M.; Menegazzo, R.; Mossa, V.; Pantaleo, F. R.; Prati, P.; Scott, D. A.; Somorjai, E.; Straniero, O.; Strieder, F.; Szücs, T.; Takács, M. P.; Trezzi, D.
Reported strengths of newly discovered resonances in [F. Cavanna et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 252501 (2015)] were affected by an error in the analysis. The energy straggling of the ion beam was erroneously neglected. When taking this effect into account, 18-19% higher values are found for the resonance strengths. The astrophysical implications are unchanged.

Publ.-Id: 27547 - Permalink


Inductive System for Reliable Magnesium Level Detection in a Titanium Reduction Reactor
Krauter, N.; Eckert, S.; Gundrum, T.; Stefani, F.; Wondrak, T.; Frick, P.; Khalilov, R.; Teimurazov, A.
The determination of the Magnesium level in a Titanium reduction retort by inductive methods is often hampered by the formation of Titanium sponge rings which disturb the propagation of electromagnetic signals between excitation and receiver coils. We present a new method for the reliable identification of the Magnesium level which explicitly takes into account the presence of sponge rings with unknown geometry and conductivity. The inverse problem is solved by a look-up-table method, based on the solution of the inductive forward problems for several tens of thousands parameter combinations.
Keywords: titanium, Kroll process, level detection, inductive measurements

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Publ.-Id: 27532 - Permalink


Laser schaltet Magnet an und aus
Ehrler, J.ORC; Kronast, F.; Zhigilei, L. V.; Bali, R.
Mit einem Laserstrahl in einer Legierung magnetische Strukturen zu erzeugen und anschließend wieder zu löschen – das gelang einer internationalen Kooperation unter Leitung des Helmholtz-Zentrums Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR). Durch Laserpulse veränderte sie die Anordnung der Atome, was eine Veränderung der magnetischen Eigenschaften zur Folge hatte. Da Laser in der Industrie weit verbreitet sind, könnten sich für die Materialbearbeitung, für optische Technologien oder die Datenspeicherung neue Perspektiven eröffnen.
Related publications
Laser-Rewriteable Ferromagnetism at Thin Film Surfaces (Id 27198) is cited by this publication
  • Physik in unserer Zeit (2018)

Publ.-Id: 27530 - Permalink


Environmental fate of fission products: a comprenhensive study
Mayordomo, N.; Rodríguez, D. M.; Müller, K.ORC
Assuring a safe long-term nuclear waste management implies extensive knowledge on the fundamental behaviour of fission products in the surroundings of the feasible repository. This includes the radionuclide speciation, their migration, and their possible interaction with compartments of the technical and geological barriers, and biota.
Fission products, although generated in low yield, posse radiotoxicity and their half-life can be high (10^5 years). Among them, Se and Tc are especially relevant because some of their species are assumed highly mobile in water, since their interaction with the barrier materials (like clay) is considered negligible, as they are mainly found as anionic species [1].
We carry out a comprehensive study to fill the existing gaps of knowledge about the thermodynamic parameters and the molecular level information related to Tc and Se interaction with minerals. Our approach consist on having a global view of the interaction by combining experiments and theoretical tools [2]. On one hand the experiments consists on batch sorption experiments (to obtain the trend of sorption with pH, ionic strength or time) and on spectroscopic experiments (to get the information of the interaction at a molecular level). On the other hand, the theoretical tool consists on developing complexation models that allow the prediction of fission product-mineral interaction under given conditions and that can be adapted to other environments.
In this talk we focus on the Tc(VII) interaction with alumina. Alumina has been selected not only for its model character for complex minerals, but also because of its high affinity for anions, as Se(IV) [2].

This work has been developed in the frame of VESPA II project (02E11607B), supported by the German Ministry of Economy and Energy (BMWi).

[1] K.H. Lieser, et al. Radiochim. Acta. 42 (1987) 205–213.
[2] N. Mayordomo, et al. Environ. Sci. Technol. (2018) 581–588.
Keywords: Technetium, alumina, retention
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Goldschmidt 2018, 12.-17.08.2018, Boston, USA

Publ.-Id: 27529 - Permalink


The Feasibility of Studying 44Ti(α, p)47V Reaction at Astrophysical Energies
Al-Abdullah, Tariq; Bemmerer, D.; Elekes, Z.; Schumann, D.
The gamma-ray lines from the decay of 44Ti have been observed by space-based gamma-ray telescopes from two supernova remnants. It is believed that the 44Ti(α, p)47V reaction dominates the destruction of 44Ti. This work presents a possible technique to determine its reaction rate in forward kinematics at astrophysically relevant energies. Several online and offline measurements in parallel with Monte Carlo simulations were performed to illustrate the feasibility of performing this reaction. The results will be discussed.

Publ.-Id: 27528 - Permalink


Radiopharmaceutical evaluation of novel bifunctional chelators and bioconjugates for tumor imaging and therapy
Stephan, H.
The development of multi-functional complexing agents for radiometal nuclides with a view of nuclear medical application represents a field of research that is intensively dealt with and has rapidly been developing. In this context, ligands that form highly stable metal complexes and additionally possess several different functional groups are of particular interest. This enables the simultaneous introduction of targeting, solubilizing and, for example, fluorescent units into the relevant metal complexes. In this perspective, bifunctional chelating agents (BFCAs) based on 3,7-diazabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane (bispidine) and 1,4,7-triazacyclononane (TACN) are discussed. Examples of target-specific peptides and bio(nano)materials equipped with bispidine and TACN ligands for labeling with 64Cu as an ideal positron emitter are presented. This enables tumor imaging and the biodistribution of the materials to be studied over a period of days via positron emission tomography (PET). This lecture will also give an insight into the pre-targeting strategy using complementary oligonucleotides such as peptide nucleic acid (PNA) derivatives. The pre-targeting strategy allows for the rational use of long circulating, high affinity antibodies for both non-invasive cancer radioimmunodetection (RID) and –therapy (RIT).
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    IsoSiM Summer School 2018, Medical Isotope Production and Applications, 03.-07.06.2018, Harrison Hot Springs, Canada

Publ.-Id: 27525 - Permalink


From Point to Line Defects in Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Dichalcogenides: Insights from Transmission Electron Microscopy and First-Principles Calculations
Komsa, H.-P.; Krasheninnikov, A. V.ORC
Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have recently received great deal of attention due to their unique properties associated with the reduced dimensionality of the system. The properties of these materials have been shown to be affected by atomic defects in the atomic network. The very structure of these materials which are composed from three atomic layers only, combined with dramatic improvements in microscopy techniques, made it possible to study the behavior of defects in these systems with unprecedented accuracy. Various point and line defects were identified, and their effects on the properties of the systems were accessed. It was demonstrated that point defects induced by electron beam irradiation coalesce in line defects, but their quasi-one dimensional atomic structure varies from member to member in the transition metal dichalcogenides family. In this review, we summarize recent experimental and theoretical findings in this area, discuss how the line structures appear due to the agglomeration of point defects, and dwell upon how line defects can be used to engineer properties of 2D TMDs. Finally, we address the challenges in this field and issues which still lack the explanation.
Keywords: 2D materials
  • Book chapter
    Vittorio Morandi, Luca Ottaviano: Carbon nanostructures book series (CARBON), EU: Springer, 2017, 71-85
    DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-58134-7_6

Publ.-Id: 27520 - Permalink


Ring-like spatial distribution of laser accelerated protons in the ultra-high-contrast TNSA-regime
Becker, G. A.; Tietze, S.; Keppler, S.; Reislöhner, J.; Bin, J. H.; Bock, L.; Brack, F.-E.; Hein, J.; Hellwing, M.; Hilz, P.; Hornung, M.; Kessler, A.; Kraft, S. D.; Kuschel, S.; Liebetrau, H.; Ma, W.; Polz, J.; Schlenvoigt, H.-P.; Schorcht, F.; Schwab, M. B.; Seidel, A.; Zeil, K.; Schramm, U.; Zepf, M.; Schreiber, J.; Rykovanov, S.; Kaluza, M. C.
The spatial distribution of protons accelerated from submicron-thick plastic foil targets using multi-terawatt, frequency-doubled laser pulses with ultra-high temporal contrast has been investigated experimentally. A very stable, ring-like beam profile of the accelerated protons, oriented around the target's normal direction has been observed. The ring's opening angle has been found to decrease with increasing foil thicknesses. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations reproduce our results indicating that the ring is formed during the expansion of the proton density distribution into the vacuum as described by the mechanism of target-normal sheath acceleration. Here - in addition to the longitudinal electric fields responsible for the forward acceleration of the protons - a lateral charge separation leads to transverse field components accelerating the protons in the lateral direction.
Keywords: laser-plasma interaction, proton acceleration, proton beam profile, target normal sheath acceleration

Publ.-Id: 27519 - Permalink


Metal-organic complexes of tetravalent actinides with soft-donor ligands investigated by paramagnetic NMR spectroscopy
Schöne, S.ORC; Radoske, T.; Felsner, B.; Patzschke, M.ORC; März, J.ORC; Kaden, P.ORC
In NMR spectra of paramagnetic metal-organic complexes electronic interactions are the origin of additional NMR chemical shifts observed on resonances of nuclei of the ligand. The major two contributors to these hyperfine shifts are Fermi-contact shifts (FCS) and pseudo-contact shifts (PCS). FCS are due to delocalisation of unpaired electron density in molecular orbitals involving both metal and ligand orbitals and thus report on the bond properties. PCS are originating from distance- and angle-dependent dipolar coupling of electron spins through space and are therefore bearing structural information.
The paramagnetic contributions can be mathematical separated provided that a suitable diamagnetic reference is available (to subtract non-paramagnetic contributions). For the trivalent actinides no diamagnetic reference in the same series is available in milligram scale. Furthermore, all available theories behind mathematical disentangling of contributions to the paramagnetic chemical shift, even for the lanthanide series, omit the influence of spin-orbit effects that might have a sizeable contribution.[1,2]
Comparing studies of isostructural diamagnetic complexes of both f-element series of tetravalent metal ions (Ce(IV) and Th(IV)) allow for an estimation of additional influences to the chemical shifts and the effect of contributions usually omitted by commonly used mathematical theories.
We started to study paramagnetic metal-organic complexes of the tetravalent actinides (An(IV)). Throughout the 5f-series additional effects to the observed chemical shift are expected with increasing number of unpaired electrons. Assessing the chemical bonding situation is possible via the influences on NMR chemical shifts (via FCS) and structural properties of the complexes (via PCS) can be compared to SC-XRD structures. Herein we report the first results of investigations of N- and N,O-donor ligand complexes of the An(IV) series.

References
1 C. Adam, P. Kaden, B. B. Beele, U. Müllich, S. Trumm, A. Geist, P. J. Panak, M. A. Denecke, “Evidence for covalence in a N-donor complex of americium(III)”, Dalton Trans., 42, 14068-14074 (2013).
2. C. Adam, B. B. Beele, A. Geist, U. Müllich, P. Kaden, P. J. Panak, “NMR and TRLFS studies of Ln(III) and An(III) C5-BPP complexes”, Chemical Science, 6, 1548-1561 (2015).
Keywords: NMR, paramagnetic, Actinide, N-donor, FCS, PCS
  • Lecture (Conference)
    ISNSC - 10th International Symposium on Nano and Supramolecular Chemistry 2018, 09.-12.07.2018, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 27518 - Permalink


Paramagnetic NMR investigations in metal-organic complexes of tetravalent actinides with soft-donor ligands
Schöne, S.ORC; Radoske, T.; Felsner, B.; Patzschke, M.ORC; März, J.ORC; Kaden, P.ORC
Electronic interactions between metal and ligand are the origin of additional NMR chemical shifts observed on nuclei of the ligand in paramagnetic metal-organic complexes. The major two contributors to these paramagnetic chemical shifts are Fermi-contact shifts (FCS) and pseudo-contact shifts (PCS). FCS are due to delocalisation of unpaired electron density in molecular orbitals involving both metal and ligand orbitals and thus report on the bond properties. PCS are originating from distance- and angle-dependent dipolar coupling of electron spins through space and are therefore bearing structural information.
The mathematical separation of paramagnetic contributions in complexes relies on the availability of a suitable diamagnetic reference to subtract non-paramagnetic contributions. For the trivalent actinides no diamagnetic reference in the same series is available in milligram scale. Furthermore, all available theories behind mathematical disentangling of contributions to the paramagnetic chemical shift, even for the lanthanide series, omit the influence of spin-orbit effects that might have a sizeable contribution as well. [1,2]
Comparing isostructural diamagnetic complexes of both f-element series of tetravalent metal ions (Ce(IV) and Th(IV)) allows for an estimation of additional influences to the chemical shifts and the effect of contributions usually omitted by commonly used mathematical theories.
To assess the chemical bonding situation via the influences on NMR chemical shifts (via FCS) we started to study paramagnetic metal-organic complexes of the tetravalent actinides (An(IV)). With increasing number of unpaired electrons throughout the 5f-series additional effects to the observed chemical shift are expected. Structural properties of the complexes as derived from PCS contributions can be compared to single crystal X-ray diffraction structures. Herein we report the first results of investigations of N- and N,O-donor ligand complexes of the An(IV) series.

References
1 C. Adam, P. Kaden, B. B. Beele, U. Müllich, S. Trumm, A. Geist, P. J. Panak, M. A. Denecke, “Evidence for covalence in a N-donor complex of americium(III)”, Dalton Trans., 42, 14068-14074 (2013).
2. C. Adam, B. B. Beele, A. Geist, U. Müllich, P. Kaden, P. J. Panak, “NMR and TRLFS studies of Ln(III) and An(III) C5-BPP complexes”, Chemical Science, 6, 1548-1561 (2015).
Keywords: NMR, paramagnetic, Actinide, N-donor, FCS, PCS, structure determination, solution
  • Lecture (Conference)
    18th Radiochemical Conference - RadChem 2018, 13.-18.05.2018, Mariánské Lázně, Tschechische Rupublik
  • Contribution to proceedings
    18th Radiochemical Conference, 13.-18.05.2018, Mariánské Lázně, Tschechische Rupublik
    Czech Chemical Society Symposium Series 2

Publ.-Id: 27517 - Permalink


Critical heat flux as a mass flux dependent local or global phenomenon: Theoretical analysis and experimental confirmation
Ding, W.; Geißler, T.; Krepper, E.; Hampel, U.
In this article, we report on a theoretical analysis and experimental investigations on critical heat flux (CHF) in subcooled flow boiling. Commonly, CHF is considered as a local phenomenon. A validated CHF- concept recently developed in our group indicated that CHF may be initiated in two different ways, that is, locally and globally. We designed and conducted an experiment to verify this hypothesis. The experimental results agree well with the expectations from our CHF- modelling and confirm the two mechanisms. Following that, we continued to clarify the role of different parameters, such as channel orientation, channel length and hydraulic diameter. The new concept of CHF is useful to explain and predict CHF at conditions of low pressure and low fluid velocity.
Keywords: boiling, critical heat flux, initiation mechanisms

Publ.-Id: 27515 - Permalink


Long-term quality of life in inoperable non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with conventionally fractionated compared to hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy - Results of the randomized CHARTWEL trial
Hechtner, M.; Krause, M.; Konig, J.; Appold, S.; Hornemann, B.; Singer, S.; Baumann, M.
Background and purpose: To evaluate the quality of life (QoL) of patients with inoperable non-small cell lung cancer treated with conventionally fractionated radiotherapy (CF) vs. continuous hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy weekend-less (CHARTWEL).
Material and methods: The largest monocentric subgroup of the phase III CHARTWEL trial was analyzed up to three years after randomization. QoL was assessed with the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QoL Core Questionnaire (QLQ-C30) and lung cancer module (QLQ-LC13) and compared using linear mixed models. QoL interrelations with recurrence, metastasis, and death were explored by multi-state modeling.
Results: 160 patients (98%) provided at least one QoL assessment.
Average treatment differences of CF vs. CHARTWEL over three years were -5.4 points (95%CI [-13.6,2.8], p = 0.19) in global QoL, 11.9 ([2.8,21.0], p = 0.01) in fatigue, 13.4 ([3.5,23.3], p = 0.009) in pain, 10.5 ([1.3,19.6], p = 0.03) in dyspnea, and 5.2 ([-2.7,13.0], p = 0.19) in dysphagia. At 12 months, the probabilities of being disease-free with good, good or moderate, any global QoL, or alive were 5.1%, 20.3%, 34.2%, 54.4% under CF and 10.4%, 21.0%, 37.5%, 65.3% under CHARTWEL.
Conclusions: Over three years, QoL was similar or more favorable under CHARTWEL compared to CF. Modeling QoL together with disease states provided additional insight into treatment comparisons.
Keywords: Quality of life Non-small cell lung cancer Accelerated radiotherapy Hyperfractionation Randomized trial Multi-state model

Publ.-Id: 27513 - Permalink


Cognitive deficits following brain tumor radiation therapy
Buthut, M.; Haussmann, R.; Seidlitz, A.; Krause, M.; Donix, M.
Brain radiation is an important treatment option for malignant and benign brain diseases. The possible acute or chronic impact of radiation therapy on cognitive performance is important for daily functioning and quality of life. A detailed evaluation of cognitive impairment is important in the context of how to control disease progression. The susceptibility of the hippocampus to radiation-induced neuronal damage and its important role in memory highlight that therapeutic strategies require precision medicine.

Publ.-Id: 27512 - Permalink


Magnetohydrodynamic Simulation: Liquid Metal Batteries, Crystal Growth & Steel Casting
Weber, N.; Beckstein, P.; Galindo, V.; Giesecke, A.; Liu, K.; Pal, J.; Personnettaz, P.; Stefani, F.; Timmel, K.; Weier, T.
Der Vortrag gibt einen Überblick über numerische Simulationen der Abteilung Magnetohydrodynamik am HZDR.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    OpenFOAM Stammtisch United, 24.05.2018, Dresden, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 27511 - Permalink


Quantum Criticality of an Ising-like Spin-1/2 Antiferromagnetic Chain in a Transverse Magnetic Field
Wang, Z.; Lorenz, T.; Gorbunov, D.  I.; Cong, P.  T.; Kohama, Y.; Niesen, S.; Breunig, O.; Engelmayer, J.; Herman, A.; Wu, J.; Kindo, K.; Wosnitza, J.; Zherlitsyn, S.; Loidl, A.
We report on magnetization, sound velocity, and magnetocaloric-effect measurements of the Ising-like spin-1/2 quantum antiferromagnetic chain BaCo$_2$V$_2$O$_8$ as a function of temperature down to 1.3~K and applied transverse magnetic field up to 60~T. While across the Ne\'{e}l temperature of $T_N\sim5$~K anomalies in magnetization and sound velocity confirm the antiferromagnetic ordering transition, at the lowest temperature in the field-dependent measurements we find a sharp softening of sound velocity and a clear temperature minimum at $B^{c,3D}_\perp=21.4$~T, indicating suppression of the antiferromagnetic order. At higher fields, magnetocaloric-effect measurements reveal a broad temperature minimum at $B^c_\perp = 40$~T, accompanied by a broad minimum of sound velocity and a saturation-like level-off in magnetization. These features signal a quantum phase transition that is further quantified by the divergent behavior of Gr\"{u}neisen parameter $\Gamma_B \propto (B-B^{c}_\perp)^{-1}$. By contrast, at the critical field the Gr\"{u}neisen parameter converges to a constant as temperature decreases towards zero, which is a distinct characteristics of the one-dimensional transverse-field Ising quantum critical point.
Keywords: Spin chain, quantum critical point, transverse field Ising model, BaCo2V2O8, magnetization, sound velocity, magnetocaloric effects

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Publ.-Id: 27509 - Permalink


Magnetic field dependence of antiferromagnetic resonance in NiO
Wang, Z.; Kovalev, S.; Awari, N.; Chen, M.; Germanskiy, S.; Green, B.; Deinert, J.-C.; Kampfrath, T.; Milano, J.; Gensch, M.
We report on measurements of magnetic field and temperature dependence of antiferromagnetic resonances in the prototypical antiferromagnet NiO. The frequencies of the magnetic resonances in the vicinity of 1 THz have been determined in the time-domain via time-resolved Faraday measurements after selective excitation by narrow-band superradiant terahertz (THz) pulses at temperatures down to 3 K and in magnetic fields up to 10 T. The measurements reveal two antiferromagnetic resonance modes, which can be distinguished by their characteristic magnetic field dependencies. The nature of the two modes is discussed by comparison to an eight-sublattice antiferromagnetic model, which includes superexchange between the next-nearest-neighbor Ni spins, magnetic dipolar interactions, cubic magneto-crystalline anisotropy, and Zeeman interaction with the external magnetic field. Our study indicates that a two-sublattice model is insufficient for the description of spin dynamics in NiO, while the magnetic-dipolar interactions and magneto-crystalline anisotropy play important roles.
Keywords: NiO, terahertz spectroscopy, antiferromagnetic resonance, magnetic field

Publ.-Id: 27508 - Permalink


SRF gun II - status as of April 2018
Arnold, A.; Teichert, J.; Xiang, R.; Murcek, P.
In May 2014 the 1st superconducting photo injector (SRF gun) at HZDR was replaced by a new gun, featuring a new resonator and a new cryostat. The intention for this upgrade was to reach higher beam energy, higher bunch charge and lower emittance at the same time. With the improved parameters user experiments of the superconducting CW accelerator ELBE are to be served, that benefit from an increased average beam current at a given repetition rate of some hundred kHz. Although the cavity performance stays behind its specifications, the SRF gun has been optimized for an operation mode at 200 pC and a repetition rate of 100 kHz to generate four times more THz pulse energy then possible by ELBE's thermionic injector. Because of this significant improvement, the new gun has been recently used for first user shifts at the THz facility at ELBE. In this contribution we will report on first results and operational experiences.
Keywords: SRF gun, superconducting RF injector, ELBE, electron source
  • Lecture (others)
    HOPE II Projekttreffen im Rahmen BMBF Verbundforschungsinitiative, 16.04.2018, Mainz, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 27506 - Permalink


Pushing the limits of applicability of REBCO coated conductor films through fine chemical tuning and nanoengineering of inclusions
Rizzo, F.; Augieri, A.; Kursumovic, A.; Bianchetti, M.; Opherden, L.; Sieger, M.; Hühne, R.; Hänisch, J.; Meledin, A.; van Tendeloo, G.; Macmanus-Driscol, J. L.; Celentano, G.
An outstanding current carrying performance (namely critical current density, Jc) over a broad temperature range of 10–77 K for magnetic fields up to 12 T is reported for films of YBa2Cu3O7−x with Ba2Y(Nb,Ta)O6 inclusion pinning centres (YBCO-BYNTO) and thicknesses in the range of 220–500 nm. Jc values of 10 MA cm−2 were measured at 30 K – 5 T and 10 K – 9 T with a corresponding maximum of the pinning force density at 10 K close to 1 TN m−3. The system is very flexible regarding properties and microstructure tuning, and the growth window for achieving a particular microstructure is wide, which is very important for industrial processing. Hence, the dependence of Jc on the magnetic field angle was readily controlled by fine tuning the pinning microstructure. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis highlighted that higher growth rates induce more splayed and denser BYNTO nanocolumns with a matching field as high as 5.2 T. Correspondingly, a strong peak at the B||c-axis is noticed when the density of vortices is lower than the nanocolumn density. YBCO-BYNTO is a very robust and reproducible composite system for high-current coated conductors over an extended range of magnetic fields and temperatures.

Publ.-Id: 27503 - Permalink


Anomalous Hall effect in fully compensated half-metallic Mn₂RuₓGa thin films
Fowley, C.; Rode, K.; Lau, Y. C.; Thiyagarajah, N.; Betto, D.; Borisov, K.; Atcheson, G.; Kampert, E.; Wang, Z.; Yuan, Y.; Zhou, S.; Lindner, J.; Stamenov, P.; Coey, J. M. D.; Deac, A. M.
High-field magnetotransport is investigated in thin films of half-metallic ferrimagnet Mn₂RuₓGa. A non-vanishing Hall signal is observed over a broad temperature range, spanning the compensation temperature (155K), where the net magnetic moment is strictly zero, the Hall conductivity is 6673 Ohm⁻¹ m⁻¹ and the coercivity exceeds 9T. Molecular field modelling is used to determine the intra- and inter-sublattice exchange constants and from the spin-flop transition we infer the anisotropy of the electrically active sublattice to be 216 kJm⁻³ and predict the magnetic resonances frequencies. Exchange and anisotropy are comparable and hard-axis applied magnetic fields result in a tilting of the magnetic moments from their collinear ground state. Our analysis is applicable to collinear ferrimagnetic half-metal systems.
Keywords: Ferrimagnetism, Magnetotransport, Half-metals, Anomalous Hall effect, Magnetic anisotropy, Exchange interaction
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Intermag 2018, 23.-27.04.2018, Singapore, Singapore

Publ.-Id: 27502 - Permalink


Features of magnetization behavior in the rare-earth intermetallic compound (Nd0.5Ho0.5)2Fe14B
Kostyuchenko, N. V.; Tereshina, I. S.; Gorbunov, D. I.; Tereshina-Chitrova, E. A.; Andreev, A. V.; Doerr, M.; Politova, G. A.; Zvezdin, A. K.
The crystal-electric field parameters are determined for the (Nd0.5Ho0.5)2Fe14B compound by analyzing experimental magnetization curves obtained in magnetic fields up to 60 T. The values of the crystal-field parameters B20, B40, B60, B44, B64 are 56.3, −73.2, −10.74, −8.9, 0 cm−1 for Nd3+ ion and 312.38, −176.78, 89.2, −88.43, 0 cm−1 for Ho3+ ion. The transition from the ferri- to the field-induced ferromagnetic state has been studied in detail.

Publ.-Id: 27501 - Permalink


Magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of single Crystal (Nd0.5Pr0.5)2Fe14B
Politova, G. A.; Tereshina, I. S.; Gorbunov, D. I.; Paukov, M. A.; Andreev, A. V.; Grechishkin, R. M.; Rogacki, K.
In this work the magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of a (Nd0.5Pr0.5)2Fe14B single crystal have been investigated in a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields. Magnetic phase transition temperatures (spin-reorientation transition (SRT) at TSR = 73 K and Curie point at Tc = 570 K) were determined together with the values of saturation magnetization Ms and magnetocrystalline anisotropy constants K1 and K2. In the vicinity of a spin-reorientation magnetic phase transition, the value of the magnetocaloric effect was determined as an isothermal magnetic entropy change (DSM). The universal curve of ΔS´(ʘ) around TSR under various magnetic field changes has been constructed by using a phenomenological procedure. It is found that this approach is applicable to materials with a second-order spin-reorientation phase transition.

Publ.-Id: 27500 - Permalink


Complex magnetic order in the kagome ferromagnet Pr3Ru4Al12
Henriques, M. S.; Gorbunov, D. I.; Andreev, A. V.; Fabrèges, X.; Gukasov, A.; Uhlarz, M.; Petricek, V.; Ouladdiaf, B.; Wosnitza, J.
In the hexagonal crystal structure of Pr3Ru4Al12, the Pr atoms form a distorted kagome lattice, and their magnetic moments, are subject to competing exchange and anisotropy interactions.We performed magnetization, magnetic-susceptibility, specific-heat, electrical-resistivity, and neutron-scattering measurements. Pr3Ru4Al12 is a uniaxial ferromagnet with TC = 39 K that displays a collinear magnetic structure (in the high-temperature range of the magnetically ordered state) for which the only crystallographic position of Pr is split into two sites carrying different magnetic moments. A spin-reorientation phase transition is found at 7 K. Below this temperature, part of the Pr moments rotate towards the basal plane, resulting in a noncollinear magnetic state with a lower magnetic symmetry. We argue that unequal RKKY exchange interactions competing with the crystal electric field lead to a moment instability and qualitatively explain the observed magnetic phases in Pr3Ru4Al12.

Publ.-Id: 27499 - Permalink


Bethe‐Strings: Exotische Anregungen in Spinsystemen
Wang, Z.; Loidl, A.
Hans Bethe sagte 1931 in einer fundamentalen Arbeit die Existenz von stark gebundenen Zuständen von Quasiteilchen voraus. Nun konnte eine internationale Kooperation erstmals derartige Bethe‐Strings in einem Kristall nachweisen.
Keywords: Spin Kette, Quasiteilchen, String Erregungen, Hans Bethe

Publ.-Id: 27497 - Permalink


Stability and instability of hydromagnetic Taylor–Couette flows
Rüdiger, G.; Gellert, M.; Hollerbach, R.; Schultz, M.; Stefani, F.
Decades ago S. Lundquist, S. Chandrasekhar, P. H. Roberts and R. J. Tayler first posed questions about the stability of Taylor–Couette flows of conducting material under the influence of large-scale magnetic fields. These and many new questions can now be answered numerically where the nonlinear simulations even provide the instability-induced values of several transport coefficients. The cylindrical containers are axially unbounded and penetrated by magnetic background fields with axial and/or azimuthal components. The influence of the magnetic Prandtl number Pm on the onset of the instabilities is shown to be substantial. The potential flow subject to axial fields becomes unstable against axisymmetric perturbations for a certain supercritical value of the averaged Reynolds number (with Re the Reynolds number of rotation, Rm its magnetic Reynolds number). Rotation profiles as flat as the quasi-Keplerian rotation law scale similarly but only for Pm >> 1 while for the instability instead sets in for supercritical Rm at an optimal value of the magnetic field. Among the considered instabilities of azimuthal fields, those of the Chandrasekhar-type, where the background field and the background flow have identical radial profiles, are particularly interesting. They are unstable against nonaxisymmetric perturbations if at least one of the diffusivities is non-zero. For Pm << 1the onset of the instability scales with Re while it scales with Rm for Pm >> 1. Even superrotation can be destabilized by azimuthal and current-free magnetic fields; this recently discovered nonaxisymmetric instability is of a double-diffusive character, thus excluding Pm=1 . It scales with Re for Pm -> 0 and with Rm for Pm -> infinity.
The presented results allow the construction of several new experiments with liquid metals as the conducting fluid. Some of them are described here and their results will be discussed together with relevant diversifications of the magnetic instability theory including nonlinear numerical studies of the kinetic and magnetic energies, the azimuthal spectra and the influence of the Hall effect.

Publ.-Id: 27496 - Permalink


A Cu Photocathode for the Superconducting RF Photoinjector of BERLinPro
Kühn, J.; Bürger, M.; Frahm, A.; Jankowiak, A.; Kamps, T.; Klemz, G.; Kourkafas, G.; Neumann, A.; Ohm, N.; Schmeißer, M.; Schuster, M.; Völker, J.; Murcek, P.; Teichert, J.
The initial commissioning of the Superconducting RF (SRF) photoinjector is achieved with a Cu photocathode due to its robustness with respect to interactions with the SRF cavity of the injector. Here we present the preparation and characterization of a Cu photocathode plug and the diagnostics to insert the photocathode in the back wall of the SRF cavity. A polycrystalline bulk Cu plug was polished, particle free cleaned and characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. During the transfer of the photocathode insert into the gun module the whole process was controlled by several diagnostic tools monitoring the insert position as well as RF, vacuum and cryogenic signals. We discuss the challenges of the photocathode transfer into an SRF cavity and how they can be tackled.
Keywords: electron source, photocathode, Cu, SRF gun, superconducting RF
  • Poster
    9th International Particle Accelerator Conference IPAC´18, 29.04.-04.05.2018, Vancouver, Canada

Publ.-Id: 27493 - Permalink


Reply to “Comment on Methodological accuracy of image-based electron density assessment using dual-energy computed tomography” [Med. Phys. 44, 2429-2437 (2017)]
Möhler, C.ORC; Wohlfahrt, P.ORC; Richter, C.; Greilich, S.ORC
To the editor,
In his recent letter, Dr. Bouchard expressed his concern that our article on electron density (ED) assessment with dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) contained “some errors and speculative arguments”. We are aware that any study — no matter how carefully conducted — can exhibit erroneous aspects. In this case, however, we concluded that most of the statements and additional data provided by Dr. Bouchard in fact support the key findings of our paper, while other points raised can be attributed to a different use of concepts and to occasional overinterpretation. We therefore firmly reject his assertion. In this reply we provide our response to the criticism
raised:
Keywords: dual-energy CT, electron density, proton therapy

Publ.-Id: 27492 - Permalink


EOS at cw beam operation at Elbe
Schneider, C.; Gensch, M.; Kuntzsch, M.; Michel, P.; Seidel, W.; Kaya, K.; Al Shemmary, A.; Stojanovic, N.; Evtushenko, P.
The ELBE accelerator is a super conduction electron cw machine located at the Helmholtz Center Dresden Rossendorf Germany with 1 mA current, now tested for up to 2 mA. Besides other important diagnostics for setting up the machine for user beam time and further improvement of the machine – a THz source is momentary under commissioning – a EOS measuring station for bunch length measurements is locate right behind the second super conducting Linac. Measuring with a crystal in the vicinity of an up to 2 mA cw beam implies higher beam loss and also higher radiation exposure of the crystal and hence also a safety risk for the UHV conditions of the super conducting cavities in the case of crystal damage. Therefore the EOS measuring principle is adapted to larger measuring distances and also for beam requirements with lower bunch charge at ELBE. A description of the setup, considerations of special boundary conditions and as well results for 13 MHz cw beam operation are presented.
  • Open Access LogoContribution to proceedings
    IPAC2014 - 5th International Particle Accelerator Conference, 15.-20.06.2014, Dresden, Germany

Publ.-Id: 27491 - Permalink


Microresonator-ferromagnetic resonance investigation of thermal spin-transfer torque in Co2FeAl/MgO/CoFeB magnetic tunnel junctions
Cansever, H.ORC; Narkowicz, R.; Lenz, K.; Fowley, C.; Ramasubramanian, L.; Yildirim, O.; Niesen, A.; Huebner, T.ORC; Reiss, G.; Lindner, J.; Fassbender, J.; Deac, A. M.
Similar to electrical currents flowing through magnetic multilayers [1,2], thermal gradients applied across the barrier of a magnetic tunnel junction may induce pure spin currents and generate ‘thermal’ spin-transfer torques large enough to induce magnetization dynamics on the free layer [3, 4]. The relation of spin current, charge current and heat current was theoretically described by Bauer et al. using Onsager’s reciprocity rule [5]. According to Onsager’s law, spin currents can be produced by bias voltages or thermal gradients and investigated in terms of spin-Seebeck effect in magnetic multilayers.
First, Hatami et al. theoretically studied the spin-Seebeck effect in spin-valves and introduced the concept of thermal spin-transfer torques. They predicted that the thermally induced spin current creates an imbalance on the interface between non-magnetic and ferromagnetic layers due to collisions (electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions) [3]. Thermal spin-transfer torques were studied experimentally within asymmetric Co/Cu/Co nanowire spin-valves which exhibit switching field changes under varying a.c. currents causing Joule heating [6]. In magnetic tunnel junctions, it was theoretically predicted that temperature differences of around 10 K over an ultrathin barrier (1 nm) can create magnetization dynamics in Fe/MgO/Fe magnetic tunnel junctions [4]. The spin-Seebeck effect has been studied on CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB magnetic tunnel junctions using different heating methods such as Joule heating, heating with Peltier elements, as well as laser heating [8-14]. Recently, it was shown that using Co2FeAl as a reference layer improves tunneling magneto-Seebeck (TMS) in magnetic tunnel junctions [7].
Here, we describe a novel experimental approach and setup to observe effects of thermal gradients within magnetic tunnel junctions with Heusler compounds by using the microresonator ferromagnetic resonance (µR-FMR) method under laser heating. Initially, microresonators (shown in figure 1) were introduced by Narkowicz et al. for electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) experiments to achieve optimal sensitivity for small objects [8]. Detecting the FMR signal of nano- to micron-sized samples in conventional cavities (cm3) is not possible, due to the too small ferromagnetic volume, and therefore low filling factor. A planar microresonator, by definition, is a two-dimensional structure, its diameter can be tailored to match the order of the sample’s size (shown as a black ellipse in the microresonator loop in figure 1). Two stubs are attached to the inductive loop. The capacitive radial stub in first approximation may be viewed as an element to tune the loop to the operation frequency, while the rectangular stub matches the structure to the 50 Ω impedance of the microstrip feedline.

Figure 1: Layout of a planar microresonator with simulated electric field distribution at the resonance frequency. The inset shows the current and magnetic field distribution (out-of-plane direction) in the loop containing a sample (black ellipse).
We investigated magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) fabricated out of Co2FeAl/MgO/CoFeB stacks. The sample and microresonator fabrication consist of multiple steps of lithography, ion etching and lift-off processes. The sample is finally patterned into a 6x9 µm2 elliptical shape using electron beam lithography (EBL) and ion beam etching is used to etch down the sample to the substrate. Microresonators are then fabricated around the sample using UV lithography. For laser heating, a continuous-wave (CW) laser at 532 nm wavelength and with tunable power up to 33 mW is focused on the sample.
“Hot-FMR” measurements were performed on unpatterned multilayers between 300 K and 450 K (figure 2) to understand the effect of global heating. It is clearly seen that the FMR signal of Co2FeAl exhibits a shift with increasing temperature. As seen in the inset graph, it is difficult to quantify the changes for the CoFeB signal, due to its small intensity. Subsequent, measurements in the presence of a thermal gradient were performed on 6x9 µm2 MTJs, integrated into microresonator loops with an inner diameter of 20 µm. The MTJs were submitted to laser irradiation, up to a maximum power of 33 mW. Unlike the Hot-FMR measurements, the resonance field and linewidth did not show clear changes with increasing laser power. The results suggest that the laser power is neither sufficient to induce magnetization dynamics via thermal gradients across the barrier, nor lead to significant changes of the magnetic parameters due to global heating of the sample.
Figure 2: FMR spectra of the extended films of Co2FeAl / MgO / CoFeB measured in the in-plane direction at different temperatures
As a conclusion, the effect of a global temperature change on the resonance frequency and linewidth of Co2FeAl was analyzed. With regards to the µR-FMR results, higher laser power is needed to induce magnetization dynamics. Moreover, the lateral heat transport might reduce the vertical thermal gradients, thus similar measurements on smaller structures are required.
This study was funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) via priority program SpinCaT (SPP 1538). We thank H. Schultheiss for helping with the optical part of the experimental setup and S. Zhou for giving the access to the VSM setup.
[1] J.C. Slonczewski, J. Magn. Magn. Mater. 159, L1, (1996).
[2] L. Berger, Phys. Rev. B 54, 9353, (1996).
[3] M. Hatami, G.E.W. Bauer, Q. Zhang and P.J. Kelly, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 066603 (2007).
[4] X. Jia, K. Xia and G.E.W. Bauer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 176603 (2011).
[5] G.E.W. Bauer, E. Saitoh and B.J. van Wees, Nature Mater. 11, 391, (2012).
[6] H. Yu, S. Granville, D.P. Yu and J.-Ph. Ansermet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 146601 (2010).
[7] A. Boehnke, U. Martens, C. Sterwerf, A. Niesen, T. Huebner, M. von der Ehe, M. Meinert, T. Kuschel, A. Thomas, C. Heiliger, M. Münzenberg M, Nature Communications 8,(1),1626, (2017).
[8] R. Narkowicz, D. Suter and R. Stonies, J. Magn. Reson.175, 275 (2005).
Keywords: thermal spin transfer torque, ferromagnetic resonance, microresonator, magnetic tunnel junctions
  • Lecture (Conference)
    INTERMAG 2018 Singapore, 23.-27.04.2018, Singapore, Singapore

Publ.-Id: 27490 - Permalink


Radiation Tests Of Aerospace Components At Elbe
Schneider, C.; Bemmerer, D.; Michel, P.; Stach, D.
The cw electron accelerator ELBE operates mainly in the beam energy range 6 to 32 MeV and beam current range 1μA to 1mA. For most experiments a thermionic gun is used as electron source. The cw electron pulse structure so as the pulse charge is realized by applying electrical pulses with specific amplitudes and frequencies on the grid of the gun. The standard cw operation frequency is 13 MHz but can be divided sequentially by the factor 2 down to 101 kHz. For very special pulse structures a so called single pulser module exist performing different patterns also with dark current suppression via a macro pulser gate. For evaluating the performance and hardness under irradiation of e.g. aerospace components much lower doses resp. currents lower than the μA range are required. Furthermore reproducible and stable doses in a specific area for consecutively radiation of samples are necessary. In the presentation the investigations and concepts used at ELBE for the irradiation of different aerospace components are described.
  • Open Access LogoContribution to proceedings
    IPAC2017 - 8th International Particle Accelerator Conference, 14.-19.05.2017, Copenhagen, Denmark

Publ.-Id: 27489 - Permalink


Unmixing-based feature extraction for mineral mapping
Contreras, C.; Khodadadzadeh, M.; Tusa, L.; Gloaguen, R.
Hyperspectral imaging is a well-accepted technology for mineral mapping. However, the advantage of using
hyperspectral data for this purpose depends on the applied techniques. Spectral unmixing and classification
algorithms have been widely applied in the literature to map and determine different minerals composition.
Generally, these two algorithms are used independently, however, in the scientific community dedicated to the
field of land cover classification, new techniques have been developed in which, both classification and spectral
unmixing are used complementarily. For example, spectral unmixing techniques have been used for feature
extraction prior to a supervised classification. This strategy has been explored to address the problem of mixed
pixels, which are dominant in hyperspectral images. Previous studies concluded that using unmixing-based
features do not particularly improve classification accuracies in comparison to applying the extracted features
by a classic algorithm such as the Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF). However, the advantage over this is that
features extracted from spectral unmixing techniques have physical meaning since they can be interpreted as the
abundances of the materials present in the scene, and they do not relegate variations of features with less significant
signal-to-noise ratio, therefore, small classes are better characterized. Nevertheless, in geological remote sensing
applications, the use of spectral unmixing as a feature extraction technique prior to a supervised classification has
not been previously applied.
In this context, this work proposes the use of an automatic endmember extraction algorithm (e.g., Vertex
Component Analysis – VCA) to further obtain the mineral abundances at a sub-pixel scale with a linear unmixing
process. These features are subsequently used as inputs to a standard supervised classification technique (e.g.,
Support Vector Machine – SVM). The experiments are carried out on a hyperspectral VNIR/SWIR dataset
of core samples. With this technique, we introduce a novel supervised approach, which, based on preliminary
attempts, is expected to deliver both qualitative and quantitative improvements in the final classification accuracies.
  • Poster
    European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2018 (EGU), 08.-13.04.2018, Vienna, Austria

Publ.-Id: 27488 - Permalink


Design Of A Stripline Kicker For The Elbe Accelerator
Schneider, C.; Arnold, A.; Hauser, J.; Michel, P.; Staats, G.
ELBE is a linac based cw electron accelerator serving different secondary beams one at a time. Depending on the user demand the bunch repetition rate may vary from single pulse up to 13 MHz. For the future different end stations should be served simultaneously, hence specific bunch patterns have to be kicked into different beam-lines. To use e.g. one bunch out of the bunch train very short kicking durations have to be realized. The variabil-ity of the bunch pattern and the frequency resp. switching time are one of the main arguments for a stripline-kicker combined with high voltage (HV)-switches as basic con-cept. A nearly homogenous field in the kicker has to be realized for uniform deflection of the electron bunch and keep the emittance growth of the bunch as low as possi-ble. Furthermore the fast switching ability of the kicker demands for a fast decay of the HV-pulse resp. its reflec-tions in the structure implying a specific design of the kicker elements. For this reason a design with two tapered active electrodes and two ground fenders was optimized in time and frequency domain with the software package CST. Additionally a first prototype was manufactured for laboratory and first beam-line tests.
  • Open Access LogoContribution to proceedings
    IPAC2017 - 8th International Particle Accelerator Conference, 14.-19.05.2017, Copenhagen, Denmark

Publ.-Id: 27487 - Permalink


Recent Developments of the Liquid Metal Taylor Couette Experiment PROMISE
Seilmayer, M.; Stefani, F.; Gundrum, T.
In the beginning of the 20th century Taylor-Couette (TC) experiments were carried out with transparent liquids like water or air, which are electrical no-conducting. With the first experiments of Donnelly [1] in the sixties, a more general approach with liquid metal experiments started to investigate the interaction between magnetic fields and the TC flows of electrically conducting fluids. Two challenges of opaque liquid metal experiments are the measurement technique to investigate the flow structure inside the liquid and the precision and strength of the magnetic field.
We like to report recent results carried out with a quasi coaxial return path, which was introduced to the PROMIS experiment in the last years. Instead of the former frame coil an axial-symmetric return path closes the electrical circuit, which improves the field symmetry inside the experiment and minimizes the stray field outside the setup. Since this arrangement consists of an electrical parallel connection of the return conductors and the parallel connection of the hydraulic cooling circuit, it must be checked whether stability problems can occur in the current distribution in the return conductors. It turned out that the current return design can be controlled by simple and cheap proportional heater valves [2].

[1] R. J. Donnelly and M. Ozima, Phys. Rev. Lett., 4(10), 497--498, 1960
[2] M. Seilmayer and N. Krauter, IEEE Sensors Journal, 18(3), 1256--1264, 201
Keywords: DRESDYN, PROMISE, MRI, AMRI, Taylor Couette, Liquid Metal
  • Lecture (Conference)
    ICTW 20: 20th International Couette-Taylor Workshop, 11.-13.07.2018, Marseille, France

Publ.-Id: 27485 - Permalink


Strain and order-parameter coupling in Ni-Mn-Ga Heusler alloys from resonant ultrasound spectroscopy
Salazar Mejia, C.; Born, N.-O.; Schiemer, J. A.; Felser, C.; Carpenter, M. A.; Nicklas, M.
Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility experiments have been used to characterize strain coupling phenomena associated with structural and magnetic properties of the shape-memory Heusler alloy series Ni50+xMn25−xGa25 (x=0, 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5). All samples exhibit a martensitic transformation at temperature TM and ferromagnetic ordering at temperature TC, while the pure end member (x=0) also has a premartensitic transition at TPM, giving four different scenarios:
Tc > TPM > TM, TC > TM without premartensitic transition, TC ≈ TM, and TC < TM. Fundamental differences in elastic properties, i.e., stiffening versus softening, are explained in terms of coupling of shear strains with three discrete order parameters relating to magnetic ordering, a soft mode, and the electronic instability responsible for the large strains typical of martensitic transitions. Linear-quadratic or biquadratic coupling between these order parameters, either directly or indirectly via the common strains, is then used to explain the stabilities of the different structures. Acoustic losses are attributed to critical slowing down at the premartensite transition, to the mobility of interphases between coexisting phases at the martensitic transition, and to mobility of some aspect of the twin walls under applied stress down to the lowest temperatures at which measurements were made.

Publ.-Id: 27478 - Permalink


Investigating spin-transfer torques induced by thermal gradients in magnetic tunnel junctions by using micro-cavity ferromagnetic resonance
Cansever, H.; Narkowicz, R.; Lenz, K.; Fowley, C.; Ramasubramanian, L.; Yildirim, O.; Niesen, A.; Huebner, T.; Reiss, G.; Lindner, J.; Fassbender, J.; Deac, A. M.
Similar to electrical currents flowing through magnetic multilayers, thermal gradients applied across the barrier of a magnetic tunnel junction may induce pure spin-currents and generate ‘ thermal’ spin-transfer torques large enough to induce magnetization dynamics in the free layer. In this study, we describe a novel experimental approach to observe spin-transfer torques induced by thermal gradients in magnetic multilayers by studying their ferromagnetic resonance response in microwave cavities. Utilizing this approach allows for measuring the magnetization dynamics on micron/nano-sized samples in open-circuit conditions, i.e. without the need of electrical contacts. We performed first experiments on magnetic tunnel junctions patterned into 6×9μm2 ellipses from Co2FeAl/MgO/CoFeB stacks. We conducted microresonator ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) under focused laser illumination to induce thermal gradients in the layer stack and compared them to measurements in which the sample was globally heated from the backside of the substrate. Moreover, we carried out broadband FMR measurements under global heating conditions on the same extended films the microstructures were later on prepared from. The results clearly demonstrate the effect of thermal spin-torque on the FMR response and thus show that the microresonator approach is well suited to investigate thermal spin-transfer-driven processes for small temperatures gradients, far below the gradients required for magnetic switching.
Keywords: thermal spin transfer torque, microresonator, ferromagnetic resonance, magnetic tunnel junction

Downloads:

  • Secondary publication expected from 14.05.2019

Publ.-Id: 27477 - Permalink


Magnetocaloric materials for refrigeration near room temperature
Waske, A.; Gruner, M. E.; Gottschall, T.; Gutfleisch, O.
This article overviews the current status of magnetocaloric materials for room-temperature refrigeration. We discuss the underlying mechanism of the magnetocaloric effect and illustrate differences between fi rst- and second-order type materials starting with gadolinium as a reference system. Beyond the key functional properties of magnetocaloric materials, the adiabatic temperature, and entropy change, we briefl y address the criticality of the most promising materials in terms of their supply risk. Looking at practical applications, suitable geometries and processing routes for magnetocaloric heat exchangers for device implementation are introduced.

Publ.-Id: 27476 - Permalink


Spatially Nonuniform Superconductivity in Quasi-Two-Dimensional Organic Charge-Transfer Salts
Wosnitza, J.
In the following, a brief overview on the recently found robust experimental evidence for the existence of the Fulde–Ferrell–Larkin–Ovchinnikov (FFLO) state in layered organic superconductors is given. These electronically quasi-two-dimensional (2D) clean-limit superconductors are ideally suited for observing FFLO states. Applying a magnetic field parallel to the layers suppresses orbital effects and superconductivity is observed beyond the Pauli paramagnetic limit. Both, thermodynamic as well as microscopic experimental data show the existence of an additional high-field low-temperature superconducting state having a one-dimensionally modulated order parameter.

Publ.-Id: 27475 - Permalink


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