Publications Repository - Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf

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33523 Publications

Anomalous Lattice Softening Near a Quantum Critical Point in a Transverse Ising Magnet

Matsuura, K.; Pham, T. C.; Zherlitsyn, S.ORC; Wosnitza, J.; Abe, N.; Arima, T.
We have investigated the elastic response of a transverse Ising magnet CoNb2O6 by means of ultrasound velocity measurement. A huge elastic anomaly in the C66 mode is observed near a quantum critical Point when sweeping a magnetic field perpendicular to the Ising axis. This anomaly appears to become critical only for the Faraday configuration (field parallel to the sound propagation direction) but is much less pronounced for the Voigt geometry (field perpendicular to the sound propagation direction). We propose that the relativistic spin-orbit interaction plays a crucial role in the quantum critical regime resulting in the elastic anomaly, which is enhanced by quantum fluctuations.

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30889
Publ.-Id: 30889


Numerical framework for a morphology adaptive multi-field two-fuid model in OpenFOAM

Meller, R.ORC; Schlegel, F.; Lucas, D.ORC

A solver for multiphase flows based on the incompressible Eulerian multi-field two-fluid model for the OpenFOAM release of The OpenFOAM Foundation for numerical simulations of multiphase flows with morphology changes and resolved interfaces.

Features:

  • morphology adaptive modeling framework for modelling of dispersed and resolved interfaces based on Eulerian multi-field two-fluid model
  • compact interpolation method according to Cubero et al. (Comput Chem Eng, 2014, Vol. 62, 96-107), including virtual mass
  • numerical drag according to Strubelj and Tiselj (Int J Numer Methods Eng, 2011, Vol. 85, 575-590) to describe resolved interfaces in a volume-of-fluid like manner
  • strong phase coupling resolved by partial elimination algorithm
  • selected test cases:
    • a two-dimensional gas bubble, rising in a liquid, which is laden with micro gas bubbles, and
    • a two-dimensional stagnant stratification of water and oil, sharing a large-scale interface

Keywords: OpenFOAM, C++, CFD, Finite volume method, Multiphase flow, Multi-field two-fluid model, Eulerian-Eulerian model, Momentum interpolation, Partial elimination algorithm
  • Software in the HZDR data repository RODARE
    Publication date: 2020-04-06
    DOI: 10.14278/rodare.286
    License: GPL-3.0

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30885
Publ.-Id: 30885


Photocatalytic biocidal effect of copper doped TiO2 nanotube coated surfaces under laminar flow, illuminated with UVA light on Legionella pneumophila

Podlipec, R.ORC

Raw datasets and images performed on the Helium Ion Microscope for the published study with the title Photocatalytic biocidal effect of copper doped TiO2 nanotube coated surfaces under laminar flow, illuminated with UVA light on Legionella pneumophila.


Related publications
Photocatalytic biocidal effect of copper doped TiO2 … (Id 30539) has used this publication of HZDR-primary research data
  • Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
    Publication date: 2020-01-17
    DOI: 10.14278/rodare.284
    License: CC-BY-4.0

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30880
Publ.-Id: 30880


Disturbance-Promoted Unconventional and Rapid Fabrication of Self-Healable Noble Metal Gels for (Photo-)Electrocatalysis

Du, R.; Joswig, J.-O.; Fan, X.; Hübner, R.; Spittel, D.; Hu, Y.; Eychmüller, A.
As an emerging class of porous materials, noble metal aerogels (NMAs) have drawn tremendous attention and displayed unprecedented potential in diverse fields. However, the development of NMAs is impeded by the fabrication methods because of their time- and cost-consuming procedures, limited generality, and elusive understanding of the formation mechanisms. Here, by revealing the self-healing behavior of noble metal gels and applying it in the gelation process at a disturbing environment, an unconventional and conceptually new strategy, i.e., a disturbance-promoted gelation method, is developed by introducing an external force field. It overcomes the diffusion limitation in the gelation process, thus producing monolithic gels within 1–10 min at room temperature, 2–4 orders of magnitude faster than for most reported methods. Moreover, versatile NMAs are acquired by using this method, and their superior (photo-)electrocatalytic properties are demonstrated for the first time in light of combined catalytic and optic properties.

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30879
Publ.-Id: 30879


data of " A detailed EP and PAS study of porous structure of OSG films with various ratios of methyl terminal and ethylene bridging groups"

Rasadujjaman, M.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, L.; Naumov, S.; Elsherif, A. G. A.; Liedke, M. O.ORC; Koehler, N.; Redzheb, M.; Vishnevskiy, A. S.; Seregin, D. S.; Wu, Y.; Zhang, J. L.; Wagner, A.ORC; Vorotilov, K. A.; Schulz, S. E.; Baklanov, M. R.

Raw data of "A detailed EP and PAS study of porous structure of OSG films with various ratios of methyl terminal and ethylene bridging groups"- The positron part only.


Related publications
A detailed EP and PAS study of porous structure of OSG … (Id 30874) has used this publication of HZDR-primary research data
  • Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
    Publication date: 2020-04-02
    DOI: 10.14278/rodare.280

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30876
Publ.-Id: 30876


Unveiling reductant chemistry in fabricating noble metal aerogels for superior oxygen evolution and ethanol oxidation

Du, R.; Wang, J.; Wang, Y.; Hübner, R.; Fan, X.; Senkovska, I.; Hu, Y.; Kaskel, S.; Eychmüller, A.
Amongst various porous materials, noble metal aerogels attract wide attention due to their concurrently featured catalytic properties and large surface areas. However, insufficient understanding and investigation of key factors (e.g. reductants and ligands) in the fabrication process limits on-target design, impeding material diversity and available applications. Herein, unveiling multiple roles of reductants, we develop an efficient method, i.e. the excessive-reductant-directed gelation strategy. It enables to integrate ligand chemistry for creating gold aerogels with a record-high specific surface area (59.8 m2 g−1), and to expand the composition to all common noble metals. Moreover, we demonstrate impressive electrocatalytic performance of these aerogels for the ethanol oxidation and oxygen evolution reaction, and discover an unconventional organic-ligand-enhancing effect. The present work not only enriches the composition and structural diversity of noble metal aerogels, but also opens up new dimensions for devising efficient electrocatalysts for broad material systems.

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30866
Publ.-Id: 30866


Interplay between MycN and c-Myc regulates radioresistance and cancer stem cell phenotype in neuroblastoma upon glutamine deprivation

Le, G. M.; Mukha, A.; Püschel, J.; Valli, E.; Kamili, A.; Vittorio, O.; Dubrovska, A.ORC; Kavallaris, M.
Targeting glutamine metabolism has emerged as a potential therapeutic strategy for Myc overexpressing cancer cells. Myc proteins contribute to an aggressive neuroblastoma phenotype. Radiotherapy is one of the treatment modalities for high-risk neuroblastoma patients. Herein, we investigated the effect of glutamine deprivation in combination with irradiation in neuroblastoma cells representative of high-risk disease and studied the role of Myc member interplay in regulating neuroblastoma cell radioresistance. Methods: Cell proliferation and viability assays were used to establish the effect of glutamine deprivation in neuroblastoma cells expressing c-Myc or MycN. Gene silencing and overexpression were used to modulate the expression of Myc genes to determine their role in neuroblastoma radioresistance. qPCR and western blot investigated interplay between expression of Myc members. The impact of glutamine deprivation on cell response following irradiation was explored using a radiobiological 3D colony assay. DNA repair gene pathways as well as CSC-related genes were studied by qPCR array. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) levels were detected by fluorescence and luminescence probes respectively. Cancer-stem cell (CSC) properties were investigated by sphere-forming assay and flow cytometry to quantify CSC markers. Expression of DNA repair genes and CSC-related genes was analysed by mining publicly available patient datasets. Results: Our results showed that glutamine deprivation decreased neuroblastoma cell proliferation and viability and modulated Myc member expression. We then demonstrated for the first time that combined glutamine deprivation with irradiation led to a selective radioresistance of MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cells. By exploring the underlying mechanism of neuroblastoma radioresistance properties, our results highlight interplay between c-Myc and MycN expression suggesting compensatory mechanisms in Myc proteins leading to radioresistance in MYCN-amplified cells. This result was associated with the ability of MYCN-amplified cells to dysregulate the DNA repair gene pathway, maintain GSH and ROS levels and to increase the CSC-like population and properties. Conversely, glutamine deprivation led to radiosensitization in non-MYCN amplified cell lines through a disruption of the cell redox balance and a trend to decrease in the CSC-like populations. Mining publicly available gene expression dataset obtained from pediatric neuroblastoma patients, we identified a correlation pattern between Myc members and CSC-related genes as well as a specific group of DNA repair gene pathways. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that MycN and c-Myc tightly cooperate in regulation of the neuroblastoma CSC phenotypes and radioresistance upon glutamine deprivation. Pharmacologically, strategies targeting glutamine metabolism may prove beneficial in Myc-driven tumors. Consideration of MycN/c-Myc status in selecting neuroblastoma patients for glutamine metabolism treatment will be important to avoid potential radioresistance.
Keywords: Myc members, glutamine metabolism, neuroblastoma, radioresistance, Cancer-Stem Cells

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30860
Publ.-Id: 30860


Enhanced room temperature ferromagnetism in MoS2 by N plasma treatment

Wang, B.; Zhang, D.; Wang, H.; Zhao, H.; Liu, R.; Li, Q.; Zhou, S.ORC; Du, J.; Xu, Q.
The introduction of ferromagnetism in MoS2 is important for its applications in semiconductor spintronics. MoS2 powders were synthesized by hydrothermal method, followed by the N plasma treatment at room temperature. Weak ferromagnetism with saturated ferromagnetic magnetization of 0.64 memu/g has been observed in the as-synthesized MoS2 at room temperature, which is significant enhanced to 3.67 memu/g after the N plasma treatment for the proper duration. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrates the adsorption of N, and higher valence state of Mo than +4 due to the bonding with N after the N plasma treatment. First principle calculation has been performed to disclose the possible origin of ferromagnetism. One chemical adsorbed N ion on S ion may form conjugated π bonds with adjacent two Mo ions to have a total magnetic moment of 0.75 μB, contributing to the enhanced ferromagnetism.

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30859
Publ.-Id: 30859


3D-Ising critical behavior in antiperovskite-type ferromagneticlike Mn3GaN

Yuan, Y.; Liu, Y.; Xu, C.ORC; Kang, J.; Wang, W.; Wang, Q.; Song, B.; Zhou, S.ORC; Wang, X.
In this work, a systematic investigation on magnetic critical behavior is performed for the first time on an antiperovskite-type Mn3GaN, which is prepared by intentionally modifying stoichiometry. According to the XRD results, the antiperovskite structure is well preserved, even though all lattice parameters shrink upon reducing Ga and N content down to 60%. The sample exhibits a ferromagneticlike feature with a Curie temperature (T_C) of 394 K rather than frustrated behavior in stoichiometric Mn3GaN. Most importantly, the modified Arrott plots, Kouvel–Fisher plots, as well as critical isotherm method self-consistently co-confirm the critical exponents of β = 0.33, γ = 1.23, and δ = 4.7, unambiguously indicating that the critical behavior follows the 3D-Ising model around T_C.

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  • Secondary publication expected from 19.02.2021

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30858
Publ.-Id: 30858


An Infrared Transmission Study of Ge:Mn Thick Films Prepared by Ion Implantation and Post-Annealing

Obied, L. H.; Roorda, S.; Prucnal, S.; Zhou, S.ORC; Crandles, D. A.
Ge:Mn thick films (t$\approx 3\mu$m) with low average Mn concentration (< 0.3 %) were prepared by ion implantation at 77K followed by either conventional or flash lamp annealing. The films were characterized by Xray diffraction, Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, magnetometry and infrared transmission (100-6500 cm^{-1}). Post-annealing at high enough temperature recrystallizes the amorphous Ge:Mn films without significant migration of Mn to the surface while solid phase epitaxy does not occur, resulting in polycrystalline films. Annealing causes an estimated 50-80\% of the implanted Mn to migrate to Mn-rich clusters or form Mn_5Ge_3 while the remainder enters the Ge lattice substitutionally creating free holes. Evidence for free holes comes from structure in the mid-infrared absorption coefficient that is similar to previous observations in p-type Ge. The data suggest that the maximum solubility of Mn in the Ge crystalline lattice has an upper limit of <0.08%.

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  • Secondary publication expected from 11.03.2021

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30857
Publ.-Id: 30857


Magnetocaloric Effect in Alloy Fe49Rh51in Pulsed Magnetic Fields up to 50 T

Kamantsev, A. P.; Amirov, A. A.; Koshkid'Ko, Y. S.; Salazar Mejia, C.; Mashirov, A. V.; Aliev, A. M.; Koledov, V. V.; Shavrov, V. G.
Magnetocaloric effect (MCE) in pulsed magnetic fields up to 50 T was directly studied in alloyFe49Rh51. An inverse MCE ΔT ≈ –8 K is observed at different initial temperatures around the metamagneticphase transition upon field rising to 20 T; further growth of the field to 50 T leads to a decrease in the absoluteadiabatic temperature change by nearly 1 K, which is due to the direct MCE and proves that the whole sampleundergoes a transition into the ferromagnetic phase. Upon the field decrease, the maximal absolute value ofthe adiabatic temperature change of |ΔT| = 9.8 K was revealed at 6 T when the initial temperature is 310 K.

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30854
Publ.-Id: 30854


Local Structure in U(IV) and U(V) Environments: The Case of U3O7

Leinders, G.; Bes, R.; Kvashnina, K.ORC; Verwerft, M.
A comprehensive analysis of X-ray absorption data obtained at theUL3-edge for a systematic series of single-valence (UO2, KUO3,UO3) and mixed-valence uranium compounds (U4O9,U3O7,U3O8) is reported. High-energyresolutionfluorescence detection (HERFD) X-ray absorption near-edge spectros-copy (XANES) and extended X-ray absorptionfine structure (EXAFS) methodswere applied to evaluate U(IV) and U(V) environments, and in particular, toinvestigate the U3O7local structure. Wefind that the valence state distribution inmixed-valence uranium compounds cannot be confidently quantified from aprincipal component analysis of the UL3-edge XANES data. The spectral linebroadening, even when applying the HERFD-XANES method, is sensibly higher(∼3.9 eV) than the observed chemical shifts (∼2.4 eV). Additionally, the white line shape and position are affected not only by thechemical state, but also by crystalfield effects, which appear well-resolved in KUO3. The EXAFS of a phase-pure U3O7sample wasassessed based on an average representation of the expanded U60O140structure. Interatomic U−O distances are found mainly tooccur at 2.18 (2), 2.33 (1), and 3.33 (5) Å, and can be seen to correspond to the spatial arrangement of cuboctahedral oxygenclusters. The interatomic distances derived from the EXAFS investigation support a mixed U(IV)−U(V) valence character in U3O7

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30852
Publ.-Id: 30852


Topological Hall effect in single thick SrRuO3 layers induced by defect engineering

Wang, C.ORC; Chang, C.-H.; Herklotz, A.; Chen, C.; Ganss, F.; Kentsch, U.; Chen, D.; Gao, X.; Zeng, Y.-J.; Hellwig, O.ORC; Helm, M.; Gemming, S.ORC; Chu, Y.-H.; Zhou, S.ORC
The topological Hall effect (THE) has been discovered in ultrathin SrRuO3 (SRO) films, where the interface between the SRO layer and another oxide layer breaks the inversion symmetry resulting in the appearance of THE. Thus, THE only occurs in ultra-thin SRO films of several unit cells. In addition to employing a heterostructure, the inversion symmetry can be broken intrinsically in bulk by introducing defects. In this study THE is observed in 60 nm thick SRO films, in which defects and lattice distortions are introduced by helium ion irradiation. The irradiated SRO films exhibit a pronounced THE in a wide temperature range from 5 K to 80 K. These observations can be attributed to the emergence of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction as a result of artificial inversion symmetry breaking associated with the lattice defect engineering. The creation and control of the THE in oxide single layers can be realized by ex situ film processing. Therefore, this work provides new insights into the THE and illustrates a promising strategy to design novel spintronic devices.
Keywords: defect engineering, Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, lattice distortion, oxide thin film, topological Hall effect

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30851
Publ.-Id: 30851


CFD simulation of aeration and mixing processes in a full-scale oxidation ditch

Höhne, T.ORC; Mamedov, T.
This study aims to build a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model that can be used to predict fluid flow pattern and to analyse the mixing process in a full-scale OD. CFD is a widely used numerical tool for analysing, modelling and simulating fluid flow patterns in wastewater treatment processes. In this study, a three-dimensional (3D) computational geometry was used, and the Eulerian-Eulerian multiphase flow model was built. Pure water was considered as the continuous phase, whereas air was modelled as the dispersed phase. The Shear Stress Transport (SST) turbulence model was specified which predicts turbulence eddies in free stream and wall-bounded region with high accuracy. The momentum source term approach and the transient rotor-stator approach were implemented for the modelling of the submersible agitators. The hydrodynamic analysis was successfully performed for four different scenarios. In order to prevent the incorrect positioning of the submerged agitators, thrust analysis was also done. The results show that the minimum required water velocity was reached to maintain the solid particles suspended in the liquid media and adequate mixing was determined.
Keywords: CFD, Multiphase flow, Hydrodynamics, Oxidation ditch

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30850
Publ.-Id: 30850


Crystal-field effects in Er3RuAl12with a distorted kagome lattice

Gorbunov, D.; Ishii, I.; Kurata, Y.; Andreev, A. V.; Suzuki, T.; Zherlitsyn, S.ORC; Wosnitza, J.
We report on the magnetic and elastic properties of Er3Ru4Al12 in static and pulsed magnetic fields up to 58 T. From the ultrasound results, we obtain evidence for a phase transition at 2 K related to magnetic ordering. Furthermore, in the paramagnetic state, Er3Ru4Al12 shows pronounced anomalies in the magnetization and elastic moduli as a function of temperature and magnetic field. We explain our findings using a crystal-electricfield (CEF) model that includes quadrupolar interactions and propose a CEF level scheme for this material. However, the CEF effects cannot explain all field-induced anomalies, which indicates that refined models are needed for explaining these.

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30845
Publ.-Id: 30845


Thermal and flow performance of tilted oval tubes with novel fin designs

Unger, S.; Beyer, M.; Szalinski, L.; Hampel, U.ORC
We studied the thermal and flow performance of tube heat exchangers with novel fin designs for tube tilt angles of "0°,20°,30°" and "40°" to the horizontal. The novel fin designs target to enhance the conduction heat transfer within the fin and the convective heat transfer along the fin surface simultaneously. Tubes with three different fin designs, the circular plain fin (CPF), the circular integrated pin fin (CIPF) and the serrated integrated pin fin (SIPF), were additively manufactured by selective laser melting and experimentally investigated in an air flow channel for Reynolds number between "1800" and "7800" . We analysed the performance evaluation criterion, the volumetric heat flux density and the global performance criterion. It was found, that the SIPF achieves highest performance evaluation criterion and the CPF performs worst. Thus, the SIPF is recommended, when the required surface area, the material cost and the weight of the finned tube heat exchanger are relevant. Highest heat transfer per volume heat exchanger and temperature difference was achieved for the CIPF at highest tube tilt angle. The value of the global performance criterion strongly depends on the fin design and the tube tilt angle. For the horizontal orientation the CPF reaches highest global performance and for the 40° tube tilt angle the CIPF gives best performance. From the experimental data we derived appropriate heat transfer correlations for Reynolds number, Prandtl number, tube tilt angle and fin designs.
Keywords: Finned tube heat exchanger, Novel fin designs, Heat transfer, Friction factor, Tube tilt angle, Thermal-flow performance, Additive Manufacturing.
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Thermal and flow performance of tilted oval tubes with … (Id 30003) HZDR-primary research data are used by this publication

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30841
Publ.-Id: 30841


Air-side thermal and flow performance study of additively manufactred tube bundle heat exchagers with novel fin designs

Unger, S.; Beyer, M.; Pietruske, H.; Szalinski, L.; Hampel, U.

These are the raw data and the processed data of the journal paper "Air-side thermal and flow performance study of additively manufactred tube bundle heat exchagers with novel fin designs".

 

The raw data contains the measured values on the experimental setup and the processed data contains the data of the data used in the corresponding journal publication.


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Air-side thermal and flow performance study of additively … (Id 30842) has used this publication of HZDR-primary research data
  • Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
    Publication date: 2020-03-23
    DOI: 10.14278/rodare.271
    License: CC-BY-4.0

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30840
Publ.-Id: 30840


Drone-based surveys of mineral deposits

Jackisch, R.ORC
Drones are becoming important tools for mineral exploration by contributing to the safe, efficient and sustainable provision of the high-tech metals that are required by modern society.
Keywords: economic geology, mineralogy, UAV, hyperspectral, magnetics

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30836
Publ.-Id: 30836


General Colloidal Synthesis of Transition-Metal Disulfide Nanomaterials as Electrocatalysts for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction

Meerbach, C.; Klemmed, B.; Spittel, D.; Bauer, C.; Park, Y. J.; Hübner, R.; Jeong, H. Y.; Erb, D.; Shin, H. S.; Lesnyak, V.; Eychmüller, A.
The material-efficient monolayers of transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are a promising class of ultrathin nanomaterials with properties ranging from insulating through semiconducting to metallic, opening a wide variety of their potential applications from catalysis and energy storage to optoelectronics, spintronics, and valleytronics. In particular, TMDs have a great potential as emerging inexpensive alternatives to noble metal-based catalysts in electrochemical hydrogen evolution. Herein, we report a straightforward, low-cost, and general colloidal synthesis of various 2D transition-metal disulfide nanomaterials, such as MoS2, WS2, NiSx, FeSx, and VS2, in the absence of organic ligands. This new preparation route provides many benefits including relatively mild reaction conditions, high reproducibility, high yields, easy upscaling, no post-thermal annealing/treatment steps to enhance the catalytic activity, and, finally, especially for molybdenum disulfide nanosheets, high activity in the hydrogen evolution reaction. To underline the universal application of the synthesis, we prepared mixed CoxMo1-xS2 nanosheets in one step to optimize the catalytic activity of pure undoped MoS2, which resulted in an enhanced hydrogen evolution reaction performance characterized by onset potentials as low as 134 mV and small Tafel slopes of 55 mV/dec.

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30833
Publ.-Id: 30833


Promoting the Electrocatalytic Performance of Noble Metal Aerogels by Ligand-Directed Modulation

Fan, X.; Zerebecki, S.; Du, R.; Hübner, R.; Marzum, G.; Jiang, G.; Hu, Y.; Barcikowki, S.; Reichenberger, S.; Eychmüller, A.
Noble metal aerogels (NMAs) are an emerging class of porous materials. Embracing nano-sized highly-active noble metals and porous structures, they display unprecedented performance in diverse electrocatalytic processes. However, various impurities, particularly organic ligands, are often involved in the synthesis and remain in the corresponding products, hindering the investigation of the intrinsic electrocatalytic properties of NMAs. Here, starting from laser-generated inorganic-salt-stabilized metal nanoparticles, various impurity-free NMAs (Au, Pd, and Au-Pd aerogels) were fabricated. In this light, we demonstrate not only the intrinsic electrocatalytic properties of NMAs, but also the prominent roles played by ligands in tuning electrocatalysis through modulating the electron density of catalysts. These findings may offer a new dimension to engineer and optimize the electrocatalytic performance for various NMAs and beyond.
Keywords: aerogels, electrocatalysis, laser, ligand, noble metals

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30832
Publ.-Id: 30832


Engineering Multimetallic Aerogels for pH-Universal HER and ORR Electrocatalysis

Du, R.; Jin, W.; Hübner, R.; Zhou, L.; Hu, Y.; Eychmüller, A.
The advent of noble metal aerogels (NMAs), that feature the high catalytic activity of noble metals and unique structural attributes of aerogels, has stimulated research on a new class of outstanding electrocatalysts. However, limited by the available compositions, the explored electrocatalytic reactions on NMAs are highly restricted and certain important electrochemical processes have not been investigated. Here, an effective gelation approach is demonstrated by using a strong salting-out agent (i.e., NH4F), thereby expanding the composition of NMAs to various multimetallic systems and providing a platform to investigate composition-dependent electrocatalytic performance of NMAs. Combining structural features of aerogels and optimized chemical compositions, the Au-Pt and Au-Rh aerogel catalysts manifest remarkable pH-universal (pH = 0-14) performance surpassing commercial Pt/C and many other nanoparticle (NP)-based catalysts in the electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction, hydrogen evolution reaction, and water splitting, displaying enormous potential for the electrochemical hydrogen production, fuel cells, etc.
Keywords: electrocatalysis, hydrogen evolution reaction, metal aerogels, oxygen reduction reaction, pH

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30831
Publ.-Id: 30831


Bipolar spin Hall nano-oscillators

Hache, T.ORC; Li, Y.; Weinhold, T.; Scheumann, B.; Trindade Goncalves, F. J.; Hellwig, O.ORC; Faßbender, J.ORC; Schultheiß, H.ORC

We demonstrate a novel type of spin Hall nano-oscillators (SHNOs) that allow for efficient tuning of magnetic auto-oscillations over an extended range of gigahertz frequencies, using bipolar direct currents at constant magnetic elds. This is achieved by stacking two distinct magnetic materials with a platinum layer in between. In this device, the orientation of the spin polarised electrons accumulated at the top and bottom interfaces of platinum is switched upon changing the polarity of the direct current. As a result, the effective anti-damping required to drive large amplitude auto-oscillations can appear either at the top or bottom magnetic layer. Tuning of the auto-oscillation frequencies by several gigahertz can be obtained by combining two materials with sufficiently different saturation magnetization. Here we show that the combination of NiFe and CoFeB can result in 3 GHz shifts in the auto-oscillation frequencies. Bipolar SHNOs as such may bring enhanced synchronisation capabilities to neuromorphic applications.


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Bipolar spin Hall nano-oscillators (Id 30822) has used this publication of HZDR-primary research data
  • Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
    Publication date: 2020-03-18
    DOI: 10.14278/rodare.269
    License: CC-BY-4.0

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30829
Publ.-Id: 30829


Rethinking ore sorting - The search for the optimal sensor

Kern, M.ORC; Tusa, L.; Khodadadzadeh, M.ORC; Leißner, T.; Gloaguen, R.ORC; van den Boogaart, K. G.ORC; Gutzmer, J.ORC
Zusammenfassung: Sensorgestützte Sortierung ist eine Technologie, die in zunehmendem Maße zur Aufbereitung von Primärrohstoffen verwendet wird. Mit dem hier vorgestellten simulations-basierten Ansatz ist es möglich, den optimalen Sensor durch quantitative Analysen der Mineralogie und Datenverwertung in Kombination mit Maschinellem Lernen (ML) gezielt zu bestimmen. Dieses Vorgehen ist generisch und kann auf viele Rohstofftypen angepasst werden. Darüber hinaus birgt das Vorgehen das Potenzial, eine Schlüsseltechnologie zur Optimierung von Aufbereitungsprozessen zu werden.

Summary: Sensor-based sorting is a technology which is increasingly used for processing primary raw materials. With the simulation-based approach presented in this paper, it is possible to specifically determine the optimal sensor based on quantitative analyses of the mineralogy and data utilization in combination with machine learning (ML). This approach is generic and can be adapted to many types of raw material. Moreover, the approach has the potential to become a key technology for the optimization of processing operations.
  • AT Minerals Processing (2020)
    Online First (2020) DOI: no doi

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30826
Publ.-Id: 30826


Structure variations within RSi2 and R2TSi3 silicides. Part I. Structure overview

Nentwich, M.; Zschornak, M.; Sonntag, M.; Gumeniuk, R.; Gemming, S.ORC; Leisegang, T.; Meyer, D. C.
Here, structural parameters of various structure reports on RSi2 and R2TSi3 compounds [where R is an alkaline earth metal, a rare earth metal (i.e. an element of the Sc group or a lathanide), or an actinide and T is a transition metal] are summarized. The parameters comprising composition, lattice parameters a and c, ratio c/a, formula unit per unit cell and structure type are tabulated. The relationships between the underlying structure types are presented within a group–subgroup scheme (Bärnighausen diagram). Additionally, unexpectedly missing compounds within the R2TSi3 compounds were examined with density functional theory and compounds that are promising candidates for synthesis are listed. Furthermore, a correlation was detected between the orthorhombic AlB2-like lattices of, for example, Ca2AgSi3 and the divalence of R and the monovalence of T. Finally, a potential tetragonal structure with ordered Si/T sites is proposed.
Keywords: silicide; lanthanide; ordering phenomena; structure prediction; DFT.

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Publ.-Id: 30821


Evidence for an Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov State with Segmented Vortices in the BCS-BEC-Crossover Superconductor FeSe

Kasahara, S.; Sato, Y.; Licciardello, S.; Culo, M.; Arsenijevic, S.; Ottenbros, T.; Tominaga, T.; Böker, J.; Eremin, I.; Shibauchi, T.; Wosnitza, J.; Hussey, N. E.; Matsuda, Y.
We present resistivity and thermal-conductivity measurements of superconducting FeSe in intense magnetic fields up to 35 Tapplied parallel to the ab plane. At low temperatures, the upper critical field μ0Habc2 shows an anomalous upturn, while thermal conductivity exhibits a discontinuous jump at μ0H* ≈ 24 T well below μ0Habc2, indicating a first-order phase transition in the superconducting state. This demonstrates the emergence of a distinct field-induced superconducting phase. Moreover, the broad resistive transition at high temperatures abruptly becomes sharp upon entering the high-field phase, indicating a dramatic change of the magnetic-flux properties.We attribute the high-field phase to the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) state, where the formation of planar nodes gives rise to a segmentation of the flux-line lattice. We point out that strongly orbital-dependent pairing as well as spin-orbit interactions, the multiband nature, and the extremely small Fermi energy are important for the formation of the FFLO state in FeSe.

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Publ.-Id: 30814


Spin-dimer ground state driven by consecutive charge and orbital ordering transitions in the anionic mixed-valence compound Rb4O6

Knaflic, T.; Jeglic, P.; Komelj, M.; Zorko, A.; Biswas, P. K.; Ponomaryov, O.; Zvyagin, S.ORC; Reehuis, M.; Hoser, A.; Geiß, M.; Janek, J.; Adler, P.; Felser, C.; Jansen, M.; Arcon, D.
Recently, a Verwey-type transition in the mixed-valence alkali sesquioxide Cs4O6 was deduced from the charge ordering of molecular peroxide O2−2 and superoxide O2 anions accompanied by the structural transformation and a dramatic change in electronic conductivity [Adler et al., Sci. Adv. 4, eaap7581 (2018)]. Here, we report that in the sister compound Rb4O6, a similar Verwey-type charge ordering transition is strongly linked to O2 orbital and spin dynamics. On cooling, a powder neutron diffraction experiment reveals a charge ordering and a cubic-to-tetragonal transition at TCO = 290 K, which is followed by a further structural instability at Ts = 92 K that involves an additional reorientation of magnetic O2 anions. Magnetic resonance techniques supported by density functional theory computations suggest the emergence of a peculiar type of π*-orbital ordering of the magnetically active O2 units, which promotes the formation of a quantum spin state composed of weakly coupled spin dimers. These results reveal that as in 3d transition-metal compounds, also in the π* open-shell alkali sesquioxides the interplay between Jahn-Teller-like electron-lattice coupling and Kugel-Khomskii-type superexchange determines the nature of orbital ordering and the magnetic ground state.

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Clinical Nuclear Medicine, 2nd ed., Chapter 2 Radiopharmaceutical Sciences

Ermert, J.; Benešová, M.; Hugenberg, V.; Gupta, V.; Spahn, I.; Pietzsch, H.; Liolios, C.; Kopka, Klaus
Clinical Nuclear Medicine, 2nd ed., Chapter 2 Radiopharmaceutical Sciences
Abstract: Chapter 2 Radiopharmaceutical Sciences
Chapter 2 elucidates the field Radiopharmaceutical Sciences from the perspective of its clinical relevance. Radiopharmaceutical Sciences summarize all scientific aspects comprising chemistry, physics and biology/pharmacology that deal with incorporating a suitable radionuclide into a pharmaceutical or other biologically active molecule or molecular entity. The resulting radiopharmaceuticals are used in Nuclear Medicine applications both for diagnosis [meaning non-invasive scintigraphic imaging] and for internal radiotherapy. Internal radiotherapy is nowadays called radioligand therapy (RLT) or endoradiotherapy and altogether is summarized under the term radiothera(g)nostics.
To transfer Radiopharmaceutical Sciences into Clinical Nuclear Medicine first of all radionuclides with corresponding decay characteristics are demanded making these suitable for diagnostic or therapeutic applications. Depending on the short physical half-lives of the radionuclides fast and efficient radiolabeling strategies are required that can be also transferred into the GMP-compliant production of radiopharmaceuticals.
The major challenges in the development of a new radiopharmaceuticals include i.a. the identification of an adequate ligand that specifically binds to the biological target of interest, the chemical modification of the ligand to enable radiolabeling while preserving the binding affinity to the biological target, and the translation of the preclinical evaluations into first in-human studies.
In summary this chapter summarises in a concise manner the current status of clinically relevant radionuclides, SPECT and PET tracers as well as the introduced thera(g)nostic classes of radiopharmaceuticals through the eyes of eight representative radiopharmaceutical scientists.
  • Book chapter
    Ahmadzadehfar H, Biersack HJ, Freeman LM, Zuckier LS: Clinical Nuclear Medicine – 2nd edition, Springer Nature Switzerland AG: Springer International Publishing, 2020, 978-3-030-39455-4
    DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-39457-8

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30811
Publ.-Id: 30811


Why should we care about microorganisms in the bentonite back fill material for the storage of high-level radioactive waste in deep geological repositories?

Matschiavelli, N.ORC; Dressler, M.; Neubert, T.; Kluge, S.; Schierz, A.; Cherkouk, A.ORC
Every year 12,000 metric tonnes of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) are produced worldwide. For the long-term storage of this highly radiotoxic waste, a deep geological disposal by using multiple barriers is favored. Bentonite is proposed as a potential material for sealing the space between the canister containing the HLW and the surrounding host rock. In order to investigate the microbial diversity and metabolic activity of naturally occurring microorganisms as well as their time-dependent evolution, we conducted anaerobic microcosm experiments containing bentonite and a synthetic Opalinus Clay pore water solution. During the one-year incubation at 30 and 60 °C, lactate- or H2-stimulated microcosms at 30 °C showed the dominance and activity of strictly anaerobic, sulfate-reducing and spore-forming microorganisms. The subsequent generation of hydrogen sulfide gas in the respective set ups, led to the formation of fractures and iron-sulfur precipitations. In microcosms that incubated at 60 °C, thermophilic bacteria dominated, independent from the availability of substrates. In the respective microcosms, no significant metabolic activity was detected and there was no change in the analyzed bio-geochemical parameters. Our results show that indigenous microorganisms evolve in a temperature- and substrate-dependent manner. Potentially formed metabolites could affect the dissolution behavior of minerals and ions within the bentonite as well as the corrosion process of the canister material and require further investigations.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    6th Joint Conference of DGHM & VAAM, 08.-11.03.2020, Leipzig, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30807
Publ.-Id: 30807


The Potential Role of Colloidal Silica as a Depressant in Scheelite Flotation

Kupka, N.ORC; Babel, B. M.; Rudolph, M.ORC
The main challenge in scheelite flotation lies in the contamination of the concentrate by other calcium-bearing minerals, mainly calcite. To remedy this problem, sodium silicate is frequently used as a depressant. According to the literature, one hypothesis for the mechanism of water glass consists in its absorption onto calcite through colloidal silica formation, preventing hydrophobization by the collector. This short communication presents research conducted on the direct use of colloidal silica as a depressant in scheelite flotation. Colloidal silica is shown to have an impact on scheelite flotation, especially by depressing silicates.
Keywords: scheelite flotation; colloidal silica; depressant

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Publ.-Id: 30806


Acidified water glass in the selective flotation of scheelite from calcite, Part I: performance and impact of the acid type

Kupka, N.ORC; Möckel, R.ORC; Rudolph, M.ORC
To improve the performance of sodium silicate in scheelite flotation and allow the selective separation of scheelite from other semi-soluble salt-type minerals such as calcite, three acids, sulfuric, oxalic and for the first time hydrochloric are used to acidify sodium silicate (also called water glass). A literature review of previous usage of acidified water glass shows that no comparison between acids was made before, that comparisons with alkaline water glass were limited and that the idea that acidified water glass is more efficient at lower dosages has not been proven in scheelite flotation. As a consequence, the impact of the acid type, the ratio between acid and sodium silicate and acid dosage is tested in single mineral flotation and batch flotation experiments. All three acids allow a higher performance of acidified water glass compared to alkaline water glass at lower dosages and with little addition of acid: the tungsten recovery and grade are improved while silicates and to a lesser extent calcium-bearing minerals float less. The dosage of acid is less determining than the mass ratio of the acid to sodium silicate, except in the case of hydrochloric acid. Overall, the acid type does not matter as all three acids perform well in flotation, whereby oxalic and hydrochloric acid are better.
Keywords: acidified water glass, scheelite calcite separation, froth flotation
  • Open Access Logo Physicochemical Problems of Mineral Processing 56(2020)2, 238-251
    DOI: 10.37190/ppmp19101

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Special issue of the American Journal of Science

Fischer, C.ORC; Arvidson, R. S.
This is the second part of a special issue of the American Journal of Science examining a problem that defines, perhaps more than any other, the state-of-the-art in the geochemistry of fluid-solid interaction: how to integrate data from both observations and modeling of events of brief duration at essentially atomic scales (for example, attachment, diffusion, detachment, hydrolysis), to that of mesoscale, ensemble processes (crystal dissolution, growth, alteration). The ultimate goal is an understanding of the long-term, phenomenological consequences of these interactions, often termed “upscaling”. Success in predicting and constraining these latter outcomes determines the larger value of this field, both to neighbors in environmental sciences and engineering, as well as to the public in terms of policy, education, and support. Nanoscale observation of mineral surfaces via instruments such as AFM and VSI is now widespread; increases in resolution and analytical capability of these instruments have also evolved in tandem with advances in the power and resolution of simulation and modeling approaches. Closely tied to an emerging theoretical framework, this “soft” progress in simulation and modeling was the focus of the first part of this issue.
  • Book (Editorship)
    New Haven CT 06220-8109: American Journal of Science, Yale University, 2020
    101 Seiten

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Publ.-Id: 30803


Late complications following neo-/adjuvant radiotherapy and surgery for sarcomas of the extremities or pelvis/retroperitoneum Preventative measures

Jentsch, C.; Hofbauer, C.; Makocki, S.; Troost, E. G. C.ORC
Radiotherapy is one of the pillars in the multimodal therapy of sarcomas of the extremities or pelvis/retroperitoneum. It can be delivered prior to or following surgery. Novel radiation techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy using high-energy photons or protons, contribute to the reduction of acute and late toxicities. This review article summarizes these concepts.
Keywords: Limb · Photon beam therapy · Proton beamtherapy · Radiotherapy, intensity-modulated·Soft tissue neoplasms

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30801
Publ.-Id: 30801


L1 cell adhesion molecule confers radioresistance to ovarian cancer and defines a new cancer stem cell population

Terraneo, N.; Jacob, F.; Peitzsch, C.; Dubrovska, A.ORC; Krudewig, C.; Huang, Y.-L.; Heinzelmann-Schwarz, V.; Schibli, R.; Béhé, M.; Grünberg, J.
Many solid tumors, including ovarian cancer, contain small populations of cancer stem cells (CSCs). These cells are usually resistant against conventional cancer therapies and play a role in disease recurrence. We demonstrated that the L1 cell adhesion molecule (L1CAM) is a new CSC target in ovarian cancer, triggering radioresistance. Using fluorescence-activated cell sorting, specific cell populations expressing L1CAM alone or in combination with the established CSC marker CD133 were isolated from three ovarian cancer cell lines. Double-positive L1CAM+/CD133+ cells displayed higher spherogenic and clonogenic properties in comparison to L1CAM−/CD133− cells. Furthermore, L1CAM+/CD133+ cells retained highest clonogenic capacity after irradiation and exhibited up-regulation of some CSC-specific genes, enhanced tumor-initiating capacity, selfrenewal and higher tumor take rate in nude mice when compared with other cell populations. Superior radioresistance by L1CAM expression was confirmed by deletion of L1CAM using CRISPR-Cas9 technology. Moreover, we found expression signatures associated with epithelial-tomesenchymal transition phenotype in L1CAM deleted cells. These results indicate that L1CAM in combination with CD133 defines a new cancer cell population of ovarian tumor-initiating cells with the implication of targeting L1CAM as a novel therapeutic approach for ovarian CSCs.
Keywords: L1 cell adhesion molecule; ovarian cancer; stem cells; radioresistance; CRISPR-Cas9; epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition

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Publ.-Id: 30800


Identification of the regime boundaries in bubble columns based on the degree of randomness in the signals

Nedeltchev, S.; Top, Y.; Hlawitschka, M. W.; Schubert, M.ORC; Bart, H.-J.
A new parameter (degree of randomness (DR)) was defined for the identification of the main transition velocities, Utrans. The new method reconstructs the time series into multiple state vectors, thus generating non-overlapping vector pairs and then compares the distance between them with a pre-selected cut-off length. The DR values were extracted from gauge and differential pressure fluctuations as well as x-ray tomographic scans. At every Utrans value, the DR index exhibited a well-pronounced local minimum. Three cylindrical bubble columns (BCs) with various diameters (0.1, 0.14, and 0.45 m in ID) and one rectangular BC (width = 0.2 m, depth = 0.04 m) were used. They were aerated by means of different perforated plate gas distributors. It was found that in the cylindrical BCs the disintegration of the bubbly flow regime took place always at Utrans = 0.04 m/s. In the case of the rectangular BC the first critical velocity appeared at Utrans = 0.012 m/s. The lower boundary of the churn-turbulent regime was identified at Utrans = 0.11 m/s in the smallest cylindrical BC and at about Utrans = 0.095 m/s in the other two cylindrical BCs. In the case of the rectangular BC, the second critical velocity was identified at Utrans = 0.039 m/s. The low Utrans in the rectangular BC imply that the hydrodynamic regimes are less stable in this particular column due to higher degree of liquid turbulence. The calculated DR values from the gauge pressure fluctuations successfully distinguished the upper boundary of the gas maldistribution and the first transition sub-regime.
Keywords: bubble columns, pressure fluctuations, regime transitions, signal randomness, tomographic scans
  • Canadian Journal of Chemical Engeneering (2020)
    Online First (2020) DOI: 10.1002/cjce.23719

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Publ.-Id: 30799


Random singlet state in Ba5CuIr3O12 single crystals

Volkov, P. A.; Won, C.-J.; Gorbunov, D.; Kim, J.; Ye, M.; Kim, H.-S.; Pixley, J. H.; Cheong, S.-W.; Blumberg, G.
We study the thermodynamic and high-magnetic-field properties of the magnetic insulator Ba5CuIr3O12, which shows no magnetic order down to 2 K, consistent with a spin-liquid ground state. While the temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility and the specific heat shows only weak antiferromagnetic correlations, we find that the magnetization does not saturate up to a field of 59 T, leading to an apparent contradiction. We demonstrate that the paradox can be resolved, and all of the experimental data can be consistently described within the framework of random singlet states. We demonstrate a generic procedure to derive the exchange coupling distribution P(J ) from the magnetization measurements and use it to show that the experimental data are consistent with the power-law form P(J ) ∼ J−α with α ≈ 0.6. Thus, we reveal that high-magnetic-field measurements can be essential to discern quantum spin-liquid candidates from disorder dominated states that do not exhibit long-range order.

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30798
Publ.-Id: 30798


Spin-lattice coupling in a ferrimagnetic spinel: Exotic H-T phase diagram of MnCr2S4 up to 110 T

Miyata, A.; Suwa, H.; Nomura, T.; Prodan, L.; Felea, V.; Scurschii, I.; Deisenhofer, J.; Krug Von Nidda, H.-A.; Portugall, O.; Zherlitsyn, S.ORC; Tsurkan, V.; Wosnitza, J.; Loidl, A.
In antiferromagnets, the interplay of spin frustration and spin-lattice coupling has been extensively studied as the source of complex spin patterns and exotic magnetism. Here, we demonstrate that, although neglected in the past, the spin-lattice coupling is essential to ferrimagnetic spinels as well. We performed ultrahigh-field magnetization measurements up to 110 T on a Yafet-Kittel ferrimagnetic spinel, MnCr2S4, which was complemented by measurements of magnetostriction and sound velocities up to 60 T. Classical Monte Carlo calculations were performed to identify the complex high-field spin structures. Our minimal model incorporating spin-lattice coupling accounts for the experimental results and corroborates the complete phase diagram, including two new high-field phase transitions at 75 and 85 T.Magnetoelastic coupling induces striking effects: An extremely robust magnetization plateau is embedded between two unconventional spin-asymmetric phases. Ferrimagnetic spinels provide a new platform to study asymmetric and multiferroic phases stabilized by spin-lattice coupling.

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30796
Publ.-Id: 30796


High-field phase transitions in the orbitally ordered multiferroic GeV4S8

Felea, V.; Pham, T. C.; Prodan, L.; Gorbunov, D.; Nomura, T.; Scurschii, I.; Zherlitsyn, S.ORC; Wosnitza, J.; Wang, Z.; Miyata, A.; Portugall, O.; Widmann, S.; Krug Von Niddy, H.-A.; Deisenhofer, J.; Tsurkan, V.; Loidl, A.
The high-field (H,T) phase diagram of the multiferroic lacunar spinel GeV4S8 has been studied by ultrasound, magnetization, and pyrocurrent experiments in magnetic fields up to 60 T. The title compound consists of molecular building blocks, with vanadium V4 clusters characterized by a unique electron density. These vanadium tetrahedra constitute a Jahn-Teller active entity, which drive an orbital-ordering transition at 30K with the concomitant appearance of ferroelectricity. Ultrasound and magnetization experiments reveal sharp anomalies in magnetic fields of 46 T, which are associated with a first-order phase transition into an orbitally disordered state characterized by significant field and temperature hystereses. We report a sequence of complex magnetic, polar, and orbitally ordered states, i.e., the appearance of two orbitally ordered phases OO1 and OO2 for μ0H < 45 T and T < 30K. Beyond the paraelectric phase we further evidenced three ferroelectric phases, FE1, FE2, and FE3. Finally, antiferromagnetic (AFM) order (T < 15 K) and fully polarized ferromagnetic order (μ0H > 60 T) have been observed in GeV4S8. At low temperatures and for fields below 40 T, AFM order coexists with the polar phase FE3 identifying a multiferroic state. Our results demonstrate a fascinating competition of the different orders, which the material manifests in high magnetic fields and at low temperatures.

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Publ.-Id: 30795


Structure and magnetic properties of (Sm,Ho)2Fe17Nx (x = 0; 2.4)

Veselova, S. V.; Tereshina, I. S.; Verbetsky, V. N.; Neznakhin, D. S.; Tereshina-Chitrova, E. A.; Kaminskaya, T. P.; Karpenkov, A. Y.; Akimova, O. V.; Gorbunov, D.; Savchenko, A. G.
The structural and magnetic properties of the compound Sm1.2Ho0.8Fe17 and the nitride powders Sm1.2Ho0.8Fe17N2.4 prepared by high energy ball milling under various milling regimes are reported. Magnetic properties of the samples are investigated at 2–300 K in steady magnetic field up to 70 kOe and in pulsed magnetic field up to 600 kOe. The application of high magnetic field reveals the presence of the second-order transition in Sm1.2Ho0.8Fe17N2.4 at 500 kOe. Magnetic hysteresis properties study shows that ball milling enhances magnetic performance of Sm1.2Ho0.8Fe17N2.4 making it perspective for the magnets fabrication.

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Publ.-Id: 30794


Noncollinear magnetic structure in U2Pd2In at high magnetic fields

Prokes, K.; Bartkowiak, M.; Gorbunov, D.; Prokhnenko, O.; Rivin, O.; Smeidbidl, P.
We report an unexpected magnetic-field-driven magnetic structure in the 5 f -electron Shastry-Sutherland system U2Pd2In. This phase develops at low temperatures from a noncollinear antiferromagnetic ground state above the critical field of 25.8 T applied along the a axis. All U moments have a net magnetic Moment in the direction of the applied field, described by a ferromagnetic propagation vector qF = (0 0 0) and an antiferromagnetic component described by a propagation vector qAF = (0 0.30 1/2 ) due to a modulation in the direction perpendicular to the applied field. We conclude that this surprising noncollinear magnetic structure is due to a competition between the single-ion anisotropy trying to keep moments, similar to the ground state, along the [110]-type directions, Dzyaloshinskii-Moryia interaction forcing them to be perpendicular to each other and application of the external magnetic field attempting to align them along the field direction.

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30793
Publ.-Id: 30793


Slurm in Docker

Pape, D.
A Docker image with a Slurm setup to enable testing of HPC software in a container.
Keywords: Docker; Slurm; batch system; high performance computing; research software development
  • Software in external data repository
    Publication year 2020
    Programming language: Dockerfile, Shell
    System requirements: Docker Engine
    License: GPL v3 (Link to license text)
    Hosted on https://gitlab.hzdr.de/fwcc/slurm-in-docker:

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30792
Publ.-Id: 30792


GitLab HPC Driver Protoype

Pape, D.
GitLab HPC Driver prototype implementation.
Keywords: continuous integration; high performance computing; GitLab; Slurm; batch system; scientific software; research software development
  • Software in external data repository
    Publication year 2020
    Programming language: Bash
    System requirements: Linux
    License: GPL v3 (Link to license text)
    Hosted on https://gitlab.hzdr.de/fwcc/gitlab-hpc-driver-prototype:

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30791
Publ.-Id: 30791


GitLab HPC Driver

Pape, D.
Um gute Performance und Skalierbarkeit von hochparalleler wissenschaftlicher Software sicherzustellen, ist es wichtig, diese in einer möglichst realitätsnahen Umgebung zu testen. Wünschenswert ist dabei ein möglichst einfacher Zugriff auf die HPC-Ressourcen über ein bereits etabliertes System wie GitLab CI. Dafür wurde ein Driver für den GitLab-Runner entwickelt, der es erlaubt Continuous-Integration-Jobs auf Hochleistungsrechnern auszuführen. Der Driver wird vom GitLab-Runner-Service aufgerufen und kann vom Nutzer auf die gleiche Art und Weise verwendet werden, wie andere im GitLab-Ökosystem bekannte CI-Systeme. Es werden HPC-Ressourcen unterstützt, die vom Batchsystem Slurm verwaltet werden.

To ensure high performance and scalability in scientific software, a realistic testing environment plays an important role. Preferably, easy access to HPC resources is enabled via an established tool like GitLab CI. For that, a driver for GitLab runner has been developed that allows the execution of CI jobs on a supercomputer. The driver is called by GitLab runner service and can be used in the same way as other tools in the GitLab ecosystem. It supports HPC resources managed by the Slurm batch system.
Keywords: continuous integration; high performance computing; GitLab; Slurm; batch system; scientific software; research software development
  • Software in external data repository
    Publication year 2020
    Programming language: C++
    System requirements: Linux
    License: GPL v3 (Link to license text)
    Hosted on https://gitlab.hzdr.de/fwcc/gitlab-hpc-driver:

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30790
Publ.-Id: 30790


The tectono-sedimentary evolution of a major seismogenic zone with low slip rate activity: A geochronological and sedimentological investigation of the Dobrá Voda Depression (Western Carpathians)

Šujan, M.; Braucher, R.; Šujan, M.; Hók, J.; Povinec, P. P.; Šipka, F.; Rugel, Georg; Scharf, A.
Seismically active fault zones receive a great deal of attention due to their potential for quantification of seismic hazards. Zones with low slip rates pose a challenge, however, since their poor topographic expression is related to difficulties in the quantification of fault movement. This study focuses on the Dobrá Voda Depression, an area with the highest level of seismic activity in the Western Carpathians. The Quaternary tectono-sedimentary evolution of the small intramontane basin was investigated with the use of facies analysis of cores, dated with the use of cosmogenic nuclide depth profiles (10Be, 26Al and 36Cl), together with 26Al/10Be burial dating and radiocarbon dating. A set of archived boreholes and geoelectric survey data was used for the correlation of results with those from new boreholes across the depression. Four facies associations were distinguished: (FA1) Colluvial deposits that comprise subaerial debris flows and mudflows; (FA2) Fluvial deposits with high sediment supply: accommodation ratio, composed mostly of sandy-gravelly channel fill facies; (FA3) Fluvial deposits with low sediment supply: accommodation ratio, consisting mostly of floodplain muds, overbank heterolithic facies and minor sandy-gravelly channel fills; and (FA4) Swamp deposits, which are mostly made up of peat. Geochronological results suggest that the studied part of FA3 was deposited before 1.0 Ma due to a rise in the base level following a major incision event. Overbank-dominated deposits of FA3 covered an incision surface, resulted in a difference of ca. 65 m of elevation of these strata, which represents the minimal thickness of FA3. The second phase of incision was related to reactivation of Miocene normal faults resulting in further topographic differentiation. The initiation of fault activity is recorded by the deposition of colluvial FA1 before ca. 250 ka. FA2 accumulated between ca. 160 and 100 ka, mostly at the toes of slopes bounding the fault scarps on the basin margins. The last documented phase of evolution represents an increase of accommodation, which was connected to the deposition of Holocene peat in swamps as well as floodplain muds of FA4 above FA2. The observed settings imply that variation between incision and accumulation in a scale of hundreds of thousands of years is characteristic for low relief tectonically active zones. The presented research demonstrates the significance of sedimentological analysis for reconstruction of tectonic evolution in areas with low slip rate activity.
Keywords: Depth profile exposure dating of 10Be, 26Al and 36Cl, AMS

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30788
Publ.-Id: 30788


Revealing the defect-dominated oxygen evolution activity of hematene

Bishnupad, M.; Wei, Y.; Ghorbani Asl, M.ORC; Krasheninnikov, A.ORC; Parasmani, R.; Bikash, K. J.
Oxygen electrocatalysis is vital for advanced energy technologies, but inordinate challenges remain due to the lack of highly active earth-abundant catalysts. Herein, by nanostructuring and defect engineering, we enhance the catalytic properties of naturally occurring, but normally inactive ore hematite (Ht) by converting it to hematene (Hm) with oxygen vacancies (Ov-Hm), that becomes an efficient oxygen evolution reaction (OER) catalyst, being even superior to the state-of-the-art catalyst IrO2/C, with a current density of 10 mA/cm2 at a lower overpotential of 250 mV. The first-principles calculations reveal that the reduced dimensionality and defects on the Hm surface locally modify the charge around the adsorption sites, which results in a reduction of the potential barrier in the OER process. Our experimental and theoretical insights suggest a promising route to the development of a highly active electrocatalyst from the naturally occurring and abundant material for OER applications.
Keywords: hemetene, defect, electrocatalysis, oxygen evolution reaction

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30786
Publ.-Id: 30786


Numerical simulation of formation and growth of fractal-like aggregates in a tubular aerosol reactor

Niemi, T.; Peltola, J.; Schlegel, F.
Ceramic powders produced by gas phase synthesis frequently consist of non-spherical, fractal-like particle aggregates. Their shape is a result of the simultaneous action of particle coagulation and sintering. Coagulation describes the process of particle agglomeration, e.g. due to ballistic or diffusion-limited collisions, whereas sintering stands for coalescence of primary particles and acts to create denser aggregates. A low density aggregate has a larger collisional cross-section and thus is more likely to collide with other particles or aggregates, which is reflected in the development of the aggregate size distribution and should be taken into account when modeling the process. To this end, a class method based population balance modeling approach available in OpenFOAM was extended to allow for a simplified bivariate treatment. Among the many shape-characterizing parameters, the average surface-area-to-volume ratio of each size class is tracked by a separate transport equation. Together with a fixed fractal dimension, it can be translated into a collisional diameter and further used when calculating coagulation rates. The functionality is showcased by a simulation of the vapor synthesis of Titania in a tubular aerosol reactor [Akhtar et al., AlChE J., 37(10): 1561-1570, 1991]. Data from a differential mobility sizer is used to validate the approach.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Jahrestreffen der ProcessNet-Fachgruppen Computational Fluid Dynamics und Gasreinigung, 09.-11.03.2020, Bamberg, Deutschland

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30784
Publ.-Id: 30784


P1817 - Sensor zur Vermessung von Strömungsprofilen in großen Kolonnen und Apparaten

Vishwakarma, V.ORC; Schleicher, E.; Schubert, M.ORC; Tschofen, M.; Löschau, M.
Gegenstand der vorliegenden Erfindung ist eine Vorrichtung zur Bestimmung des Strömungsprofils von Mehrphasenströmungen mit mindestens einer Flüssigkeitskomponente mit vorgegebener Strömungsrichtung. Die Vorrichtung weist eine Mehrzahl von stabförmigen Sonden auf. Jede der Sonden weist zwei parallel verlaufende Elektroden aus, die in einer gemeinsamen elektrisch isolierenden Umhüllung angeordnet sind. Darüber hinaus weist jede Sonde mindestens eine Abschirmelektrode auf. Eine Elektrode jeder Sonde fungiert als Transmitter (Sender) und die zweite Elektrode jeder Sonde als Receiver (Empfänger). Eine Auswerteeinheit ist dazu eingerichtet, die Transmitterelektrode jeder Sonde mit elektrischer Spannung als Messspannung zu beaufschlagen und das Ergebnissignal an der Receiverelektrode derselben Sonde zu erfassen. Mindestens zwei Sonden sind zu einer Gruppe zusammengefasst, wobei die Auswerteeinheit zum gleichzeitigen Beaufschlagen der Sonden dieser Gruppe mit der Messspannung ausgebildet ist.
  • Patent
    DE102018124501 - Erteilung 13.02.2020

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30778
Publ.-Id: 30778


Annual Report 2019 - Institute of Resource Ecology

Stumpf, T.; Foerstendorf, H.ORC; Bok, F.ORC; Richter, A.
The Institute of Resource Ecology (IRE) is one of the eight institutes of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden –Rossendorf (HZDR). Our research activities are mainly integrated into the program “Nuclear Waste Management, Safety and Ra-diation Research (NUSAFE)” of the Helmholtz Association (HGF) and focused on the topics “Safety of Nuclear Waste Disposal” and “Safety Research for Nuclear Reactors”. The program NUSAFE, and therefore all work which is done at IRE, belong to the research field “Energy” of the HGF...
  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; HZDR-110 2020
    ISSN: 2191-8708

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Publ.-Id: 30774


On the O-rich domain of the U-Am-O phase diagram

Epifano, E.; Vauchy, R.; Lebreton, R.; Lauwerier, F.; Joly, A.; Scheinost, A.ORC; Guéneau, C.; Valot, C.; Martin, P. M.
Uranium–Americium oxides U1−yAmyO2±x are promising candidates as possible transmutation targets for next generation nuclear reactors. In the context of a comprehensive investigation of their thermodynamic and thermal properties, the behaviour in oxidizing conditions is here studied. In a recent work, the behaviour in air of stoichiometric and sub-stoichiometric U1−yAmyO2−x compounds, with various Am content, was investigated by high-temperature X-ray Diffraction. Herein, the hyper-stoichiometric oxides obtained from that study are investigated by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy. The new data, together with the previous XRD results, allow determining the exact compositions of the samples and hence obtaining phase diagram points in the O-rich domain of the U-Am-O system. Indeed, five phase diagram points at 1473 K are obtained: two tie-lines in the M4O9-M3O8 domain, for Am/(Am + U) = 0.10 and 0.15, one tie line in the MO2+x-M3O8 domain, for Am/(Am + U) = 0.28, and two points in the single phase MO2±x domain, for higher americium concentration. From these data, it is also concluded that trivalent americium has a small solubility in the M4O9 and M3O8 phases.
Keywords: transmutation nuclear fuel XANES EXAFS

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30771
Publ.-Id: 30771


Terahertz absorption-saturation and emission from electron-doped germanium quantum wells

Ciano, C.; Virgilio, M.; Bagolini, L.; Baldassarre, L.; Pashkin, O.ORC; Helm, M.; Montanari, M.; Persichetti, L.; Di Gaspare, L.; Capellini, G.; Paul, D. J.; Scalari, G.; Faist, J.; de Seta, M.; Ortolani, M.
We study radiative relaxation at terahertz frequencies in n-type Ge/SiGe quantum wells, optically pumped with a terahertz free electron laser. Two wells coupled through a tunneling barrier are designed to operate as a three-level laser system with non-equilibrium population generated by optical pumping around the 1→3 intersubband transition at 10 THz. The non-equilibrium subband population dynamics are studied by absorption-saturation measurements and compared to a numerical model. In the emission spectroscopy experiment, we observed a photoluminescence peak at 4 THz, which can be attributed to the 3→2 intersubband transition with possible contribution from the 2→1 intersubband transition. These results represent a step towards silicon-based integrated terahertz emitters.

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30769
Publ.-Id: 30769


Strömungsmorphologie flashender Feeds bei kritischen Stoffwerten

Döß, A.ORC; Schubert, M.ORC; Wiezorek, M.; Hampel, U.ORC; Flegiel, F.; Windmeier, C.; Schleicher, E.
Eine gängige Methode zur Konditionierung von Zulaufströmen in Rektifikations-kolonnen ist die Entspannungsverdampfung (flash) des Feedstroms mit nachgeschalteter oder integrierter Separation der kontinuierlichen und dispersen Phasenanteile. Die Gestaltung der Einspeisung in die Kolonne sowie die Auswahl von Einleitorganen erfordert eine möglichst exakte Vorhersage der sich einstellenden Strömungsmorphologie in der Feedleitung. Verfügbare Strömungsdaten beschränken sich fast ausschließlich auf Wasser-Luft-Systeme bei geringen Rohrdurchmessern (< DN100) und großen Einlauflängen (> 40 D). Deren Übertragbarkeit auf organische oder kryogene Systeme mit z. B. deutlich geringeren Grenzflächenspannungen für praxisnahe Rohrdimensionen unterliegt dabei großen Unsicherheiten. Zur Untersuchung flashender Feeds wurde daher ein Kältemittel-Versuchsstand im Technikums¬maßstab entwickelt. Das Arbeitsfluid wird durch eine Armatur in eine horizontale Feedleitung (DN200, Länge 20 D) entspannt und tritt als Zweiphasenströmung in die nachgeschaltete Kolonne ein. Die Dampfanteile nach der Entspannungsverdampfung werden über die jeweiligen Betriebsdrücke und -temperaturen mittels Elektroerhitzer und Kreislaufpumpe eingestellt, während der Betriebsdruck in der Teststrecke über einen Kondensator im Kopfstrom der Kolonne geregelt wird. Als Betriebsmedium wird das Kältemittel 3M™ Novec™649 eingesetzt, dessen Grenzflächenspannung in einem Bereich von 2 bis 8 mN m-1 bei einer Dichtedifferenz zwischen Dampf und Flüssigkeit von 800-1500 kg m-3 bei Betriebstemperaturen bis 140 °C eingestellt werden kann. Die Charakterisierung der sich entwickelnden Strömungsmorphologie in der horizontalen Feedleitung erfolgt mittels zeitlich und räumlich hochauflösender Gittersensormesstechnik. Schwerpunkte der Untersuchungen sind dabei die axiale Entwicklung der Strömungsform zwischen Entspannungsarmatur und Kolonneneintritt sowie die Bestimmung der Phasenanteile und Strömungs¬druck¬ver-luste
Diese Arbeit findet im Rahmen des Projektes TERESA statt und wird durch das Bundesministerium für Wirtschaft und Energie (BMWI) gefördert (FKZ 03ET1395D).
  • Poster
    Jahrestreffen der ProcessNet-Fachgruppen Fluidverfahrenstechnik, Adsorption und Extraktion 2020, 25.-28.02.2020, Berchtesgaden, Deutschland

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30768
Publ.-Id: 30768


In-depth 3D characterization of sieve tray hydrodynamics

Vishwakarma, V.ORC; Abdul Haq, S.; Schubert, M.ORC; Schleicher, E.; Hampel, U.ORC
Understanding the tray hydrodynamics is important for their effective design as well as for the assessment of their separation performance. Currently, the clear liquid height is considered as one of the most important hydrodynamic parameters [1]. For example, it is utilized to correlate dispersion density, liquid entrainment rate, weeping flux and flow regime transitions. This height is usually measured at a point on the tray floor by continuously flushing out the liquid into the manometer. It is debatable whether such point reading is representative for the true liquid content on large trays or three-dimensional analyses should be performed. For this purpose, a sieve tray column (800 mm dia.) mockup facility is used in this work with air and tap water at respective loadings of 1.4 – 2.0 Pa0.5 and 1.0 – 3.0 m3/h that correspond to the froth regime.

A novel conductivity-based sensor [2] is developed for the 3D two-phase flow quantification at high spatial and temporal resolution. Basically, the local phase holdups at multiple locations along the sensor measurement plane and at different dispersion heights are determined here. It is assessed if the integration of the holdup profiles can lead to better estimates of the clear liquid height. Pressure drops and weeping rates are also measured. Furthermore, stimulus-response experiments with de-ionized water as tracer are performed at selective dispersion heights for identifying the flow profiles via residence time distribution.

These new 3D tray hydrodynamic data may also serve as a reference for establishing CFD models in the future, which so far have largely relied either on clear liquid height data only or on the low resolution data of Solari and Bell [3].

[1] Lockett, M.J., 1986. Distillation tray fundamentals.
[2] Vishwakarma, V., Schleicher, E., Schubert, M., Tschofen, M. and Löschau, M., Deutsche Patentanmeldung DE 10 2018 124 501.7, Sensor zur Vermessung von Strömungsprofilen in großen Kolonnen und Apparaten.
[3] Solari, R.B. and Bell, R.L., 1986. Fluid flow patterns and velocity distribution on commercial‐scale sieve trays. AIChE journal, 32(4), pp.640-649.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Jahrestreffen der ProcessNet-Fachgruppen Fluidverfahrenstechnik, Adsorption und Extraktion, 26.-28.02.2020, Berchtesgaden, Germany

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30764
Publ.-Id: 30764


2D and 3D convolutional neural networks for outcome modelling of locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

Starke, S.; Leger, S.; Zwanenburg, A.; Leger, K.; Lohaus, F.; Linge, A.; Schreiber, A.; Kalinauskaite, G.; Tinhofer, I.; Guberina, N.; Guberina, M.; Balermpas, P.; von der Grün, J.; Ganswindt, U.; Belka, C.; Peeken, J. C.; Combs, S. E.; Böke, S.; Zips, D.; Richter, C.ORC; Troost, E. G. C.ORC; Krause, M.ORC; Baumann, M.; Löck, S.

These are the results from the analyses presented in a paper submitted to Scientific Reports.

The zip file contains the trained model files and the plots that were used in the manuscript.

Code for reproduction of our analyses can be obtained from https://github.com/oncoray/cnn-hnscc. There, you also find instructions on how to load our models.

Keywords: convolutional neural networks; Keras; Deep learning; head and neck cancer; loco-regional-recurrence; Cox proportional hazards
Related publications
2D and 3D convolutional neural networks for outcome … (Id 30750) has used this publication of HZDR-primary research data
  • Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
    Publication date: 2020-02-27
    DOI: 10.14278/rodare.254
    License: CC-BY-NC-4.0

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30759
Publ.-Id: 30759


Preface of a special issue of the American Journal of Science

Fischer, C.ORC; Arvidson, R. S.
This is the second part of a special issue of the American Journal of Science examining a problem that defines, perhaps more than any other, the state-of-the-art in the geochemistry of fluid-solid interaction: how to integrate data from both observations and modeling of events of brief duration at essentially atomic scales (for example, attachment, diffusion, detachment, hydrolysis), to that of mesoscale, ensemble processes (crystal dissolution, growth, alteration). The ultimate goal is an understanding of the long-term, phenomenological consequences of these interactions, often termed “upscaling”. Success in predicting and constraining these latter outcomes determines the larger value of this field, both to neighbors in environmental sciences and engineering, as well as to the public in terms of policy, education, and support. Nanoscale observation of mineral surfaces via instruments such as AFM and VSI is now widespread; increases in resolution and analytical capability of these instruments have also evolved in tandem with advances in the power and resolution of simulation and modeling approaches. Closely tied to an emerging theoretical framework, this “soft” progress in simulation and modeling was the focus of the first part of this issue.

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30758
Publ.-Id: 30758


Crystal surface reactivity analysis using a combined approach of X-ray micro-computed tomography and vertical scanning interferometry

Kahl, W.-A.; Yuan, T.; Bollermann, T.; Bach, W.; Fischer, C.
Dissolution rates of porous crystalline materials reflect the superposition of transport and surface control, mainly via the parameters saturation of the ambient fluid and distribution of surface energy. As a result, reacting surfaces evolve over time showing a heterogeneous distribution of surface rates. The spatiotemporal heterogeneity of surface reaction rates is analyzed using the rate map and rate spectra concept. Here, we quantify the dissolution rate variability covering the nm- to mm-scale of dissolving single-crystal and polycrystalline calcite samples, using a combined approach of X-ray micro-computed tomography (µ-CT) and vertical scanning interferometry (VSI). The dissolution experiments cover reaction periods from 15 minutes up to 54 days. The observed rate ranges are remarkably consistent over the entire reaction period but include a variability of about two orders of magnitude (10-9 - 3 * 10-7 mol m-2 s-1). The rate map data underscore the concurrent and superimposing impact of surface- vs. fluid flow controlled rate portions. The impact of fluid flow on reactivity at the mm-scale in the transport-controlled system is confirmed by 2-D reactive transport modeling. The sub-mm spatial heterogeneity of low vs. high reactivity surface portions of polycrystalline calcite is clearly below the mean crystal size. This suggests the dominant impact of highly reactive surface portions irrespective of the orientation of larger crystals on the overall surface reactivity. Correspondingly, the overall range of intrinsic reactivity heterogeneity as observed using singly crystal material is not further expanded for polycrystalline material. As a general conclusion, numerical reactive transport concepts would benefit from the implementation of a reactivity term resembling the experimentally observed existence of multiple rate components.
Keywords: crystal surface reactivity, rate map, dissolution rate variability, X-ray micro-computed tomography (µ-CT), vertical scanning interferometry (VSI), reactive transport, fluid-rock interaction

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30757
Publ.-Id: 30757


Entwicklung eines Modells zur Grobstruktursimulation der Gas-Flüssigkeits-Strömung auf Querstromböden mit Hochleistungsventilen

Wiedemann, P.ORC; Schubert, M.ORC; Schleicher, E.; Hampel, U.ORC
Motivation und Ziel
Trennkolonnen zur Separation von Mehrkomponentenströmen finden vielfältigen Einsatz in der chemischen Industrie. Für den Betrieb solcher Apparate ergeben sich im Zusammenhang mit der zunehmenden Energiebereitstellung aus erneuerbaren Quellen wachsende Anforderungen im Hinblick auf eine flexible Fahrweise. Vor allem vergrößerte Über- und Unterlastbereiche, in denen dennoch eine hohe Trenneffizienz gewährleistet werden soll, stellen für die Auslegung eine Herausforderung dar. Insbesondere für Querstromböden mit sogenannten Fixed- und Push-Valves mangelt es bislang an verlässlichen Methoden, um den Einfluss des Bodendesigns auf die komplexe Zweiphasenströmung von Flüssigkeit und Dampf abzuschätzen.
Im Rahmen eines AiF-Forschungsvorhabens verfolgt das hier vorgestellte Teilprojekt das Ziel, ein Simulationsmodell bereitzustellen, mit welchem die Einflüsse von Ventilart, -anzahl und -anordnung sowie verschiedener Betriebsbedingungen auf die makroskopische Strömungsausbildung auf dem Querstromboden untersucht werden können.

Strategie und Methoden
Ausgangspunkt für die Modellentwicklung bildet zunächst die Simulation der Strömung am Einzelventil unter Nutzung des am HZDR entwickelten Mehrfeld-Zweifluid-Konzeptes (GENTOP, vgl. [1]). Hiermit werden sowohl großräumig separierte als auch disperse Phasenverteilungen sowie Übergänge zwischen diesen Strömungsmorphologien erfasst. Nach einer Validierung mit experimentell ermittelten Vergleichsdaten dienen die für vielfältige Betriebsbedingungen vorliegenden Simulationsergebnisse als Basis für die Ableitung von Feinstrukturmodellen für einen grobskaligen Modellierungsansatz. Für letzteren wird ein Euler-Euler-Modell favorisiert, in welchem die Effekte der nicht aufgelösten Phaseninteraktion über pragmatische Schließungsgleichungen integriert werden und die Abbildung der Ventile mittels punktartiger Massen- und Impulsquellen realisiert werden kann. Zur Validierung dieses Modells werden zunächst Simulationen für einzelne Ventile und Ventilgruppen durchgeführt und diese mit experimentellen Daten verglichen. Dazu wird ein Versuchsstand aufgebaut, an dem die Zweiphasenströmung an Einzelventilen oder Ventilgruppen unter definierten Betriebsbedingungen untersucht werden kann. Hierbei ist u. a. der Einsatz bildgebender Messverfahren geplant, um detaillierte Informationen über die Strömungsfelder und -regime zu erhalten. Um die Eignung des Grobstukturmodells zu demonstrieren, sind abschließend Vergleiche mit Experimentaldaten einer Versuchsanlage im industriellen Maßstab geplant.

Literatur
[1] Hänsch, S.; Lucas, D.; Krepper, E.; Höhne, T.: A multi-field two-fluid concept for transitions between different scales of interfacial structures. International Journal of Multiphase Flow 47 (2012) 171-182
  • Poster
    Jahrestreffen der ProcessNet-Fachgruppen Computational Fluid Dynamics und Gasreinigung, 10.-11.03.2020, Bamberg, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30751
Publ.-Id: 30751


Development of tailored packings for Rotating Packed Beds

Gładyszewski, K.; Gross, K.; Qammar, H.; Kamiński, K.; Bieberle, A.ORC; Schubert, M.ORC; Skiborowski, M.; Górak, A.
Contribution to Jahrestreffen der ProcessNet-Fachgruppen Fluidverfahrenstechnik, Adsorption und Extraktion
Keywords: Rotating packed beds, HIGEE, anisotropic, foam packings, mass transfer, hydrodynamic, computer tomography
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Jahrestreffen der ProcessNet-Fachgruppen Fluidverfahrenstechnik, Adsorption und Extraktion, 26.-28.02.2020, Berchtesgaden, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30749
Publ.-Id: 30749


Proton number fluctuations in sqrt(s_NN)= 2.4 GeV Au+Au collisions studied with HADES

Adamczewski-Musch, J.; Arnold, O.; Behnke, C.; Belounnas, A.; Belyaev, A.; Berger-Chen, J. C.; Biernat, J.; Blanco, A.; Blume, C.; Böhmer, M.; Bordalo, P.; Chernenko, S.; Chlad, L.; Deveaux, C.; Dreyer, J.; Dybczak, A.; Epple, E.; Fabbietti, L.; Fateev, O.; Filip, P.; Fonte, P.; Franco, C.; Friese, J.; Fröhlich, I.; Galatyuk, T.; Garzon, J. A.; Gernhäuser, R.; Golubeva, M.; Greifenhagen, R.; Guber, F.; Gumberidze, M.; Harabasz, S.; Heinz, T.; Hennino, T.; Hlavac, S.; Höhne, C.; Holzmann, R.; Ierusalimov, A.; Ivashkin, A.; Kämpfer, B.; Karavicheva, T.; Kardan, B.; Koenig, I.; Koenig, W.; Kohls, M.; Kolb, B. W.; Korcyl, G.; Kornakov, G.; Kornas, F.; Kotte, R.; Kugler, A.; Kunz, T.; Kurepin, A.; Kurilkin, A.; Kurilkin, P.; Ladygin, V.; Lalik, R.; Lapidus, K.; Lebedev, A.; Lopes, L.; Lorenz, M.; Mahmoud, T.; Maier, L.; Mangiarotti, A.; Markert, J.; Matulewicz, T.; Maurus, S.; Metag, V.; Michel, J.; Mihaylov, D. M.; Morozov, S.; Müntz, C.; Münzer, R.; Naumann, L.; Nowakowski, K.; Palka, M.; Parpottas, Y.; Pechenov, V.; Pechenova, O.; Petukhov, O.; Piasecki, K.; Pietraszko, J.; Przygoda, W.; Ramos, S.; Ramstein, B.; Reshetin, A.; Rodriguez-Ramos, P.; Rosier, P.; Rost, A.; Rustamov, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Salabura, P.; Scheib, T.; Schuldes, H.; Schwab, E.; Scozzi, F.; Seck, F.; Sellheim, P.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Siebenson, J.; Silva, L.; Sobolev, Y. G.; Spataro, S.; Spies, S.; Ströbele, H.; Stroth, J.; Strzempek, P.; Sturm, C.; Svoboda, O.; Szala, M.; Tlusty, P.; Traxler, M.; Tsertos, H.; Usenko, E.; Wagner, V.; Wendisch, C.; Wiebusch, M. G.; Wirth, J.; Zanevsky, Y.; Zumbruch, P.
We present an analysis of proton number fluctuations in sqrt(s_NN) = 2.4 GeV Au+Au collisions measured with the High-Acceptance DiElectron Spectrometer (HADES) at GSI. With the help of extensive detector simulations done with IQMD transport model events including nuclear clusters, various nuisance effects influencing the observed proton cumulants have been investigated. Acceptance and efficiency corrections have been applied as a function of fine grained rapidity and transverse momentum bins, as well as considering local track density dependencies. Next, the effects of volume changes within particular centrality selections have been considered and beyond-leading-order corrections have been applied to the data. The efficiency and volume corrected proton number moments and cumulants Kn of orders n = 1, . . . , 4 have been obtained as a function of centrality and phase-space bin, as well as the corresponding correlators C_n . We find that the observed correlators show a power-law scaling with the mean number of protons, i.e. Cn∝n, indicative of mostly long-range multi-particle correlations in momentum space. We also present a comparison of our results with Au+Au collision data obtained at RHIC at similar centralities, but higher sqrt(s_NN).

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30746
Publ.-Id: 30746


Steel related activities and capabilities at HZDR

Gerbeth, G.
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Sino-German Symposium „Future Steel“, 18.07.2019, Shanhai, China

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30740
Publ.-Id: 30740


Numerical investigation on the effect of transversal fluid field deformation on heat transfer in a rod bundle with mixing vanes

Tas-Köhler, S.; Lecrivain, G.ORC; Krepper, E.; Unger, S.; Hampel, U.ORC
Spacer grids of fuel rod assemblies are equipped with vanes, which promote flow mixing and turbulence within and across the sub-channels, thereby enhancing the heat transfer. First, a literature study about the various effect of the spacer grid has on the sub-channel thermo-hydrodynamics is provided. It follows, that the multiple effects on the vane angle are insufficiently understood. The effect of the vane angle on design parameters, namely the evolution of the Nusselt number, the pressure drop, the cross and swirl flows, is here further discussed and supplemented by own simulations. The effect of the velocity gradient tensor ∇⊗u, decomposed into a strain and a vorticity contribution, is also looked at downstream of the spacer grid. The RNG k-ε turbulence model was found to provide results best matching the experimental data available in the literature. The use of vanes results in the formation of a downstream vortex. As the flow develops downstream of the spacer grid, the vortex migrates away from the sub-channel center and eventually weakens. In line with the presented literature survey, it is confirmed that a vane angle of about 30° provides optimal swirl and cross flows, resulting in an enhanced heat transfer.
Keywords: Literature analysis, Vortex generator, Vane angle, Rod bundle, Vorticity, Turbulent flow, Heat transfer

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30737
Publ.-Id: 30737


Conductive ITO interfaces for optoelectronic applications based on highly ordered inverse opal thin films

Galle, L.; Ehrling, S.; Lochmann, S.; Kaskel, S.; Bischoff, L.ORC; Grothe, J.
A three-step fabrication process for optically transparent, conducting ITO thin films with an intrinsic inverse opal structure is described. The preparation is based on colloidal crystal templating using polystyrene microspheres (100 nm - 600 nm). For the realization of varying periodicities in this structure, different sphere sizes were assembled to monolayers on a substrate by spin coating and infiltrated afterwards similarly. The influence of rotation parameters as well as dispersion concentration was studied. Using this approach different geometries of the surface are accessible by systematically varying the rotation parameters and infiltration volume. The thin films show excellent anti-reflection behavior, good transmission ( >80 % in the visible range) as well as a low resistance of 200 Ω/sq compared to other porous ITO interfaces. The properties are very promising for several optoelectronic applications such as in- or out-coupling structures in solar cells and organic light emitting diodes.
Keywords: ITO thin films, conducting, transmission, optoelectronics

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30734
Publ.-Id: 30734


Sputtering of nanostructured tungsten and comparison to modelling with TRI3DYN

Stadlmayr, R.; Szabo, P. S.; Mayer, D.; Cupak, C.; Dittmar, T.; Bischoff, L.ORC; Möller, S.; Rasinski, M.; Wilhelm, R. A.ORC; Möller, W.; Aumayr, F.
He-induced nanostructured tungsten (so called W-fuzz) was bombarded with Ar ions under 60 degree and the dynamic erosion behaviour experimentally investigated. By using a highly sensitive quartz-crystal-microbalance technique in a particle catcher configuration the sputtered particles distribution of Wfuzz could be evaluated. In contrast to a at sample, where sputtered particles are emitted primarily in forward direction, we find that W-fuzz samples emit sputtered particles preferably in backward direction (i.e. in the direction of the incident ion beam). After continuous Ar irradiation of a W-fuzz sample the distribution approaches that of a at sample. In addition to experimental data we also show modelling results obtained with a state-of-the-art Monte-Carlo (MC) binary collision approximation (BCA) code TRI3DYN in full 3D. Surface morphology changes as monitored by SEM as well as the dynamic sputtering behaviour can be well reproduced by the full 3D MC-BCA code.
Keywords: Erosion, Quartz crystal microbalance, TRI3DYN, Surface roughness, Sputtering, nanostructured tungsten, W-fuzz

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  • Secondary publication expected from 07.02.2021

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30733
Publ.-Id: 30733


Hollow Au@TiO2 porous electrospun nanofibers for catalytic applications

Kumar, L.; Singh, S.; Horechyy, A.; Formanek, P.; Hübner, R.; Albrecht, V.; Weißpflog, J.; Schwarz, S.; Puneet, P.; Nandan, B.
Catalytically active porous and hollow titania nanofibers encapsulating gold nanoparticles were fabricated using a combination of sol-gel chemistry and coaxial electrospinning technique. We report the fabrication of catalytically active porous and hollow titania nanofibers encapsulating gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using a combination of sol-gel chemistry and coaxial electrospinning technique. The coaxial electrospinning involved the use of a mixture of poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) and titania sol as the shell forming component, whereas a mixture of poly(4-vinyl pyridine) (P4VP) and pre-synthesized AuNPs constituted the core forming component. The core-shell nanofibers were calcined stepwise up to 600 °C which resulted in decomposition and removal of the organic constituents of the nanofibers. This led to the formation of porous and hollow titania nanofibers, where the catalytic AuNPs were embedded in the inner wall of the titania shell. The catalytic activity of the prepared Au@TiO2 porous nanofibers was investigated using a model reaction of catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol and Congo red dye in the presence of NaBH4. The Au@TiO2 porous and hollow nanofibers exhibited excellent catalytic activity and recyclability, and the morphology of the nanofibers remained intact after repeated usage. The presented approach could be a promising route for immobilizing various nanosized catalysts in hollow titania supports for the design of stable catalytic systems where the added photocatalytic activity of titania could further be of significance.

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30732
Publ.-Id: 30732


The role of boron on exchange coupling in NiFe/Ru1−xBx/FeCo trilayer structures

Mckinnon, T.; Hübner, R.; Heinrich, B.; Girt, E.
In this work, we study the interlayer exchange coupling, J, between two NiFe and FeCo layers in a series of NiFe/Ru1-xBx(d)/FeCo synthetic antiferromagnet (SAF) samples, where the thickness of the spacer layer, d, is varied from 0.4 nm to 0.9 nm, and the boron concentration, x, is varied from 0 to 15 at. %. The samples are studied as deposited and after being annealed at 250 °C. B is deposited into the Ru spacer layer to investigate what occurs after annealing a FeCoB/Ru/FeCoB SAF structure, which is commonly used in modern nanoscale magnetic devices, in which the FeCoB layer crystallizes to FeCo and B diffuses to adjacent layers. We find that J in as-deposited samples is relatively unaffected by adding up to 15% B into the Ru spacer layer. However, after annealing at 250 °C, J changes the sign from antiferromagnetic coupling to ferromagnetic coupling for spacer layers thinner than 0.45 nm for 5% and 10% B and thinner than 0.525 nm for 15% B. We used transmission electron microscopy energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy in order to investigate the diffusion of atoms within a similar Ta(2.5 nm)/NiFe(0.8 nm)/Ru1-xBx(23 nm) layer structure. We find that after annealing at 250 °C, the sample containing 15% B within the Ru85B15 layer had significantly more diffusion of Fe into the Ru85B15 layer, from the NiFe layer, as compared to the sample with 0% B. Thus, the presence of B within the spacer layer enhances diffusion of Fe into the spacer layer.

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30731
Publ.-Id: 30731


Microstructure, texture and hardness of a metastable β-titanium alloy after bar-rolling and annealing

Gu, B.; Chekhonin, P.; Schaarschuch, R.; Oertel, C.-G.; Xin, S. W.; Ma, C. L.; Zhou, L.; Gan, W. M.; Skrotzki, W.
The microstructure and texture evolution of a metastable Ti-5Al-3V-3Mo-2Cr-2Zr-1Nb-1Fe alloy during bar-rolling and after various thermal treatments was investigated by high-energy synchrotron diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction. Bar-rolling is applied in the (α+β)-phase field in order to achieve a bi-modal (duplex) microstructure. The effect of dynamic recrystallized and recovered zones on texture of Ti5321was analyzed separately, as well as the texture of primary α-precipitates and secondary α-lamellae. The texture of the recovered zones is characterized by a cube component ({001}<100>) plus α- and γ-fibre with dominant {100}<110>, {112}<110>, {111}<110> components, while the texture of the recrystallized zones is a strong cube texture. After aging or recrystallization plus aging, this texture component remains, while it disappears after solution treatment. The primary α-precipitates have their c-axes perpendicular to the rolling direction and do not follow the Burgers orientation relationship. This texture characteristics remains after various thermal heat treatments. Secondary α-lamellae obey the Burgers orientation relationship. Moreover, a variant selection of secondary α-lamellae occurs. The mechanism of texture formation of the β-phase and the precipitation behavior of the α-phase is discussed.
The hardness increase can be attributed to size, shape and volume fraction of the α-precipitates.
Different combinations of primary α- and secondary α-precipitates make an increase in hardness of about 11%.
Keywords: Metastable β-titanium alloy, Bar-rolling, Microstructure, Texture, Microhardness

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30724
Publ.-Id: 30724


Regulation of bone regeneration

Jung, F.; Pietzsch, J.ORC
This editorial presents three comprehensive reviews of recent preclinical and clinical findings supporting the healing of critical bone defects through adjuvant therapy approaches, which have been published in a special issue. In summary, these articles highlight current concepts that attempt to improve osteogenesis and bone healing using small molecule drugs and intelligent drug delivery methods. The main conclusions lead to an evaluation of the modulation of angiogenesis and microcirculation as a very promising concept. The modulation of inflammation, on the other hand, was evaluated as critical with respect to the start and duration of therapy. Novel solutions are expected from a targeted modulation of bone metabolism, the use of bifunctional or hybrid compounds, appropriate drug combinations and delivery systems.
Keywords: Adjuvant drug-assisted bone healing, angiogenesis, anti-resorptive drugs, bone metabolism, critical bone defect, compound fracture, drug release, inflammation, local therapy, systemic therapy, osteoconductive drugs, osteoinductive drugs, pleiotropic effects, targeted therapy, tissue regeneration
  • Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation 73(2020)3, 379-380
    DOI: 10.3233/CH-199101

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30722
Publ.-Id: 30722


HIM and AFM Data set from first AFM in the HIM test

Hlawacek, G.ORC; Andany, S.ORC

In this work, the integration of an atomic force microscope (AFM) into a helium ion microscope
(HIM) is reported for the first time. The helium ion microscope is a powerful instrument, capable of sub-
nanometer resolution imaging and machining nanoscale structures, while the AFM is a well-established
versatile tool for multiparametric nanoscale metrology. Combining the two techniques opens the way for
unprecedented, in-situ, correlative analysis at the nanoscale. Nanomachining and analysis can be
performed without contamination of the sample as well as avoiding environmental changes between
processing steps. The practicality of the resulting tool lies in the complementarity of the two techniques as
the AFM offers not only true 3D topography maps---something the HIM can only provide in an indirect
way---but also allows for nanomechanical property mapping, as well as electrical and magnetic
characterisation of the sample after focused ion beam materials modification with the HIM. The
experimental setup is described and evaluated through a series of correlative experiments, demonstrating
the feasibility of the integration.

Keywords: Helium Ion Microscopy; Atomic Force Microscopy
Related publications
An atomic force microscope integrated with a helium ion … (Id 30689) has used this publication of HZDR-primary research data
Alles Test Kursiv (Id 27438) is new version of this publication
  • Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
    Publication date: 2020-02-04
    DOI: 10.14278/rodare.249

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30718
Publ.-Id: 30718


Dynamics of Bubble Formation at Micro-orifices under Constant Gas Flow Conditions

Mohseni, E.ORC; Jose Kalayathine, J.; Reinecke, S.ORC; Hampel, U.ORC

Fine gas dispersion into a liquid is requested in a number of industrial applications. One way to achieve finer gas dispersion is to downsize the openings at which the gas bubbles are generated. Accordingly, we have investigated the dynamics of bubble formation from submerged orifices ranging from 0.04 to 0.8 mm at a comprehensive range of gas flow rates for a system of air and deionized water. In this range of orifice size, we observe a different mechanism of bubble formation compared with millimeter-range orifices. We discuss the observations on the basis of temporal change of the bubble shape, bubble base expansion, and detachment criteria. At submillimeter orifices, the mechanism of bubble formation is highly influenced by the capillary pressure and the gas kinetic energy. The latter results in congregation of small bubbles in the vicinity of the orifice, even at very small gas flow rates. Moreover, we studied the evolution of individual forces applied to the surface of bubbles during their formation. We found that the formation of bubbles at submillimeter orifices cannot be described with a quasi-static force balance. Finally, we present a bubbling regime map using proper dimensionless numbers.

Keywords: Bubble Formation; Submillimeter Orifices; Bubbling Regime; Bubbling Dynamics; Stainless Steel Orifice
  • Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
    Publication date: 2020-02-03
    DOI: 10.14278/rodare.247

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30717
Publ.-Id: 30717


The Late Paleozoic tectonometamorphic evolution of Patagonia revisited: Insights from the pressure-temperature-deformation-time (P-T-D-t) path of the Gondwanide basement of the North Patagonian Cordillera (Argentina)

Oriolo, S.; Schulz, B.; Gonzalez, P. D.; Bechis, F.; Olaizola, E.; Krause, J.; Renda, E. M.; Vizàn, H.
Combined field structural analysis with in situ EPMA (electron probe microanalysis) Th-U-Pb monazite dating, petrologic and microstructural data provide a reconstruction of the pressure-temperature-deformation-time (P-T-D-t) path of the Gondwanide basement of the North Patagonian Cordillera. For samples from the Challhuaco hill, the timing of development of the metamorphic S2 foliation and associated L2 lineation and tight to isoclinal F2 folds is constrained by monazite ages of 299 ± 8 and 302 ± 16 Ma during peak metamorphic conditions of ca. 650 °C and 11 kbar, achieved during prograde metamorphism and progressive deformation. Metamorphism and deformation of metamorphic complexes of the North Patagonian Andes seem to record Late Paleozoic crustal thickening and are coeval with metamorphism of accretionary complexes exposed further west in Chile, suggesting a coupled Late Devonian-Carboniferous evolution. Instead of the result of continental collision, the Gondwanide orogeny might thus be essentially linked to transpression due to advancing subduction along the proto-Pacific margin of Gondwana. On the other hand, a second generation of monazite ages of 171 ± 9 and 170 ± 7 Ma constrain the timing of low-grade metamorphism related to kink band and F3 open fold development during Jurassic transtension and emplacement of granitoids. Finally, a Cretaceous overprint, likely resulting from hydrothermal processes, is recorded by monazite ages of 110 ± 10 and 80 ± 20 Ma, which might be coeval with deformation along low-grade shear zones during the onset of Andean transpression.
Keywords: EPMA Th-U-Pb monazite dating, in situ petrochronology, garnet metapelite thermobarometry, Upper Paleozoic, Terra Australis, southwestern Gondwan

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30714
Publ.-Id: 30714


Epithermal Ag-(Au)-Zn-Pb mineralisation in the northern part of the Freiberg District, Germany

Swinkels, L.; Rossberg, C.; Schulz-Isenbeck, J.; Frenzel, M.ORC; Gutzmer, J.ORC; Burisch, M.
The polymetallic veins in the Freiberg district form one of the largest epithermal systems in Europe. It produced over 5600 t of Ag during active mining between 1168 and 1969. Historically, exploration focused on the centre of the district, with peripheral sub-districts exploited only to shallow depth. Recent exploration activity focuses on these peripheral regions, yet only a limited amount of modern geochemical data is available and the underlying ore-forming processes are insufficiently understood. Here, we present preliminary geochemical, fluid inclusion, and petrographic data for 55 samples from the historical mine camps of Reinsberg and Kleinvoigtsberg (northern peripheral sub-district). Samples were selected from the scientific collections of the TU Bergakademie Freiberg and collected from outcrops in the field. They include vertical profiles of two major veins extending from 18 to 532 meters below ground level. The data is combined with previous literature descriptions to develop a genetic model for the northern sector of the Freiberg district. Mineralisation in the Reinsberg and Kleinvoigtsberg mine camps is hosted by polystadial Ag-(Au)-Zn-Pb veins. The paragenetically oldest mineralisation, Stage I, is dominated by base metal sulphides and quartz; it has been encountered most prominently in the deepest levels of the historic mines. The occurrence of carbonates and the introduction of Ag-Sb sulphides and sulfosalts mark the transition to Stage IIa. At shallower mining levels, carbonate recedes and quartz returns as the major gangue mineral, indicating the transition to Stage IIb. Stage IIb vein infill is often breccia-textured and carry the highest silver grades. At the present day surface, veins consist of quartz and host rock fragments, forming a cockade breccia texture (stage III). Although no visible sulphides are present, such quartz breccias contain up to 2.5 g/t Au. Recent studies show that the main ore-forming process in the northern district seems to be cooling - causing distinct district and vein-scale zoning. Effervescence of CO2 is most likely the underlying process behind the transition from quartz to carbonate gangue. An understanding of mineral zonation and its underlying ore-forming processes can be translated into mappable exploration criteria. In this case, the highest ore grades (Ag and Au) are associated with Stage IIb (Ag-Sb-sulfosalts-quartz assemblage). This assemblage occurs always wedged between the carbonate-rich assemblage of Stage IIa (below) and the sulphide-poor quartz Stage III (above). This systematic relation may well constitute an important exploration vector for the Freiberg district.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Geomünster 2019, 22.-25.09.2019, Münster, BRD

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30713
Publ.-Id: 30713


Mineralogical zoning within the Freiberg epithermal Ag- (Au)-Pb-Zn-Cu system, Germany

Swinkels, L.; Rossberg, C.; Schulz-Isenbeck, J.; Burisch, M.; Frenzel, M.ORC; Gutzmer, J.ORC
The Freiberg epithermal system comprises numerous hydrothermal veins with rich Ag-(Au)-Pb-Zn-Cu mineralisation. Even after more than 800 years of extensive mining, substantial resources remain in the northern sub-districts. This area is subject to recent exploration activity. Preliminary petrographic data of two vertical profiles from the northern part of the district are presented and a new model for the district-scale zoning is proposed. The highest Ag grades occur in Ag-Sb-S-quartz veins and seem to systematically occur above an Ag-Sb-S-Carbonate stage and below Sb-S-quartz mineralisation. This high-grade Ag mineralisation is relatively distal, shallow, and abundant in the northwest sector of the Freiberg district. This, and similar insights may be used to develop new exploration vectors for the Freiberg district.
  • Poster
    15th Biennial Meeting of the Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits, 26.-30.08.2019, Glasgow, UK

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30712
Publ.-Id: 30712


Explaining metal zonation at the Lisheen Zn-Pb deposit, Ireland

Frenzel, M.ORC; Röhner, M.; Gutzmer, J.ORC; Burisch, M.; Cook, N. J.; Gilbert, S.; Ciobanu, C. L.; Güven, J.
Metal zonation is an important feature of low-temperature carbonate-hosted Zn-Pb deposits. Its origin, however, remains poorly understood. In this article, we use the Lisheen deposit in Ireland as a case study to show how thermodynamic modelling can explain these zonation patterns. Based on input data derived from fluid inclusion studies, bulk ore geochemistry and accepted models of ore formation in the Irish Orefield we construct a reaction path model that successfully accounts for the major features of the mineralisation, most importantly the presence of Cu-Ni-As-rich core zones around hydrothermal feeder structures, surrounded by more distal Fe-Zn-Pb-rich mineralisation. The outcomes of this study strongly support current metallogenetic models for Irish-type deposits and have implications for near-deposit exploration.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    15th Biennial Meeting of the Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits, 26.-30.08.2019, Glasgow, UK
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Geomünster 2019, 22.-25.09.2019, Münster, BRD

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30711
Publ.-Id: 30711


Radionuclides from Space

Merchel, S.ORC; Lachner, J.ORC; Rugel, G.ORC; Wallner, A.ORC
The determination of long-lived radionuclides by means of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is usually outstandingly successful when an interdisciplinary team comes together. The “heart” of AMS research is of course an accelerator equipped with sophisticated ion sources, analytical tools and detectors run by experienced and ambitious physicists. Setting-up and further developing AMS systems is one of the most interesting and challenging topics.
Another essential part in AMS research is the radiochemical sample preparation preceding the measurement where the goals are: 1.) Enrichment of nuclides of interest by reduction of the matrix. 2.) Depletion of isobars. 3.) Production of a thermally stable chemical compound such as AgCl, AgI, Al₂O₃, BeO, CaF₂, Fe₂O₃, MnO₂ etc. of relatively high purity.
One of the most interesting applications of AMS is the analysis of extraterrestrial material such as meteorites. While being at the surface of their so-called parent body (asteroids, Moon, Mars,…) and again while travelling through space as a so-called meteoroid, these unique pieces are bombarded by high-energy particles from the cosmic radiation. Long-lived radionuclides are produced in the material by nuclear reactions in both stages potentially until saturation. However, they start decaying in a third stage, when meteorites have landed on Earth because the cosmic radiation is shielded by the Earth’s atmosphere and magnetic field. Hence, the concentrations of radionuclides are records of all three stages allowing the reconstruction of the exposure history (duration, shielding, size,…) of the individual meteorite and the cosmic radiation itself.
Meteorite projects and projects with artificially-irradiated targets are also well-suited to develop measurements of “new” AMS radionuclides as the isotopic ratios are at much higher levels (up to 10-10 radioactive/stable) than e.g. in terrestrial natural samples (10-14-10-16). The AMS community is very open to any input and questions from “outside”. The DREsden AMS (DREAMS) and other European AMS facilities offer researchers from academia free measurements via a Trans-National-Access proposal program (www.ionbeamcenters.eu) and also national access (www.dresden-ams.de; DREAMS only).
Keywords: AMS, meteorite, cosmogenic, cosmic radiation, radionuclide
  • Poster
    53rd Annual Conference of the German Society for Mass Spectrometry DGMS including 27th ICP-MS User´s Meeting, 01.-04.03.2020, Münster, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30709
Publ.-Id: 30709


Mineralogy of the polymetallic Waschleithe Zn-Pb-(W) skarn – implications for skarn genesis in the Schwarzenberg district, western Erzgebirge, Germany

Reinhardt, N.; Frenzel, M.ORC; Gutzmer, J.ORC; Meinert, L. D.; Gerdes, A.; Burisch, M.
The Schwarzenberg district (SD) in the western Erzgebirge comprises a series of polymetallic skarn bodies with significant resource potential for Sn, W, Zn, and In. Skarn mineralisation in the SD is hosted by low- to medium-grade metasedimentary units forming the so-called Schwarzenberg Gneiss Dome (SGD). Recent exploration, mainly for Sn, W, and In, targeted the large Globenstein, Hämmerlein and Tellerhäuser skarn bodies (several km strike length). Fertile skarn mineralisation in these skarns is related to the late- to post-collisional phase of the Variscan Orogeny (325-295 Ma). Economically important large skarn bodies as well as smaller satellites of the SGD have thus far only been investigated individually, rather than being considered part of a potentially district-wide mineralizing system (~ 12 x 15 km). The Waschleithe skarn in the far north of the SGD is a typical example for a smaller skarn body. Considering its distal position within the SGD it provides valuable insight into district-scale mineral zoning. Mineralisation occurs within two skarn horizons hosted by marble interlayered with mica schists. The sharp contact between skarn and marble is well exposed in historical mine workings. Coarse-grained pyroxene (hedenbergite-diopside), finer-grained subordinate yellowish-green andraditic garnet and Mn-rich pyroxenoids are the dominant constituents of the prograde skarn mineral assemblage. All of them overprint the metamorphic microfabric of the marble. A retrograde skarn assemblage is only weakly developed and consists mainly of ilvaite, epidote, vesuvianite, amphibole, chlorite, quartz, fluorite and hydrothermal calcite. Ore minerals associated with the retrograde mineral assemblage may be grouped into three different assemblages: 1) magnetite, 2) sphalerite, galena, pyrite, and chalcopyrite and 3) scheelite. The retrograde ore mineral assemblages show no association with paragenetically late chlorite, indicating that they formed relatively early during retrograde skarn formation. The marble front, dark pyroxenes, relatively low garnet/pyroxene ratios and the presence of Mn-bearing pyroxenoids indicate that the Waschleithe skarn formed distal to its fluid source relative to skarns with a more proximal mineralogy, such as Hämmerlein. Thus, Waschleithe represents a distal equivalent to the larger skarns of the SGD situated farther to the south. A genetic link between the skarns of the SGD requires a substantial re-evaluation of the size and exploration potential of this mineral system. To test this hypothesis a comprehensive set of mineralogical, geochemical and geochronological data from several skarn bodies of the SGD is currently being acquired.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Geomünster 2019, 22.-25.09.2019, Münster, BRD

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30699
Publ.-Id: 30699


The Waschleithe W-skarn - a distal relative of skarns in the Schwarzenberg district, western Erzgebirge, Germany?

Reinhardt, N.; Burisch, M.; Frenzel, M.ORC; Gutzmer, J.ORC; Meinert, L. D.; Gerdes, A.
The Waschleithe skarn located near Schwarzenberg in eastern Germany hosts sub-economic polymetallic W-Zn-Pb-Cu-Fe mineralisation. Its mineralogy is dominated by prograde clinopyroxene and subordinate garnet. The garnet and pyroxene colours of this skarn as well as low garnet/pyroxene ratios are typical for distal skarn settings. Ore minerals (magnetite, sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite, pyrite, scheelite) in the prograde skarn do not show a clear association with the weakly developed retrograde overprint consisting mainly of late chlorite and calcite.
  • Poster
    15th Biennial Meeting of the Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits, 28.08.2019, Glasgow, UK

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30698
Publ.-Id: 30698


Assessing the global availability of by-product metals – The cases of Ga, Ge and In

Frenzel, M.ORC
Recently, considerable concerns have been raised about the supply security of certain high-tech elements produced as by-products. To determine in how far these concerns are justified by the actual availability of these elements, a new method was developed to estimate supply potentials, including statistical uncertainties. This was applied to three relevant examples – Ga, Ge and In – to compare their global availability to current and historic production volumes. The assessment is based on detailed estimates of the amounts extractable from various raw material streams given contemporary market prices and technologies. The results show that the supply potentials of all three elements significantly exceed current primary production. However, the degree to which this is the case varies from element to element. Differences also exist in historic growth trends, with indium showing the fastest growth rate of production relative to supply potential at the time of analysis.
Keywords: By-products, Hi-tech metals, Supply security
  • Lecture (others)
    USGS Eastern Competence Center on Mineral Resources - Seminar, 17.12.2019, Reston, VA, USA

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30697
Publ.-Id: 30697


On the effect of liquid viscosity, density and surface tension on the hydrodynamics of TSL injection systems

Reuter, M. A.; Obiso, D.; Stelter, M.; Kriebitzsch, S.
On the effect of liquid viscosity, density and surface tension on the hydrodynamics of TSL injection systems,
Main features
Top-submerged gas injection
Submerged combustion
Smelting of non-ferrous metals
Example: copper from chalcopyrite (CuFeS2 )
Importance of hydrodynamics:
gas-liquid interface
intensity of mixing
splashing
lance cooling/coating
Keywords: TSL,
  • Lecture (Conference)
    EXTRACTION, 26.-29.08.2019, Ottawa, Canada

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30695
Publ.-Id: 30695


Raw data of liquid saturation, pressure drop and porosity of an inclined rotating fixed-bed reactor with inner tube

Timaeus, R.; Schleicher, E.; Bieberle, A.; Hampel, U.; Schubert, M.

The hydrodynamic raw data of an inclined rotating fixed-bed reactor with different inner tubes are given. The phase distributions of nitrogen and cumene in the cross-section of the reactor filled with porous alumina particles were measured via a capacitance wire-mesh sensor. Besides, the the raw data of the specific pressure drops for the investigated operating points are described. Additionally, the attenuation coefficients of different configurations (different particle and inner tube diameter) are collected, which were measured by gamma-ray computed tomography. This publication contains the raw data of the publication "Hydrodynamic data of an inclined rotating fixed-bed reactor" (10.14278/rodare.203).

Keywords: Hydrodynamic analysis, Wire-mesh sensor, Raw data, Gamma-ray computed tomography
Related publications
Identification of the process windows of inclined rotating … (Id 30121) has used this publication of HZDR-primary research data
  • Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
    Publication date: 2020-02-03
    DOI: 10.14278/rodare.243

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30694
Publ.-Id: 30694


CFD modeling of combustion and heat transfer in the TSL smelter

Reuter, M. A.; Obiso, D.; Kriebitzsch, S.; Stelter, M.
CFD modelling of combustion and heat transfer in the TSL smelter.
The importance of viscous and interfacial forces on the hydrodynamics of the TSL furnace
An experimental and numerical investigation of TSL gas injection in liquid metal
Keywords: CFD modelling, TSL, metal
  • Lecture (Conference)
    EMC19, European Metallurgical Conference, 23.-26.06.2019, Düsseldorf, Deutschland

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30693
Publ.-Id: 30693


Validation of a VOF approach for the Top-Submerged gas injection in liquid metal

Reuter, M. A.; Obiso, D.; Richter, A.; Akashi, M.; Eckert, S.
The main goal of this work is to prove the reliability of the Volume of Fluid (VOF) model for a top-submerged-lance (TSL) gas injection in a liquid metal bath, therefore trying to close the gap between the modelling of common air/water lab setups and real TSL slag-bath furnaces. Suitable validation data were provided by HZDR, where X-ray imaging was applied to picture the multiphase flow in an Argon - Ga77.2In14.4Sn8.4 system [1].
Keywords: Volume of Fluid, op-submerged-lance, metal, X-ray
  • Lecture (Conference)
    17th Multiphase Flow Conference HZDR, 13.-15.11.2019, Dresden, Deutschland

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30692
Publ.-Id: 30692


Editorial for World of Metallurgy

Reuter, M. A.
The title of a paper we wrote for this journal in 2014 "Copper: A Key Enabler of Resource Efficiency", or to rephrase it in light of the present Circular Economy (CE) paradigm "Copper: A Key Enabler of the Circular Economy", rings as true as ever.
Keywords: Copper, Resource Efficiency, Circular Economy
  • Erzmetall - World of Metallurgy 72(2019)6, 307-308

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30691
Publ.-Id: 30691


The Application Of Subspace Clustering Algorithms In Drill-Core Hyperspectral Domaining

Rafiezadeh Shahi, K.; Khodadadzadeh, M.ORC; Tolosana Delgado, R.ORC; Tusa, L.; Gloaguen, R.ORC
Diamond drilling is used in the mining industry to extract drill-cores for characterising mineral deposits. Traditionally, drill-cores are visually analysed by an on-site geologist, subjected to geochemical analyses, and then, few representative samples subjected to additional high-resolution mineralogical studies. However, the choice in samples is frequently subjective and the mineralogical analyses are highly time-consuming. In order to optimize the choice of samples and accelerate the analyses, drill-cores can be partitioned into domains, and then, laboratory analyses can be carried out on selected domains. Nevertheless, in the mining industry, automatic drill-core domaining still remains a challenge. Recently, hyperspectral imaging has become an important technique for the analysis of drill-cores in a non-invasive and non-destructive manner. Several clustering algorithms of hyper-spectral data are proposed for automatic drill-core domaining. In this paper, we suggest using advanced subspace clustering algorithms (i.e., sparse subspace clustering algorithm, spectral-spatial sparse subspace clustering algorithm). These algorithms work based on the self-representation property of the hyperspectral data. The clustering methods are tested on two drill-core samples which present different mineralogical and structural features. The subspace clustering algorithms are compared with the result of the K-means clustering algorithm. Our experimental results show that subspace clustering algorithms provide accurate drill-core domains and it is shown that including spatial information significantly improves the clustering results.
Keywords: Clustering algorithms, Hyperspectral imaging, Veins, Minerals, Signal processing algorithms, Clustering methods
  • Contribution to proceedings
    2019 10th Workshop on Hyperspectral Imaging and Signal Processing: Evolution in Remote Sensing (WHISPERS), 24.-26.09.2019, Amsterdam, Netherlands

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30688
Publ.-Id: 30688


A subspace clustering algorithm with spatial regularization for mineral mapping.

Rafiezadeh Shahi, K.; Khodadadzadeh, M.ORC; Tolosana Delgado, R.ORC; Gloaguen, R.ORC
Determination of the mineral compositions of an ore deposit is a vital task in exploration campaigns. HyperSpectral (HS) imaging is an emerging technology that is becoming popular in the mining industry. Specially, analyzing drill core HS data enables geologists to map minerals in mining projects in a fast and non-destructive manner. There are several methods to analyze the acquired drill cores. While traditional approaches such as X-Ray diffraction (XRD) can be subjective and are time consuming, the new machine learning based techniques applied on drill core HS scans have shown promising results. By using machine learning techniques, geologists are able to identify representative areas of drill core samples to apply traditional laboratory analysis.In recent studies, advanced unsupervised learning techniques to cluster HS data have shown great performance. Specially subspace clustering methods (i.e., sparse subspace clustering, low rank representation clustering) obtained more accurate results than the traditional clustering methods (e.g. K-means) for the analysis of this data. This is mainly because of the fact that each pixel may contain several minerals rather than a single phase. Therefore, the drill core HS data can be better represented as a union of low dimensional subspaces.In this work, we propose a new subspace-based method to cluster drill core HS data. It has been shown in the literature that incorporating spatial information will improve the classification results of HS data. Thus, in this work, we suggest including spatial information in the sparse subspace clustering method. In the classical sparse clustering method, only spectral information being used to cluster HS data. While, by adding information from the surrounding of each pixel in the classical sparse formula, the performance of the subspace clustering method will be improved. The method was applied to VNIR-SWIR hyperspectral data. Qualitative validation was provided by scanning electron microscopy based Mineral Liberation Analysis (SEM-MLA) on some areas of interest. Results indicate that the proposed method is promising, compared to existing clustering methods
Keywords: PIXELS, DRILL cores, REGULARIZATION (Mathematics), ORE deposits, SCANNING electron microscopy, MINERAL analysis
  • Open Access Logo Contribution to proceedings
    EGU General Assembly 2019, 07.-12.04.2019, Vienna, Austria
    Geophysical Research Abstracts

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30686
Publ.-Id: 30686


UAS aeromagnetic survey and hyperspectral data for mineral exploration

Madriz Diaz, Y. C.; Jackisch, R.ORC; Zimmermann, R.ORC; Gloaguen, R.ORC
Geophysical methods for mineral exploration require cost- and time-effective ways to acquire high resolution data to supplement field mapping. During the last few years, lightweight magnetometers and hyperspectral imaging (HSI) sensors have been increasingly and independently developed for their use on unmanned aerial systems (UAS). We propose that the combination of hyperspectral images and UAS aeromagnetic surveys can provide a rapid and cost-effective technology to improve the detection of shallow targets and to delineate mineral structures in potentially hazardous terrains where traditional techniques cannot be operated safely. With low altitude flights and tight flight lines, UAS aeromagnetic surveys can help overcome the scale gap between ground and air-borne magnetics and deliver high resolution maps. However, data corrections are required for UAS aeromagnetic data to achieve valid observations and reliable maps. For this study the main magnetic compensations applied to the magnetics were meant to attenuate temporal variations, headings and maneuvering errors. The interpretation of accurate total field maps can be improved with the aid of hyperspectral images. HSI are widely used in geological mapping and mineral exploration (e.g., van der Meer et al., 2012, Jakob et al., 2016). A comprehensive data set including hyperspectral images and handheld spectral measurements of the study area in Siilinjärvi, Finland, was acquired before the UAS aeromagnetic survey was performed. The UAS magnetics was acquired at 40 m height, with a line spacing of 20 m, covering an area of 3.894 ha.
Data processing of the UAS aeromagnetic data revealed the importance of making appropriate corrections for the reliability of the total magnetic intensity (TMI) and derived maps. Results suggest that UAS aeromagnetic data captured the main geological trends of the area by applying pertinent corrections. Aided by the HSI information, the sources of the magnetic anomalies were identified. A high magnetic contrast created by a syenite intrusion located in a glimmeritic carbonatite complex is consistently delineated by the UAS aeromagnetic data. Outcropping areas of the syenite intrusion can also be identified in the available hyperspectral image of Siilinjärvi.
Keywords: Airborne magnetics, magnetometer, hyperspectral, mineral exploration, UAS
  • Open Access Logo Invited lecture (Conferences)
    AGU-SEG Airborne Geophysics Workshop, 11.-13.06.2019, Davie, Florida, United States

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30684
Publ.-Id: 30684


Carboranyl Derivatives of Rofecoxib with Cytostatic Activity Against Human Melanoma and Colon Cancer Cells

Buzharevski, A.; Paskas, S.; Sárosi, M.-B.; Laube, M.ORC; Lönnecke, P.; Neumann, W.; Murganić, B.; Mijatović, S.; Maksimović-Ivanić, D.; Pietzsch, J.ORC; Hey-Hawkins, E.
Due to the involvement of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in carcinogenesis, COX-2-selective inhibitors are increasingly studied for their potential cytotoxic properties. Moreover, the incorporation of carboranes in structures of established anti-inflammatory drugs can improve the potency and metabolic stability of the inhibitors. Herein, we report the synthesis of carborane-containing derivatives of rofecoxib that display remarkable cytostatic activity in the micromolar range with excellent selectivity for melanoma and colon cancer cell lines over normal cells. Furthermore, it was shown that the carborane-modified derivatives of rofecoxib displayed different modes of action that was dependent on the cell type.
Keywords: cancer, rofecoxib, carborane, cytostatic drugs, NO-releasing drug

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30682
Publ.-Id: 30682


UAS aeromagnetic survey for mineral exploration using a fluxgate triaxial magnetometer.

Madriz Diaz, Y. C.; Jackisch, R.ORC; Zimmermann, R.ORC; Gloaguen, R.ORC
Unmanned aerial systems (UASs) for aeromagnetic surveying are currently an advantageous and suitable alternative for a large variety of geophysical applications, such as mineral exploration. UASs equipped with lightweight fluxgate magnetometers can rapidly provide high resolution magnetic data under conditions where traditional surveys cannot operate safely. Furthermore, UAS-borne magnetic acquisition offer a new mapping scale to overcome the gap between terrestrial and manned airborne surveys in a cost-effective way. However, there are several sources of magnetic interferences that compromise the measurements of the Earth's magnetic field, affecting the validity of observations and causing the development of unreliable maps. We address magnetic interference at the initial stages of survey planning and later on during processing. Fluxgate triaxial magnetometers can simultaneously measure the three components of the geomagnetic field but the sensor must be oriented and the heading of the aircraft plays an important role. To characterize the heading error it was essential to perform a compensation test including the possible flight directions before or after survey acquisition. To best adjust to the specific conditions of this case study, a processing tool was designed and programmed to compute suitable corrections and attenuate magnetic interferences. The three main corrections applied to the data included the removal of temporal variations, maneuvering noise and heading errors.
To test the potential of UAS for mineral exploration we selected a former mine in Otanmäki, Finland, as study site. To explore the contribution of low altitude UAS flights to characterize and improve the detection of geological structures, the study area was surveyed at three different heights: 60 m, 40 m and 15 m. For validation purposes, previous aeromagnetic studies in the area were employed, among them a ground magnetic survey. With regards to the efficiency of the UASs for aeromagnetic surveying it is worth mentioning that none of the flights lasted more than 15 minutes. The validation revealed that the total magnetic field maps consistently delineate the iron-ilmenite-magnetite deposits that enclose the test area. As expected, the superior spatial resolution was reached by the 15 m flight survey. Corrections played an important role during data processing. Nevertheless magnetic interference by heading errors was crucial for the reliability of this study. Our results suggest that after applying the pertinent magnetic compensations, UAS aeromagnetic surveys constitute a robust tool for mineral exploration.
Keywords: Unmanned aircraft systems, Magnetic survey, Magnetometer, Airborne surveying
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    EGU General Assembly 2019, 08.-12.04.2019, Wien, Austria

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30680
Publ.-Id: 30680


CFD modelling of the combustion and heat transfer in the Top-Submerged-Lance smelter

Reuter, M.ORC; Obiso, D.; Stelter, M.; Kriebitzsch, S.
The growth outlook for the circular economy in the metallurgical industry has to be built on the deep knowledge of the secondary processes involved in the chain: metal recycling and waste recov-ery play a significant role to successfully close the loop in the metal cycle.
The top-submerged-lance (TSL) furnace technology, primarily designed for metal extraction, is gradually making headway on that perspective because of its technical and economical flexibility. To push the market in that direction, an intense research effort has to be put in the understanding of the fundamentals, from chemical-physical to the engineering aspects.
In the present work, the authors investigate the lance combustion and the heat transfer in a TSL fur-nace. The submerged combustion is a crucial aspect of this technology. The correct design and ap-plication of the lance and the appropriate gas flow conditions must ensure a well-defined value of the partial pressure of oxygen pO2, which drives the smelting reaction process of the mineral con-centrate in the liquid slag bath.
A CFD investigation of the lab-scale TSL furnace, located at TU Bergakademie Freiberg, is per-formed using ANSYS Fluent®: the furnace setup includes the submerged combustive injection into a Cu-slag bath, in absence of the concentrate stream. The analysis provides detailed insights of the fuel combustion and the interaction with the liquid slag. Besides that, the evaluation of the pO2 at the lance tip and the temperature distribution in the bath and in the lance wall represent an added value for the furnace controlling and optimization.
Keywords: TSL smelting, submerged combustion, CFD, pyrometallurgy
  • Poster
    TMS - The Mineral Society Annual Meeting, 10.-14.03.2019, San Antonio, Texas, Texas, USA
  • Contribution to proceedings
    10th European Metallurgical Conference, EMC 2019, 23.-26.06.2019, Düsseldorf, Germany
    Proceedings of the 10th European Metallurgical Conference, EMC 2019, Volume 2(2019), 631-638

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30678
Publ.-Id: 30678


Line-scan detection system to identify rare earth elements in rocks

Abend, T.; Sharma, S. K.; Fuchs, M.; Beyer, J.; Heitmann, J.; Gloaguen, R.
We develop an integrated sensor system to detect rare earth elements (REE) in natural minerals on-site. The system combines reflectance and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy in order to present a noninvasive alternative to conventional time-consuming and costly chemical analysis of drill cores in mineral exploration. The major benefit lies in the rapid gathering of continuous spatial information on the type and abundance of the REEs in drill cores. Additionally the sample material remains unharmed during the whole process. To maximise scan speed and sample throughput, our system operates in continuous line scan mode, with continuous sample flow beneath the detector.
Keywords: Photoluminescence (PL); rare earth elements (REE); line-scan; system integration
  • Lecture (Conference)
    IEEE Sensors 2019, 27.-30.10.2019, Montreal, Canada

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30677
Publ.-Id: 30677


Ice Complex formation on Bol’shoy Lyakhovsky Island (New Siberian Archipelago, East Siberian Arctic) since about 200 ka

Wetterich, S.; Rudaya, N.; Kuznetsov, V.; Maksimov, F.; Opel, T.; Meyer, H.; Guenther, F.; Bobrov, A.; Raschke, E.; Zimmermann, H.; Strauss, J.; Starikova, A.; Fuchs, M.; Schirrmeister, L.
Late Quaternary landscapes of unglaciated Beringia were largely shaped by ice-wedge polygon tundra. Ice Complex (IC) strata preserve such ancient polygon formations. Here we report on the Yukagir IC from Bol'shoy Lyakhovsky Island in northeastern Siberia and suggest that new radioisotope disequilibria (230Th/U) dates of the Yukagir IC peat confirm its formation during the Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 7a–c interglacial period. The preservation of the ice-rich Yukagir IC proves its resilience to last interglacial and late glacial–Holocene warming. This study compares the Yukagir IC to IC strata of MIS 5, MIS 3, and MIS 2 ages exposed on Bol'shoy Lyakhovsky Island. Besides high intrasedimental ice content and syngenetic ice wedges intersecting silts, sandy silts, the Yukagir IC is characterized by high organic matter (OM) accumulation and low OM decomposition of a distinctive Drepanocladus moss-peat. The Yukagir IC pollen data reveal grass-shrub-moss tundra indicating rather wet summer conditions similar to modern ones. The stable isotope composition of Yukagir IC wedge ice is similar to those of the MIS 5 and MIS 3 ICs pointing to similar atmospheric moisture generation and transport patterns in winter. IC data from glacial and interglacial periods provide insights into permafrost and climate dynamics since about 200 ka.
Keywords: Cryostratigraphy, ice wedges, stable isotopes, pollen, radioisotope disequilibria dating, Beringia

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  • Secondary publication expected

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30675
Publ.-Id: 30675


Geochemical Characterization of Tea Leaves (Camellia sinensis) and Soils for Provenance Studies based on Compositional Data Analysis

Pospiech, S.ORC
Provenance studies on tea (Camellia sinensis) are an important tool to reconstruct the origin of tea products. This thesis explores the potential of using solely the ionome (main and trace element concentrations) of tea shoot tips for provenance studies. The emphasize of the thesis is to find element subcompositions which are robust in respect to the various parameters of tea cultivation and production, such as the area, their soils, soil fertilizer and applications of foliar sprays, tea cultivars, plucking/harvesting techniques, manufacturing or leaf grade of the processed tea. For specific discrimination tasks these robust subcompositions can be combined with element subcompositions which are sensitive to one or several tea cultivation and production parameters. The data set consists of ca. 300 leaf and processed tea samples and ca. 130 soil samples. The sampling areas are located in Darjeeling, Assam and Nilgiris in India, in Paraná and São Paulo in Brazil and in Uji and Shizuoka in Japan. All samples, plants and soils, had been treated with four acid digestion methods with HNO3, HCl, HClO4 and HF to achieve a total dissolution. The sample solutions had been analyzed by ICP-MS and ICP-OES. The element concentrations of the leaf and processed tea samples had been corrected for adhering (soil) particles. Hence, all statistical analysis are based on the corrected concentrations values of Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sb, Sc, Sr, Tl, Y and Zn. The element concentrations are converted into log-ratios by additive, centered or isometric log-ratio transformations prior to statistical analysis to avoid spurious correlations and to enhance the signal-noise ratio for e.g. the trace elements concentrations. The comparison of the geochemical composition of topsoils, subsoils, mature leaves, shoot tips and processed tea samples is used to establish for each element a qualitative index of robustness with respect to cultivation and production parameters. The elements with a high robustness are considered as very suitable for a provenance analysis without further knowledge about the tea samples. The thesis exemplary shows that with already small element subcompositions a good discrimination by geographical origin is possible if the elements are chosen in terms of their suitability for provenance studies of tea including their sensitivity in respect to specific parameters. The geological source rocks of the tea plantations is one of the major factors for discrimination of tea origin.
Keywords: tea; Camellia sinensis; compositional data; soil-plant interaction; plant analysis; plant ionom; provenance; Darjeeling
  • Doctoral thesis
    Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, 2019
    Mentor: Prof. H. Ruppert
    267 Seiten

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30674
Publ.-Id: 30674


TWEAC - Energy-efficient Laser-plasma acceleration beyond the dephasing and depletion limits

Debus, A.ORC; Pausch, R.ORC; Hübl, A.ORC; Steiniger, K.ORC; Widera, R.ORC; Cowan, T.ORC; Schramm, U.ORC; Bussmann, M.ORC
We present Traveling-Wave Electron Acceleration (TWEAC), a novel compact electron accelerator scheme based on laser-plasma acceleration. While laser-plasma accelerators provide multi-GeV electron beams today, the acceleration to higher energies is limited. The sub-luminal group-velocity of plasma waves let electrons outrun the accelerating field.

In order to control the speed of the accelerating plasma cavity, TWEAC utilizes two pulse-front tilted laser pulses whose propagation directions enclose an acute angle. The accelerating cavity is created along their overlap region in the plasma and can move at the vacuum speed of light. The oblique laser geometry enables to constantly cycle different laser beam sections through the interaction region, hence providing quasi-stationary conditions of the wakefield driver. Thus, TWEAC offers constant acceleration without a dephasing electron beam while avoiding usual laser pump depletion within the interaction region. This opens the way for electron energies beyond 10 GeV, possibly towards TeV class electron beams, without the need for multiple laser-accelerator stages.

In this poster we study the energy efficiency of TWEAC compared to LWFA. We find that for low-angle TWEAC setups, it is possible to accelerate high-charge bunches with laser to electron beam energy efficiencies close to 50%, which exceeds energy efficiencies typically attained with LWFA.
Keywords: Laser-produced plasmas, Plasma-based accelerators, Laser-wakefield acceleration, Traveling-wave electron acceleration, TWEAC
  • Poster
    5. Annual MT Meeting, 05.-7.3.2019, Jena, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30673
Publ.-Id: 30673


vdar - Discriminant Analysis Incorporating Individual Uncertainties

Pospiech, S.ORC
The qda() function from package 'MASS' is extended to calculate a weighted linear (LDA) and quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA) by changing the group variances and group means based on cell-wise uncertainties. The uncertainties can be derived e.g. through relative errors for each individual measurement (cell), not only row-wise or column-wise uncertainties. The method can be applied compositional data (e.g. portions of substances, concentrations) and non-compositional data.
Keywords: R-Package, QDA, LDA, compositional data, weighted QDA, weighted LDA
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  • Software in external data repository
    Publication year 2020
    Programming language: R
    System requirements: R (>= 3.6.0)
    License: GPL-3
    Hosted on CRAN: Link to location

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30671
Publ.-Id: 30671


Scaling EUV and X-ray Thomson Sources to Optical Free-Electron Laser Operation with Traveling-Wave Thomson-Scattering

Debus, A.ORC; Steiniger, K.ORC; Albach, D.ORC; Bussmann, M.ORC; Löser, M.ORC; Pausch, R.ORC; Röser, F.; Schramm, U.ORC; Siebold, M.
Traveling-Wave Thomson-Scattering (TWTS) is a novel Thomson scattering geometry which allows for orders of magnitude higher photon yields than classic head-on Thomson sources. TWTS thereby remains compact and provides narrowband and ultra-short ultraviolet to γ-ray radiation pulses just as classic Thomson sources. Even the realization of optical free-electron lasers is possible with the TWTS geometry since it provides both optical undulators with thousands of periods needed to microbunch the electron beam and a reduction of electron beam quality requirements compared to classic Thomson scattering to a level technically feasible today. TWTS employs a side-scattering geometry depicted in fig. 1. Laser and electron propagation direction of motion enclose the interaction angle ϕ. Tilting the laser pulse front with respect to the wave front by half the interaction angle ensures continuous overlap of electrons and laser pulse over the whole laser pulse width while the laser pulse crosses the electron beam trajectory. In this way the interaction length becomes controllable by the laser pulse width and independent of the laser pulse duration. Utilizing wide, petawatt class laser pulses for TWTS allows to realize thousands of optical undulator periods. The variability of TWTS with respect to the interaction angle can be used to control the radiation wavelength even for electron sources with fixed energy. For a fixed target wavelength on the other hand, the free choice of interaction angle enables control over electron beam quality requirements. Small interaction angle scenarios (ϕ∼10°) typically yield the best trade-off between requirements on electron beam quality, laser power and laser intensity stability. In the talk we will show that TWTS OFELs emitting extreme ultraviolet radiation are realizable today with existing technology for electron accelerators and laser systems. We detail an experimental setup to generate the tilted TWTS laser pulses which aims at compactness and provides focusing of these high-power pulses and compensation of dispersion accompanying pulse-front tilts. The method presented for dispersion compensation is especially relevant when building high yield X- and γ-ray sources in large interaction angle setups of TWTS.
Keywords: optical FEL, traveling-wave, Thomson scattering, pulse-front tilt, out-of-focus interaction, EUV, X-ray
  • Poster
    5. Annual MT Meeting, 05.-7.3.2019, Helmholtz Institut Jena, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30670
Publ.-Id: 30670


Influence of LWFA injection schemes on temporal pulse structure and peak current

Debus, A.ORC; Zarini, O.ORC; Laberge, M.; Couperus Cabadağ, J. P.ORC; Köhler, A.ORC; Kurz, T.ORC; Schöbel, S.; Krämer, J.; Hannasch, A. J.; Zgadzaj, R.; Mewes, H.; Meißner, H.; Bussmann, M.ORC; Downer, M.; Schramm, U.ORC; Irman, A.ORC
Laser wakefield accelerators (LWFA) feature unique electron bunch characteristics, namely micrometer beam size with duration ranging from a few fs to tens of fs. Precise knowledge of the longitudinal profile of such ultra-short electron bunches is essential for the design of future table-top x-ray light-sources.
Spectral measurements of broadband transition radiation from LWFA electron bunches passing through a metal foil are especially promising for non-destructively analyzing ultrashort longitudinal bunch characteristics with single-shot capability.

Our broadband, single-shot spectrometer combines the TR spectrum in UV/VIS (200-1000nm), NIR (0.9-1.7μm) and mid-IR (1.6-12μm). A complete characterization and calibration of the spectrometer have been done with regard to wavelengths, relative spectral sensitivities, and absolute photometric sensitivity. Our spectrometer is able to characterize electron bunches with charges as low as 1 pC and resolve time-scales from 0.4 to 40 fs. In addition, complementary data on the transverse bunch profile is provided by simultaneously imaging the CTR in the far- and near-field.

We present recent experimental results of different LWFA injection mechanisms, such as self-truncated ionization-injection and self-injection. By analyzing the transition radiation spectra and reconstructing electron bunch profiles including error analysis, we determine electron bunch profiles and peak currents of the respective injection regimes. In addition to bunch durations and peak currents, we show sub-fs beam micro-structures and systematic experimental scans of the nitrogen doping concentration for ionization-induced injection.
Keywords: LWFA, Laser-wakefield acceleration, peak current, injection scheme, broadband spectrometer, single-shot bunch length measurement, coherent transition radiation, absolute calibration, electron bunch duration, longitudinal profile, absolute calibration, UV, VIS, NIR, MIR
  • Lecture (Conference)
    5. Annual MT Meeting, 05.-7.3.2019, Jena, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30669
Publ.-Id: 30669


Scalable laser-plasma acceleration using Traveling-Wave Electron Acceleration

Debus, A.ORC; Pausch, R.ORC; Hübl, A.ORC; Steiniger, K.ORC; Widera, R.ORC; Cowan, T.ORC; Schramm, U.ORC; Bussmann, M.ORC
While laser-plasma accelerators provide multi-GeV electron beams today, the acceleration to higher energies is limited. The sub-luminal group-velocity of plasma waves let electrons outrun the accelerating field. We present Traveling-Wave Electron Acceleration, a novel compact laser-plasma accelerator scheme which circumvents the LWFA constraints of electron beam dephasing, laser pulse diffraction and depletion.

For controlling the speed of the accelerating plasma cavity, TWEAC utilizes two pulse-front tilted lasers whose propagation directions enclose a configurable angle. The accelerating cavity is created along their overlap region in the plasma and can move at the vacuum speed of light. Such guiding-structure-free, lateral coupling of lasers into the plasma allows the field within this overlap region to be continuously replenished by the successive parts of the laser pulse. Supported by 3D particle-in-cell simulations, we show that this leads to quasi-stationary acceleration conditions for electron bunches along the total acceleration length, such that TWEAC is in principle scalable to arbitrarily long acceleration stages.

We discuss scaling laws and detail experimental design considerations. We find that for low-angle TWEAC setups, it is possible to accelerate nanocoulomb-class bunches with laser to electron beam energy efficiencies close to 50%, thus exceeding energy efficiencies typically attained with LWFA.
Keywords: Laser-produced plasmas, Plasma-based accelerators, Laser-wakefield acceleration, Traveling-wave electron acceleration, TWEAC
  • Lecture (Conference)
    4th European Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop (EAAC 2019), 15.-21.9.2019, La Biodola Bay, Isola d'Elba, Italy

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30668
Publ.-Id: 30668


Modeling the L|PWFA hybrid accelerator using PIConGPU

Debus, A.ORC; Pausch, R.ORC; Steiniger, K.ORC; Hübl, A.ORC; Widera, R.ORC; Kurz, T.ORC; Schöbel, S.; Chang, Y.-Y.; Couperus Cabadağ, J. P.ORC; Köhler, A.ORC; Heinemann, T.; Ding, H.; Döpp, A.; Giljohann, M.; Kononenko, O.; Gaurav, R.; Corde, S.; Hidding, B.; Karsch, S.; Martinez De La Ossa, A.; Irman, A.ORC; Schramm, U.ORC
The hybrid L|PWFA acceleration scheme combines laser- (LWFA) with plasma-wakefield acceleration (PWFA) to provide an ultra-compact, high-brightness electron source. Recently, the acceleration of a witness bunch using this hybrid scheme was demonstrated at HZDR. In this talk, we present recent start-to-end simulations, that accompanied the experimental campaign, and provided fundamental insights into the injection and acceleration process of this novel, compact accelerator. These accompanying simulations were performed using the 3D3V particle-in-cell code PIConGPU. A significantly enhanced agreement between theoretical predictions and experimental measurements could be achieved by resembling the experiment to a very high degree. Modeling the geometry, density distributions, laser modes, and gas dopings as measured in the experiments provided good comparability between experiment and simulation. With that degree of agreement, the wealth of information provided by the in-situ data analysis of PIConGPU provided insight into the plasma dynamics, otherwise inaccessible in experiments. The talk will not only focus on explaining the fundamental physical process behind this hybrid scheme but will further elaborate on the essential details that produce the quasi-monoenergetic witness bunches seen in experiment. Furthermore, we will discuss the associated challenges in maintaining numerical stability and experimental comparability of these long-duration simulations.
Keywords: LWFA, PWFA, laser wakefield acceleration, plasma wakefield acceleration, particle-in-cell simulations, PIC, hybrid L|PWFA, start-to-end simulation
  • Lecture (Conference)
    4th European Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop (EAAC 2019), 15.-21.9.2019, La Biodola Bay, Isola d'Elba, Italy

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30667
Publ.-Id: 30667


A spectral library for Smithsonian rare-earth element phosphate standards using laser-induced fluorescence

Fuchs, M.; Beyer, J.; Lorenz, S.; Sharma, S.ORC; Renno, A.ORC; Heitmann, J.; Gloaguen, R.ORC
Innovation in raw material exploration relies on efficient and non-invasive technologies. Spectroscopy based methods have proven great potential to deliver instant and spatially continuous information on the composition of an investigated surface. Several studies successfully applied laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) for rare-earth element (REE) identification in natural rocks. However, the diagnostic assignment of detected emission lines remains a complex task, because of the highly variable composition of natural rocks. It needs a transfer of the profound knowledge from the field of applied physics and synthetic materials to the natural rock material under investigation. The evaluation of measured spectra and robust assignment of REEs requires reference data, yet usually based on tables of published emission lines, while data of complete reference spectra are not available.
We present a library of reference spectra for all luminescent rare-earth elements using the Smithsonian rare-earth phosphate standards for electron microprobe analysis. We employ laser-induced fluorescence at three commonly used laser wavelengths (325 nm, 442 nm, 532 nm) to acquire reference spectra for REE phosphate minerals in the visible to near-infrared spectral range (350 – 1080 nm). Excitation at all three laser wavelengths yielded spectra with distinct REE-related emission lines for EuPO4, TbPO4, DyPO4 and YbPO4. Lower energy laser excitation at 442 nm showed successful especially for suppressing non-REE-related broadband defect emission. Resulting REE-reference spectra include those from PrPO4, SmPO4 and ErPO4. For NdPO4 and HoPO4 most efficient excitation was achieved with 532 nm. The diagnostic emission lines of GdPO4 lie outside the detection range and none of the three laser wavelengths was appropriate for TmPO4 excitation.
Our results demonstrate the suitability of LIF for REE detection and especially the possibility of selective element excitation. Our reference spectra provide the full spectral information at high resolution (0.13nm) as a basis for an improved evaluation of REE-bearing natural rocks allowing for data analysis of emission line positions, emission line intensity ratios and splitting into emission line sub-levels. The spectral library data support the use of LIF for REE analysis in natural samples and its application in raw material exploration.
Keywords: spectroscopy, laser-induced fluorescence, rare-earth elements
  • Open Access Logo Contribution to proceedings
    European Geoscience Union, 12.04.2019, Vienna, Austria

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30666
Publ.-Id: 30666


Erfassung hydrodynamischer Kenngrößen in großen Prozessbehältern mittels instrumentierter Strömungsfolger

Hampel, U.
This keynote presentation introduces the concept of instrumented flow followers for determination of hydrodynamic parameters in large process vessels. Instrumented flow followers are medium size particles that drift with the flow in a vessel. They actively adjust buoyancy with an electromechanical mechanisms and comprise sensors for temperature, pressure, acceleration and further parameters. Furthermore, novel concepts of data transfer, communication and positioning are being presented.
Keywords: instrumented flow followers, autonomous sensors, process measurement, process engineering
  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Campus Mehrphasenreaktoren, 31.01.2020, Frankfurt am Main, Deutschland

Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30665
Publ.-Id: 30665


Metallurgy: key enabler of the Circular Economy HSC Sim as a tool for the analysis of large CE SYSTEMS

Reuter, M. A.
The complexity of metal and material mixtures in products
Simulation-based quantification of the resource efficiency of very large - Circular Economy (CE) systems
Various industrial examples for footprinting the CE e.g.
Copper rock to metal – exergy dissipation of the system
PV life cycle linked to energy system: exergy dissipation in the system
Zinc and lead processing systems
Product design for circularity for OEMs (mobile, LED, laptops etc.)
Battery recycling,
Water systems optimization, and
…many more, also developed during my time @ Outotec, also in client solution development, sales, etc.
Challenges?
Too many not yet accepting the above state-of-the-art in the CE discussion, leading to critical and sub-optimal discussions, policy, etc.
Keywords: Circular Economy, resource efficiency, HSC
  • Lecture (others)
    Outotec celebrates 70 years of technology innovation at Pori ORC, 15.-16.10.2019, Pori, Finnland

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30662
Publ.-Id: 30662


Challenges of the circular economy - A metallurgical perspective

Reuter, M. A.
Circular economy's (CE) noble aims maximize resource efficiency (RE) by, for example, extending product life cycles and using wastes as resources. Modern society's vast and increasing amounts of waste and consumer goods, their complexity, and functional material combinations are challenging the viability of the CE despite various alternative business models promising otherwise. The metallurgical processing of CE-enabling technologies requires a sophisticated and agile metallurgical infrastructure. The challenges of reaching a CE are highlighted in terms of, e.g., thermodynamics, transfer processes, technology platforms, digitalization of the processes of the CE stakeholders, and design for recycling (DfR) based on a product (mineral)-centric approach, highlighting the limitations of material-centric considerations. Integrating product-centric considerations into the water, energy, transport, heavy industry, and other smart grid systems will maximize the RE of future smart sustainable cities, providing the fundamental detail for realizing and innovating the United Nation's Sustainability Development Goals.
Keywords: circular economy, process metallurgy, thermoeconomics, exergy, design for recycling
  • Lecture (others)
    10. Scientific Exchange Day 2019, 07.02.2019, Linz, Österreich

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30661
Publ.-Id: 30661


Metallurgical Recycling infrastructure of THE circular economy (CE)

Reuter, M. A.
Circular Economy (CE)
Digitalization in the metallurgical industry within the CE system
Metallurgical reactor technology
Design for recycling
Various literature and other detail
Keywords: Circular Economy, HSC, Copper, energy & resource efficiency,
  • Lecture (others)
    Atlantic Copper Meeting, 13.12.2019, Madrid, Spanien

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Permalink: https://www.hzdr.de/publications/Publ-30660
Publ.-Id: 30660


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