Publications Repository - Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf
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Prucnal, S.; Heera, V.; Hübner, R.; Wang, M.; Mazur, G. P.; Grzybowski, M. J.; Qin, X.; Yuan, Y.; Voelskow, M.; Skorupa, W.; Rebohle, L.; Helm, M.; Sawicki, M.; Zhou, S.;
Superconductivity in group IV semiconductors is desired for hybrid devices combining both semiconducting and superconducting properties. Following boron-doped diamond and Si, superconductivity has been observed in gallium-doped Ge; however, the obtained specimen is in polycrystalline form [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 217003 (2009)]. Here we present superconducting single-crystalline Ge hyperdoped with gallium or aluminum by ion implantation and rear-side flash lamp annealing. The maximum concentration of Al and Ga incorporated into substitutional positions in Ge is 8 times higher than the equilibrium solid solubility. This corresponds to a hole concentration above 1021 cm−3. Using density functional theory in the local-density approximation and pseudopotential plane-wave approach, we show that the superconductivity in p-type Ge is phonon mediated. According to the ab initio calculations, the critical superconducting temperature for Al- and Ga-doped Ge is in the range of 0.45 K for 6.25at.% of dopant concentration, being in qualitative agreement with experimentally obtained values.
Keywords: superconductivity, ion implantation, Germanium, flash lamp annealing
Physical Review Materials 3(2019), 054802
- Secondary publication expected
Publ.-Id: 29266 - Permalink
Li, R.; Pang, C.; Li, Z.; Dong, N.; Wang, J.; Ren, F.; Akhmadaliev, S.; Zhou, S.; Chen, F.;
Monolithic waveguide laser devices are required to achieve on-chip lasing. In this work, a new design of a monolithic device with embedded Ag nanoparticles (NPs) plus the Nd:YAG ridge waveguide has been proposed and implemented. By using Ag+ ion implantation, the embedded Ag NPs are synthesized on the near-surface region of the Nd:YAG crystal, resulting in the significant enhancement of the optical nonlinearity of Nd:YAG and offering saturable absorption properties of the crystal at a wide wavelength band. The subsequent processing of the O5+ ion implantation and diamond saw dicing of crystal finally leads to the fabrication of monolithic waveguide with embedded Ag NPs. Under an optical pump, the Q-switched mode-locked waveguide lasers operating at 1 μm is realized with the pulse duration of 29.5 ps and fundamental repetition rate of 10.53 GHz, owing to the modulation of Ag NPs through evanescent field interaction with waveguide modes. This work introduces a new approach in the application of monolithic ultrafast laser devices by using embedded metallic NPs.
Nanophotonics 8(2019), 859-868
Publ.-Id: 29264 - Permalink
Bieberle, A.ORC; Beyer, M.; Pietruske, H.; Hampel, U.ORC; Boden, S.ORC
This repository contains reconstructed and analysed CT data obtained from the COSMEA-I test facility that is operated under stationary operating conditions. Furthermore, a full CAD drawing set is provided.Keywords: Passive Heat Transfer; Stream Condensation; Heat Flux Probe; Process Computed Tomography
Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
Publication date: 2019-05-20
Publ.-Id: 29250 - Permalink
Wang, M.ORC; Debernardi, A.; Berencén, Y.; Heller, R.; Xu, C.; Yuan, Y.; Xie, Y.; Böttger, R.; Rebohle, L.; Skorupa, W.; Helm, M.; Prucnal, S.; Zhou, S.
n-type doping in Si by shallow impurities, such as P, As, and Sb, exhibits an intrinsic limit due to the Fermi-level pinning via defect complexes at high doping concentrations. Here, we demonstrate that doping Si with the deep chalcogen donor Te by nonequilibrium processing can exceed this limit and yield higher electron concentrations. In contrast to shallow impurities, the interstitial Te fraction decreases with increasing doping concentration and substitutional Te dimers become the dominant configuration as effective donors, leading to a nonsaturating carrier concentration as well as to an insulator-to-metal transition. First-principles calculations reveal that the Te dimers possess the lowest formation energy and donate two electrons per dimer to the conduction band. These results provide an alternative insight into the physics of deep impurities and lead to a possible solution for the ultrahigh electron concentration needed in today’s Si-based nanoelectronics.
Physical Review Applied 11(2019), 054039
Publ.-Id: 29247 - Permalink
He, Y.; Zhang, P.; Wang, M.ORC; Wang, F.; Tan, D.; Li, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhang, F.; Feng, X.
In-plane micro-supercapacitors (MSCs) with high power density, remarkable rate capability, and long cycling stability, exhibit promising application potential in modern electronic devices. To satisfy the fast-growing energy demands for the next-generation advanced micro-devices, increasing the energy density of MSCs is urgently desirable but still remains a great challenge. In this work, a series of in-plane asymmetric MSCs (AMSCs) are rationally constructed using a family of nano-sandwiched metal hexacyanoferrate/graphene hybrid thin films with interdigital patterns. The voltage output window of the resultant AMSCs is able to reach up to 1.8 V, delivering superior areal capacitances of up to 19.84 mF cm-2, and ultrahigh energy density of 44.6 mW h cm-3 which is among the best performances of the state-of-the-art MSCs. Moreover, the achieved AMSCs show outstanding mechanical flexibility and integration capability. Thus, this work will promote the development of novel high-performance AMSCs.
Materials Horizons (2019)
Publ.-Id: 29246 - Permalink
Zhang, W.; Wang, M.ORC; Wang, L.; Liu, C. H.; Chang, H.; Yang, J. J.; Liao, J. L.; Yang, Y. Y.; Liu, N.
High entropy alloy (HEA) coatings are promising for use as accident-tolerant fuel cladding due to their outstanding high-temperature corrosion resistance. In this work, we investigated the interface stability, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of AlCrMoNbZr/(AlCrMoNbZr)N multilayer coatings with individual layer thickness of 5 nm, 10 nm and 50 nm, subjected to helium (He) ion irradiations: 400 keV He+ ions with fluences of 8×1015 ion/cm2 and 8×1016 ion/cm2. We determined that He bubbles are not observed in any of the multilayer coatings after a helium ion irradiation process with 400 keV He ions and a fluence as high as 8×1016 ion/cm2. Although intermixing and chemical reaction in the peak damage region of the AlCrMoNbZr/(AlCrMoNbZr)N multilayer coating with 5 nm monolayer thickness are induced by the high fluence He ion irradiation, the FCC structure remained, and no intermetallic compounds are detected. Moreover, we found that the AlCrMoNbZr/(AlCrMoNbZr)N multilayer coating with the monolayer thickness of 50 nm has better interface stability during the irradiation process. Nanoindentation tests reveal that the hardness of all multilayer coatings decreased for low and high fluences, which is mainly due to the thermal effect caused by irradiation. In addition, the electrochemical corrosion test show that AlCrMoNbZr/(AlCrMoNbZr)N multilayer coating 50 nm coatings has better corrosion resistance than AlCrMoNbZr/(AlCrMoNbZr)N multilayer coating 5 nm coatings under high fluence He irradiation. The corrosion resistance of the multilayer coating depends on the stability of the multilayer interface. Our results show that the AlCrMoNbZr/(AlCrMoNbZr)N multilayer coating with a monolayer thickness of 50 nm had better interface stability, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance than the AlCrMoNbZr/(AlCrMoNbZr)N multilayer coating with a per layer thickness of 5 nm under high fluence He irradiation. This work reveals that high-entropy alloy multilayer coatings have potential applications as an accident-tolerant fuel cladding coating in light water reactors.
Keywords: AlCrMoNbZr/(AlCrMoNbZr)N, Multilayer coating, High-entropy alloy, Ion irradiation, Interfaces, Nanoindentation, Electrochemical corrosion, Accident-tolerant fuel (ATF)
Applied Surface Science 485(2019), 108-118
Publ.-Id: 29245 - Permalink
Macková, A.; Malinský, P.; Jagerová, A.; Mikšová, R.; Sofer, Z.; Klímová, K.; Mikulics, M.; Böttger, R.; Akhmadaliev, S.; Oswald, J.;
(0001) c-plane and (11−20) a-plane GaN epitaxial layers were implanted with 400 keV Au+ and Gd+ ions using ion implantation fluences of 5×1014, 1×1015 and 5×1015 cm-2. Rutherford Back-Scattering spectrometry in channelling mode (RBS/C) was used to follow the dopant depth profiles and the introduced disorder; the angular dependence of the backscattered ions (angular scans) in c- and a-plane GaN was measured to get insight into structural modification and dopant position in various crystallographic orientations. Defect-accumulation depth profiles exhibited differences for a- and c-plane GaN, with a-plane showing significantly lower accumulated disorder in the buried layer, accompanied by the shift of the maximum damage accumulation into the deeper layer with respect to the theoretical prediction, than c-plane GaN. Angular scans showed channelling preservation in as-implanted samples and better channelling recovery in the annealed a-plane GaN compared to cplane GaN. The angular scan widths were simulated by FLUX code as well as the half-width modifications of angular scans were discussed in connection to the damage accumulation. Photoluminescence measurement followed in detail yellow band and band edge luminescence decline after the implantation and the recovery of luminescence spectra features after annealing.
Keywords: Implanted (0001) and (11–20) GaN, Damage accumulation asymmetry in GaN, Ion implantation in semiconductors, RBS channelling, Damage-depth profiling
Thin Solid Films 680(2019), 102-113
Publ.-Id: 29240 - Permalink
Owens, Camilla L.ORC; Schach, E.; Heinig, T.; Rudolph, M.ORC; Nash, Geoffrey R.
Surface nanobubbles have been identified to play an important role in a range of industries from mineral processing to food science. The formation of surface nanobubbles is of importance for mineral processing in the extraction of complex ores, such as those containing rare earth elements. This is due to the way minerals are extracted utilising froth flotation. In this study, surface nanobubbles were imaged using non-contact atomic force microscopy on a polished cross section containing rare earth minerals. Nanobubbles were found on synchysite under reagent conditions expected to induce hydrophobicity in rare earth minerals, which is required for efficient processing.
Synchysite –(Ce) is a rare earth fluorcarbonate mineral containing over 30% rare earth elements. Relatively little research has been conducted on synchysite, with only a few papers on its surface behaviour and flotation. The resulting nanobubbles were analysed and showed an average contact angle of 24 degrees± 8. These are in line with contact angles found on dolomite and galena by previous studies.
Keywords: non-contact atomic force microscopy; synchysite; bastnäsite; rare earth elements; fluorcarbonate; surface nanobubbles; carbonatite
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 552(2019), 66-71
Publ.-Id: 29231 - Permalink
Zarini, O.; Köhler, A.; Couperus, J.; Pausch, R.; Kurz, T.; Schöbel, S.; Meißner, H.; Bussmann, M.; Schramm, U.; Irman, A.; Debus, A.;
We describe optimizations of phase-retrieval algorithms for the reconstruction of the temporal structure of highly modulated electron bunches from coherent transition radiation (CTR) spectra. Synthetic data is used to quantitatively analyze capabilities and limitations of the approach taking into account realistic bandwidth constraints of ultra-broadband spectrometers. Established algorithms are combined with information from independent channels as charge calibrated electron spectra and absolute intensity calibration of the spectrometer. With this set of data, in principle available in experiments, we demonstrate a promising fidelity for the detailed analysis of substructured laser wakefield accelerated electron bunches.
Keywords: Electron bunch duration, reconstruction algorithm, transition radiation
Contribution to proceedings
Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop (AAC2018), 12.-17.08.2018, Breckenridge, Colorado, USA: IEEE, 978-1-5386-7721-6
Publ.-Id: 29225 - Permalink
Alexander, Mansel; Karsten, Franke;
The solid targetry system was used both, at port 4 directly mounted at the yoke and at the beamline at port 3. We will give an overview about the purification or separation of n.c.a. radionuclides like Sr-85, V-48, Cu-64, Cr-51, Co-56, Y-88, La-135, Zr-89, Ce-139 and Pb-203.
14th CYCLEUR workshop 2019, 08.-10.05.2019, Dresden, Germany
Publ.-Id: 29221 - Permalink
Competence Center for Ion Beams in Materials Research and Medicine
Keywords: ion beams, high-energy, materials research, user facility
Invited lecture (Conferences)
Competence Center for Ion Beams in Materials Research and Medicine, 02.05.2019, München, Deutschland
Publ.-Id: 29220 - Permalink
Jureczek, J.; Feldmann, A.; Albert, S.; Bergmann, R.; Berndt, N.; Arndt, C.; Koristka, S.; Bachmann, M.;
Since epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations or overexpression is linked with variety of malignancies, including lung, breast, stomach, colorectal, head and neck, and pancreatic carcinomas as well as glioblastomas it is an attractive target for tailored treatment of solid cancer. Thus over the last twenty years many strategies targeting EGFR were developed and even clinically approved, including disrupting intracellular signalling involving tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) or the inhibition of ligand binding using therapeutic monoclonal antibodies like e.g. Cetuximab, Panitumumab or Necitumumab. Unfortunately, cancers treated with these targeted drugs commonly become resistant to them. These limitations justify the need of more efficient therapy options. As chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) engineered T cells highly effectively eliminate hematological malignancies already in the clinics, one idea is to redirect CAR T cells also against EGFR expressing solid cancers. However, CAR T cell therapy can lead to severe even life-threatening side effects and its effectiveness against solid tumors is still limited. Particular worrying is that EGFR is a widespread antigen commonly expressed also on healthy tissues bearing a high risk of severe on-target/off-tumor side effects due to EGFR-targeted therapies, which cannot be controlled in patients. In order to overcome these challenges our UniCAR technology might be an appropriate answer combining high anti-tumor effectiveness, tumor specificity, flexibility, and safety control mechanisms. In contrast to conventional CARs, UniCAR T cells are per se inert because UniCARs are directed against a small peptide epitope, which is not present on living cells. The redirection of UniCAR T cells to tumor cells occurs only in the presence of a tumor specific targeting module (TM). TMs, on one hand carry the specificity for a certain tumor antigen and on the other hand contain the UniCAR peptide epitope recognized by UniCARs mediating the cross-linkage of UniCAR T cells and antigen presenting tumor cells. As TMs have a very short half-life in vivo they can be used as a switch to control UniCAR T cell activity on demand in patients. In detail, UniCAR T cells are only switched on in the presence of antigen specific TMs realized by permanent TM infusion, but could be rapidly switched off when the application of the TM is stopped and the TM is eliminated. Meanwhile we successfully generated a series of different TMs against different tumor antigens and entities. Interestingly, TMs can be made of different molecules showing various structures and can flexible be exchanged in order to target any tumor antigen and overcome tumor escape variants. Commonly our TMs consist of a humanized single-chain variable fragment (scFv) derived from the variable heavy and light chain domains of a murine monoclonal antibody. In addition, we successfully generated TMs based on different monovalent and bivalent antibody derivatives, nanobodies derived from one variable camelid antibody domain, affibodies and even small peptide molecules.
Recently we demonstrated proof-of-concept for the redirection of UniCAR T cells to EGFR expressing tumor cells by a nanobody based αEGFR TM derived from the camelid αEGFR antibody 7C12. Considering that the affinity and anti-tumor efficiency of the eucaryotically expressed αEGFR nanobody based TM was limited, we therefore asked the question, whether we could further improve the therapeutic effect against EGFR positive tumor cells using the UniCAR technology. In order to answer this question, we generated a novel TM based on a scFv derived from the clinically used chimeric monoclonal antibody Cetuximab (IMC C-225). In detail, we designed a murine and humanized αEGFR scFv TM, successfully expressed them in mammalian cell lines and compared their functionality with the eucaryotic αEGFR nanobody-based TM in vitro and in vivo. In principle, we observed that both TM formats, the αEGFR nanobody as well as the scFv-based TM, are able to redirect UniCAR T cells eliminate EGFR-expressing tumor cells in an antigen-specific and TM-dependent manner. As both the murine and humanized scFv TM variants worked equally well, obviously humanization of the αEGFR scFv does not affect its functionality. However most interestingly, the tumor killing efficiency of the αEGFR scFv TM was significantly superior in comparison to the αEGFR nanobody based TM. Here, the half maximal effective TM concentration (EC50) value of scFv based TM was improved 1000-fold, from nM to pM range. Consequently, UniCAR T cells in combination with the scFv based TM efficiently eliminate also target cells expressing a low EGFR density level, while UniCAR T cells redirected by the nb based TM clearly attack only highly EGFR expressing tumor cells. Furthermore, the high anti-tumor efficacy of the αEGFR scFv TM over nb TM was manifested in experimental mice.
In summary, we successfully established different αEGFR TM formats that are able to redirect UniCAR T cells to eliminate EGFR-positive tumor cells. However, the analysed αEGFR TM formats differ with respect to their anti-tumor efficiency, which might decide whether UniCAR T cells attack target cells showing different EGFR density levels.
Tumor immunology meets oncology (TIMO XV), 25.-27.04.2019, Halle, Deutschland
Publ.-Id: 29214 - Permalink
Hoffmann, A.; Feldmann, A.; Kittel-Boselli, E.; Bergmann, R.; Koristka, S.; Berndt, N.; Arndt, C.; Bachmann, M.;
With the first approvals of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapies by the FDA the use of genetically modified T cells in the immunotherapy of tumors has recently become a very promising approach. CAR T cells are able to recognize tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) via specific single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) in a major histocompatibility-complex (MHC)-independent manner. Although highly efficient, the inability to regulate the activity of CAR T cells can cause severe even
life-threatening side effects such as cytokine-release syndrome (CRS) and on-target, off-tumor toxicities. Modular CAR systems may overcome these limitations allowing to switch the activity of CAR T cells repeatedly “ON” and “OFF”. Alternatively or in addition, the safety of CAR T cells could also be improved by “gated” targeting strategies e.g. by splitting the signaling and costimulatory motifs to independent CARs of different specificities. Theoretically, the idea of gated targeting could be extended to include further e.g. inhibitory signals. However, the size of current CARs limit the number of specificities that can be simultaneously transduced into a T cell. We therefore developed a novel switchable modular universal artificial receptor having a minimal size. The platform was termed RevCAR system.
In order to reduce the size of the artificial receptor the original idea was to replace the extracellular scFv domain of a conventional CAR with a small peptide epitope and to engage the resulting RevCAR T cell via a bispecific target module which we termed RevTM. For proof of concept two small peptide epitopes were selected and the respective RevCARs constructed. In addition, a series of different RevTMs were constructed. On the one hand the RevTM recognized one of the two peptide epitopes on the other hand the RevTM was directed to a potential tumor associated antigen (TAA). Until now a series of such pairs of RevTMs were constructed and functionally analyzed. RevCAR T cells armed via the respective RevTM were able to specifically lyse their respective target cell in a peptide epitope specific and target specific as well as target dependent manner. These data are supported by analysis of cytokine secretion. We only observed a specific cytokine release from RevCAR T cells in the presence of both target cells and the respective RevTM. Released cytokines detected were IFN-gamma, GM-CSF, TNF, and IL-2.
Taken together these results demonstrate the high anti-tumor efficiency of the novel RevCAR platform which is characterized by a small size, an improved safety, easy controllability as well as high flexibility.
Tumor immunology meets oncology (TIMO XV), 25.-27.04.2019, Halle, Deutschland
Publ.-Id: 29213 - Permalink
Li, X.; Merchel, S.ORC; Lierse Von Gostomski, C.
In March 2017, the 49th German meteorite was found lying on top of a rock pile on the side of a potato field, near the city of Cloppenburg, Lower Saxony, Germany [1,2]. With two other meteorites (Oldenburg (fall in 1930), Benthullen (find in 1948 or 1951)) from the same region and meteorites from other countries, we started a program to analyze extraterrestrial samples in 2017. We have analyzed in total three chondrites, three achondrites of the HED
group (Howardite-Eucrite-Diogenite) (Dhofar 1675, NWA 2690, NWA 2698), a lunar and a Martian meteorite (NWA 7986, NWA 4925), two iron meteorites (Gibeon, yet unnamed new find from Libya/Chad in 2019) and six potential micrometeorites. The bigger samples (10-20 mg) were normally irradiated twice: for 3-5 min and for a long time up to 1 h in the rabbit position. The much smaller micrometeorites (9-38 μg) were irradiated for 24 h in the high-flux capsule irradiation position (Φth>1E14 cm-2s-1). We used the k0-method for the analysis .
With the high and pure thermal neutron flux at the FRM II, up to 45 elements could be determined in most samples . According to the element compositions, the meteorites could be classified or earlier classifications could be confirmed. Although, the sample weights of the micrometeorites are very small and manipulating them was challenging, we could determine up to 16 elements. All of them show a rather high Fe concentration, i.e. 55-70 weight-%. However, for Ni and Ir, we can only give a detection limit of about 0.4% and 2 ng/g, respectively. Their potential origin are under discussion.
We thank A. Muszynski and M. Szyszko (Poznan, PL), A. Bischoff (Uni. Münster), D. Heinlein, J. Feige (TU Berlin) and A. Gärtner (Senckenberg Dresden) for providing and preparation of samples and the TUM-Kolleg program for financial supports.
1. J. Gattacceca et al., Meteorit. Planet. Sci., 2019, 54, 469-471.
2. J. Storz et al., www.paneth.eu/PanethKolloquium/2017/0075.pdf (Jan. 2019)
3. X. Li et al., J. Radioanal. Nucl. Chem. 2014, 300, 457-463.
Keywords: INAA, k0-method, meteorite, micrometeorite
2nd International Conference on Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry (RANC 2019), 05.-10.05.2019, Budapest, Hungary
Publ.-Id: 29206 - Permalink
Bartosik, N.; Bertolin, A.; Casarsa, M.; Collamati, F.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, A.ORC; Gianelle, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Mokhov, N.; Mueller, S.ORC; Pastrone, N.; Sala, P.; Sestini, L.; Striganov, S.
Physics at a multi-TeV muon collider needs a change of perspective for the detector design due to the large amount of background induced by muon beam decays. Preliminary studies, based on simulated data, on the composition and the characteristics of the particles originated from the muon decays and reaching the detectors are presented here. The reconstruction performance of the physics processes H→bb¯ and Z→bb¯ has been investigated for the time being without the effect of the machine induced background. A preliminary study of the environment hazard due to the radiation induced by neutrino interactions with the matter is presented using the FLUKA simulation program.
Keywords: Detectors in high-intensity environments, future accelerators, muon beams, neutrino-induced radiation
- arXiv:1905.03725 (2019)
Publ.-Id: 29205 - Permalink
Dollinger, F.; Lim, K.-G.; Li, Y.; Guo, E.; Formánek, P.; Hübner, R.; Fischer, A.; Kleemann, H.; Leo, K.;
The organic permeable base transistor (OPBT) is currently the fastest organic transistor with a transition frequency of 40 MHz. It relies on a thin aluminum base electrode to control the transistor current. This electrode is surrounded by a native oxide layer for passivation, currently created by oxidation in air. However, this process is not reliable and leads to large performance variations between samples, slow production, and relatively high leakage currents. Here, for the first time it is demonstrated that electrochemical anodization can be conveniently employed for the fabrication of high-performance OPBTs with vastly reduced leakage currents and more controlled process parameters. Very large transmission factors of 99.9996 % are achieved, while excellent on/off ratios of 5 × 105 and high on-currents greater than 300 mA cm−2 show that the C60 semiconductor layer can withstand the electrochemical anodization. These results make anodization an intriguing option for innovative organic transistor design.
Keywords: aluminum oxide, anodization, organic permeable base transistors (OPBTs), organic transistors, organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs), vertical transistors
Advanced Materials 31(2019), 1900917
Publ.-Id: 29204 - Permalink
Ma, J.ORC; Zhang, K.; Schellhammer, K. S.; Fu, Y.ORC; Komber, H.ORC; Xu, C.ORC; Popov, A. A.ORC; Hennersdorf, F.ORC; Weigand, J. J.ORC; Zhou, S.ORC; Pisula, W.ORC; Ortmann, F.; Berger, R.ORC; Liu, J.ORC; Feng, X.ORC
Controlling the aromaticity and electronic properties of curved π-conjugated systems has been increasingly attractive for the development of novel functional materials for organic electronics. Herein, we demonstrate an efficient synthesis of two novel wave-shaped polycyclic hydrocarbons (PHs) 1 and 2 with 64 π-electrons. Among them, the wave-shaped π-conjugated carbon skeleton of 2 is unambiguously revealed by single-crystal X-ray crystallography analysis. The wave-shaped geometry is induced by steric congestion in the cove and fjord regions. Remarkably, the aromaticity of these two structural isomers can be tailored by the annulated direction of cyclopenta[b]fluorene units. Isomer 1 (Eoptg = 1.13 eV) behaves as a closed-shell compound with weakly antiaromatic feature, whereas its structural isomer 2 displays a highly stable tetraradical character (y0 = 0.23; y1 = 0.22; t1/2 = 91 days) with a narrow optical energy gap of 0.96 eV. Moreover, the curved PH 2 exhibits remarkable ambipolar charge transport in solution-processed organic thin-film transistors. Our research provides a new insight into the design and synthesis of stable functional curved aromatics with multiradical characters.
Chemical Science 10(2019), 4025-4031
Publ.-Id: 29201 - Permalink
Salazar-Mejia, C.; Kumar, V.; Felser, C.; Skourski, Y.; Wosnitza, J.; Nayak, A. K.;
Ni-Co-Mn-Sb-based Heusler shape-memory alloys that undergo a martensitic-structural transition around room temperature are well known for exhibiting large magnetic entropy change and elastocaloric effect. Here, we report the observation of a large adiabatic temperature change of −11 K in a Ni-Co-Mn-Sb system by using direct adiabatic temperature-change measurements in pulsed magnetic fields. We show that a large magnetic cooling can be achieved in a wide temperature range spanning from 120 to 270 K by purposefully varying the chemical composition. The temperature- and field-dependent irreversibility of the effect is analyzed through a detailed experimental study of the protocol-dependent magnetocaloric effect. The present study is an important contribution towards the understanding of irreversible magnetocaloric effects in materials with magnetostructural transition.
Physical Review Applied 11(2019), 054006
- Original PDF 923 kB Secondary publication
Publ.-Id: 29199 - Permalink
Gottschall, T.; Kuz'Min, M. D.; Skokov, K. P.; Skourski, Y.; Fries, M.; Gutfleisch, O.; Ghorbani Zavareh, M.; Schlagel, D. L.; Mudryk, Y.; Pecharsky, V.; Wosnitza, J.;
The magnetocaloric effect of gadolinium has been measured directly in pulsed magnetic fields up to 62 T. The maximum observed adiabatic temperature change is ΔTad = 60.5 K, the initial temperature T0 being just above 300 K. The field dependence of ΔTad is found to follow the usual H2/3 law, with a small correction in H4/3. However, as H is increased, a radical change is observed in the dependence of ΔTad on T0, at H = const. The familiar caret-shaped peak situated at T0 = TC becomes distinctly asymmetric, its high-temperature slope becoming more gentle and evolving into a broad plateau. For yet higher magnetic fields, μ0H ≥ 140 T, calculations predict a complete disappearance of the maximum near TC and an emergence of a new very broad maximum far above TC.
Physical Review B 99(2019), 134429
- Original PDF 739 kB Secondary publication
Publ.-Id: 29198 - Permalink
Ranjith, K. M.; Dmytriieva, D.; Khim, S.; Sichelschmidt, J.; Luther, S.; Ehlers, D.; Yasuoka, H.; Wosnitza, J.; Tsirlin, A. A.; Kühne, H.; Baenitz, M.;
Polycrystalline samples of NaYbO2 are investigated by bulk agnetization and specific-heat measurements, as well as by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron spin resonance (ESR) as local probes. No signatures of long-range magnetic order are found down to 0.3 K, evidencing a highly frustrated spin-liquid-like ground state in zero field. Above 2 T, signatures of magnetic order are observed in thermodynamic measurements, suggesting the possibility of a field-induced quantum phase transition. The 23Na NMR relaxation rates reveal the absence of magnetic order and persistent fluctuations down to 0.3 K at very low fields and confirm the bulk magnetic order above 2 T. The H-T phase diagram is obtained and discussed along with the existing theoretical concepts for layered spin- 1/2 triangular-lattice antiferromagnets.
Physical Review B 99(2019), 180401 (R)
Contribution to WWW
Publ.-Id: 29197 - Permalink
Wang, C.; Chang, C.-H.; Huang, A.; Wang, P.-C.; Wu, P.-C.; Yang, L.; Xu, C.; Pandey, P.; Zeng, M.; Böttger, R.; Jeng, H.-T.; Zeng, Y.-J.; Helm, M.; Chu, Y.-H.; Ganesh, R.; Zhou, S.;
We demonstrate that transport in metallic rare-earth nickelates can be engineered by directly tuning the electronic mean free path. Using irradiation as a tool to induce disorder, we drive this system from a metallic phase into an Anderson insulator. This proceeds via an intermediate regime which shows a thermal crossover from insulating to metallic behavior. We argue that this phase falls within the paradigm of weak localization in three dimensions. We develop a theoretical model for the temperature dependence of resistivity which shows good agreement with our data. The three-dimensional weak localization picture is supported by magnetoconductivity, which scales as ∼B2 up to several tesla. Interestingly, our data indicate that this phase lies in the Mott-Ioffe-Regel regime with the mean free path approaching the lattice constant. Upon further increasing disorder, the charge carriers are localized, leading to insulating behavior at all temperatures. Our results show that irradiation provides a “clean” tuning knob for the mean free path, without altering other system parameters. This suggests promising directions for studies of Anderson localization.
Keywords: Anderson localization; Metal-insulator transition; Weak localization; Magnetoresistance
Physical Review Materials 3(2019)053801
Publ.-Id: 29185 - Permalink
Li, H.; Wang, C.; Li, D.-Y.; Pereira, L. M. C.; Homm, P.; Menghini, M.; Locquet, J.-P.; Temst, K.; Vantomme, A.; van Haesendonck, C.; van Bael, M. J.; Ruan, S.; Zeng, Y.-J.;
Magnetic nanoparticles embedded oxide semiconductors are interesting candidates for spintronics in view of combining ferromagnetic (FM) and semiconducting properties. Co-ZnO and Co-V2O3 nanocomposite thin films are synthesized by Co ion implantation in crystalline thin films. Magnetic order varies with the implantation fluence in Co-ZnO, where the superparamagnetic (SPM) order appears in the low-fluence films (2×1016 and 4×1016 ions/cm2) while the FM order coexists with the SPM phase in high-fluence ones (1×1017 ions/cm2). The exchange bias (EB) effect is evident in high-fluence films, which gives an EB field of about 100 Oe at 2 K and a blocking temperature of around 100 K. In parallel, 3.5×1016 ions/cm2 Co-V2O3 hybrid thin film exhibits a clear antiferromagnetic (AFM) coupling at low temperature with a weak EB effect. The different magnetic behaviors in the two Co-implanted systems lead us to believe on one hand, that the observed EB effect in the Co-ZnO system is the result of the FM/AFM coupling between large Co nanoparticles and their CoO/Co3O4 surroundings in the (Zn,Co)O matrix. While, on the other hand, the EB effect in Co-V2O3 system originates from the interaction between FM Co nanoparticles and AFM V2O3 matrix. Detailed studies of magnetic orders as well as EB effect in magnetic nanocomposite semiconductors pave the way for their application in spintronics.
Keywords: nanocomposite, exchange bias, antiferromagnetic, superparamagnetic
Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 31(2019), 155301
Publ.-Id: 29176 - Permalink
Wang, M.; Hübner, R.; Xu, C.; Xie, Y.; Berencén, Y.; Heller, R.; Rebohle, L.; Helm, M.; Prucnal, S.; Zhou, S.;
Si hyperdoped with chalcogens (S,Se,Te) is well known to possess unique properties such as an insulator-tometal transition and a room-temperature sub-band-gap absorption. These properties are expected to be sensitive to a postsynthesis thermal annealing, since hyperdoped Si is a thermodynamically metastable material. Thermal stability of the as-fabricated hyperdoped Si is of great importance for the device fabrication process involving temperature-dependent steps such as Ohmic contact formation. Here, we report on the thermal stability of the as-fabricated Te-hyperdoped Si subjected to isochronal furnace anneals from 250 to 1200 °C. We demonstrate that Te-hyperdoped Si exhibits thermal stability up to 400 °C for 10 min, which even helps to further improve the crystalline quality, the electrical activation of Te dopants, and the room-temperature sub-band-gap absorption. At higher temperatures, however, Te atoms are found to move out from the substitutional sites with a maximum migration energy of EM = 2.3 eV forming inactive clusters and precipitates that impair the structural, electrical, and optical properties. These results provide further insight into the underlying physical state transformation of Te dopants in a metastable compositional regime caused by postsynthesis thermal annealing. They also pave the way for the fabrication of advanced hyperdoped Si-based devices.
Physical Review Materials 3(2019), 044606
Publ.-Id: 29175 - Permalink
Chen, C.; Wang, C.; Cai, X.; Xu, C.; Li, C.; Zhou, J.; Luo, Z.; Fan, Z.; Qin, M.; Zeng, M.; Lu, X.; Gao, X.; Kentsch, U.; Yang, P.; Zhou, G.; Wang, N.; Zhu, Y.; Zhou, S.; Chen, D.; Liu, J.;
Defect engineering has been a powerful tool to enable the creation of exotic phases and the discovery of intriguing phenomena in ferroelectric oxides. However, the accurate control of the concentration of defects remains a big challenge. In this work, ion implantation, which can provide controllable point defects, allows us to produce a controlled defect driven true super-tetragonal (T) phase with a single-domain-state in ferroelectric BiFeO3 thin films. This point-defect engineering is found to drive the phase transition from the as-grown mixed rhombohedral-like (R) and tetragonal-like (MC) phase to true tetragonal (T) symmetry and induce the stripe multi-nanodomains to a single domain state. By further increasing the injected dose of the He ion, we demonstrate an enhanced tetragonality super-tetragonal (super-T) phase with the largest c/a ratio of ∼1.3 that has ever been experimentally achieved in BiFeO3. A combination of the morphology change and domain evolution further confirms that the mixed R/MC phase structure transforms to the single-domain-state true tetragonal phase. Moreover, the re-emergence of the R phase and in-plane nanoscale multi-domains after heat treatment reveal the memory effect and reversible phase transition and domain evolution. Our findings demonstrate the reversible control of R-Mc-T-super T symmetry changes (leading to the creation of true T phase BiFeO3 with enhanced tetragonality) and multidomain-single domain structure evolution through controllable defect engineering. This work also provides a pathway to generate large tetragonality (or c/a ratio) that could be extended to other ferroelectric material systems (such as PbTiO3, BaTiO3 and HfO2) which might lead to strong polarization enhancement.
Nanoscale 11(2019), 8110-8118
- Secondary publication expected from 05.04.2020
Publ.-Id: 29174 - Permalink
Zhu, JiajunORC; Xia, Y.; Li, G.; Zhou, S.ORC; Wimmer, S.; Springholz, G.ORC; Pashkin, A.ORC; Helm, M.; Schneider, H.ORC
We employ infrared transmission spectroscopy to explore the temperature-dependent absorption edge and electron-phonon (e-ph) interaction in topological insulator Bi2Se3 and band insulator (Bi0.89In0.11)2Se3 films. Upon heating from 5 K to 300 K, the absorption edge shifts from 262 to 249 meV for Bi2Se3 and from 367 to 343 meV for (Bi0.89In0.11)2Se3. By analyzing the temperature dependence of the Urbach tail, the significant role of Raman-active phonon mode E2g in e-ph interaction is identified, which agrees well with the ab initio calculation.
Applied Physics Letters 114(2019), 162105
- Final Draft PDF 676 kB Secondary publication
Publ.-Id: 29170 - Permalink
Lehnert, T.; Ghorbani-Asl, M.ORC; Köster, J.; Lee, Z.; V. Krasheninnikov, A.ORC; Kaiser, U.
40 kV high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments are performed to understand defect formation and evolution of their atomic structure in single-layer 2H MoTe2 under electron beam irradiation. We show that Te vacancies can agglomerate either in single Te-vacancy lines or in extended defects composed of column Te vacancies, including rotational trefoil-like defects, with some of them being never reported before. The formation of inversion domains with mirror twin boundaries of different types, along with the islands of the metallic T’ phase was also observed. Our first-principles calculations provide insights into the energetics of the transformations as well as the electronic structure of the system with defects and point out that some of the observed defects have localized magnetic moments. Our results indicate that various nano-scale structures, including metallic quantum dots consisting of T’-phase islands and one-dimensional metallic quantum systems such as vacancy lines and mirror twin boundaries embedded into a semiconducting host material can be realized in single-layer 2H MoTe2, and defect-associated magnetism can also be added, which may allow prospective control of optical and electronic properties of two-dimensional materials.
Keywords: Defects, 2D MoTe2, transmission electron microscopy, transition metal dichalcogenide, DFT, quantum devices
ACS Applied Nano Materials (2019)
Online First (2019) DOI: 10.1021/acsanm.9b00616
Publ.-Id: 29169 - Permalink
Bechmann, N.; Poser, I.; Seifert, V.; Greunke, C.; Ullrich, M.ORC; Qin, N.; Walch, A.; Peitzsch, M.; Robledo, M.; Pacak, K.; Pietzsch, J.ORC; Richter, S.; Eisenhofer, G.
Abstract: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) with activated pseudohypoxic pathways are associated with an immature catecholamine phenotype and carry a higher risk for metastasis. For improved understanding of the underlying mechanisms we investigated the impact of hypoxia and pseudohypoxia on catecholamine biosynthesis in pheochromocytoma cells naturally lacking Hif2α (MPC and MTT) or expressing both Hif1α and Hif2α (PC12). Cultivation under extrinsic hypoxia or in spheroid culture (intrinsic hypoxia) increased cellular dopamine and norepinephrine contents in all cell lines. To distinguish further between Hif1α- and Hif2α-driven effects we expressed Hif2α in MTT and MPC-mCherry cells (naturally lacking Hif2α). Presence of Hif2α resulted in similarly increased cellular dopamine and norepinephrine under hypoxia as in the control cells. Furthermore, hypoxia resulted in enhanced phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH). A specific knockdown of Hif1α in PC12 diminished these effects. Pseudohypoxic conditions, simulated by expression of Hif2α under normoxia resulted in increased TH phosphorylation, further stimulated by extrinsic hypoxia. Correlations with PPGL tissue data led us to conclude that catecholamine biosynthesis under hypoxia is mainly mediated through increased phosphorylation of TH, regulated as a short-term response
(24–48 h) by HIF1α. Continuous activation of hypoxia-related genes under pseudohypoxia leads to a HIF2α-mediated phosphorylation of TH (permanent status).
Keywords: hypoxia; pseudohypoxia; spheroids; HIF; EPAS1; catecholamine; pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma; phosphorylation tyrosine hydroxylase
Cancers 11(2019), 594
Publ.-Id: 29168 - Permalink
Steiner, A. M.; Mayer, M.; Schletz, D.; Wolf, D.; Formanek, P.; Hübner, R.; Dulle, M.; Förster, S.; König, T. A. F.; Fery, A.;
Truly spherical silver nanoparticles are of great importance for fundamental studies including plasmonic applications, but their direct synthesis in aqueous media is not feasible. Using the commonly employed copper-based etching processes, an isotropic plasmonic response can be achieved by etching well-defined silver nanocubes. Whilst spherical-like shape is typically prevailing in such processes, we established that there is a preferential growth toward silver rhombicuboctahedra, which is the thermodynamically most stable product of this synthesis. The rhombicuboctahedral morphology is further evidenced by comprehensive characterization with small-angle X-ray scattering in combination with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) tomography and high-resolution TEM. We also elucidate the complete reaction mechanism based on UV-vis kinetic studies, and the postulated mechanism can also be extended to all copper-based etching processes.
Chemistry of Materials 31(2019), 2822-2827
Publ.-Id: 29167 - Permalink
Xu, K.; Gabourie, A. J.; Hashemi, A.; Fan, Z.; Wei, N.; Farimani, A. B.; Komsa, H.-P.; Krasheninnikov, A. V.ORC; Pop, E.; Ala-Nissila, T.
Thermal properties of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) have recently attracted attention related to fundamentals of heat propagation in strongly anisotropic materials, and in the context of potential applications to optoelec- tronics and thermoelectrics. Multiple empirical potentials have been developed for classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of this material, but it has been unclear which provides the most realistic results. Here, we calculate lattice thermal conductivity of single- and multilayer pristine MoS2 by employing three different thermal transport MD methods: equilibrium, nonequilibrium, and homogeneous nonequilibrium ones. We mainly use the Graphics Processing Units Molecular Dynamics code for numerical calculations, and the Large-scale Atomic/Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator code for crosschecks. Using different methods and computer codes allows us to verify the consistency of our results and facilitate comparisons with previous studies, where different schemes have been adopted. Our results using variants of the Stillinger-Weber potential are at odds with some previous ones and we analyze the possible origins of the discrepancies in detail. We show that, among the potentials considered here, the reactive empirical bond order (REBO) potential gives the most reasonable predictions of thermal transport properties as compared to experimental data. With the REBO potential, we further find that isotope scattering has only a small effect on thermal conduction in MoS2 and the in-plane thermal conductivity decreases with increasing layer number and saturates beyond about three layers. We identify the REBO potential as a transferable empirical potential for MD simulations of MoS2 which can be used to study thermal transport properties in more complicated situations such as in systems containing defects or engineered nanoscale features. This work establishes a firm foundation for understanding heat transport properties of MoS2 using MD simulations.
Keywords: 2D materials; thermal transport; atomistic simulations
Physical Review B 99(2019), 054303
Publ.-Id: 29163 - Permalink
Jolie, W.; Murray, C.; Weiß, P. S.; Hall, J.; Portner, F.; Atodiresei, N.; Krasheninnikov, A. V.ORC; Busse, C.; Komsa, H.-P.; Rosch, A.; Michely, T.
Two- or three-dimensional metals are usually well described by weakly interacting, fermionic quasiparticles. This concept breaks down in one dimension due to strong Coulomb interactions. There, low-energy electronic excitations are expected to be bosonic collective modes, which fractionalize into independent spin- and charge-density waves. Experimental research on one-dimensional metals is still hampered by their difficult realization, their limited accessibility to measurements, and by competing or obscuring effects such as Peierls distortions or zero bias anomalies. Here we overcome these difficulties by constructing a well-isolated, one-dimensional metal of finite length present in MoS2 mirror-twin boundaries. Using scanning tunneling spectroscopy we measure the single-particle density of the interacting electron system as a function of energy and position in the 1D box. Comparison to theoretical modeling provides unambiguous evidence that we are observing spin-charge separation in real space.
Keywords: 2D materials, Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid, First-principles calculations
Physical Review X 9(2019), 011055
Publ.-Id: 29162 - Permalink
Coelho, P. M.; Komsa, H.-P.; Lasek, K.; Kalappattil, V.; Karthikeyan, J.; Phan, M.-H.; Krasheninnikov, A. V.ORC; Batzill, M.
Post-synthesis doping of 2D materials is demonstrated by incorporation of vapor-deposited transition metals into a MoTe2 lattice. Using this approach, vanadium doping of 2H-MoTe2 produces a 2D ferromagnetic semiconductor with a Curie temperature above room temperature (RT). Surprisingly, ferromagnetic properties can be induced with very
low vanadium concentrations, down to ≈0.2%. The vanadium species introduced at RT are metastable, and annealing to above ≈500 K results in the formation of a thermodynamically favored impurity configuration that, however, exhibits reduced ferromagnetic properties. Doping with titanium, instead of vanadium, shows a similar incorporation behavior, but no ferromagnetism is induced in MoTe2. This indicates that the type of impurities in addition to their atomic configuration is responsible for the induced magnetism. The interpretation of the experimental results is consistent with ab initio calculations, which confirm that the proposed vanadium impurity configurations exhibit magnetic moments, in contrast to the same configurations with titanium impurities. This study illustrates the possibility to induce ferromagnetic properties in layered van der Waals semiconductors by controlled magnetic impurity doping and thus to add magnetic functionalities to 2D materials.
Keywords: 2D materials; STM; electronic structure calculations; doping
Advanced Electronic Materials XX(2019), 1900044
- Secondary publication expected from 01.04.2020
Publ.-Id: 29161 - Permalink
Hashemi, A.; Krasheninnikov, AvORC; Puska, M.; Komsa, H.
Raman spectroscopy is a widely used, powerful, and nondestructive tool for studying the vibrational properties of bulk and low-dimensional materials. Raman spectra can be simulated using first-principles methods but due to the high computational cost calculations are usually limited only to fairly small unit cells, which makes it difficult to carry out simulations for alloys and defects. Here, we develop an efficient method for simulating Raman spectra of alloys, benchmark it against full density-functional theory calculations, and apply it to several alloys of two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides. In this method, the Raman tensor for the supercell mode is constructed by summing up the Raman tensors of the pristine system weighted by the projections of the supercell vibrational modes to those of the pristine system. This approach is not limited to 2D materials and should be applicable to any crystalline solid with defects and impurities. To efficiently evaluate vibrational modes of very large supercells, we adopt mass approximation, although it is limited to chemically and structurally similar atomic substitutions. To benchmark our method, we first apply it to the MoxW(1-x)S2 monolayer in the H phase where several experimental reports are available for comparison. Second, we consider MoxW(1-x)Te2 in the T' phase, which has been proposed to be a 2D topological insulator but where experimental results for the monolayer alloy are still missing. We show that the projection scheme also provides a powerful tool for analyzing the origin of the alloy Raman-active modes in terms of the parent system eigenmodes. Finally, we examine the trends in characteristic Raman signatures for dilute concentrations of impurities in MoS2.
Keywords: 2D materials; atomistic simulation
Physical Review Materials 3(2019), 023806
Publ.-Id: 29160 - Permalink
Kuhne, K.; Behring, L.; Belter, B.; Wodtke, R.; Pietzsch, J.; Löser, R.;
Protease activity is increasingly drawn into the spotlight as a crucial modulator in cancer angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis . Elevated activity of multiple members of the family of cysteine cathepsins has been shown to correlate with increased metastasis and therapy resistance [2, 3]. Especially high expression levels of extracellular cathepsin B (CatB) indicate poor prognosis in neoplastic diseases, making CatB an interesting target for functional characterization of cancers by activity-based molecular imaging. It is our aim to develop such an imaging probe for CatB by combination of a polyarginine-based, activatable cell-penetrating peptide  (ACPP) and an optimised endopeptidase substrate for CatB. Substrate optimisation proofed to be challenging as two entirely opposite factors needed to be balanced – high stability against serum proteases to prevent premature cleavage of the activation sequence, while retaining efficient and specific endoproteolytic cleavability by CatB. We have generated a CatB-endoprotease substrate by C-terminally elongating the CatB carboxydipeptidase substrate Abz GIVR*AK(Dnp) OH  (Abz – amino-benzoyl, Dnp – dinitrophenyl, * – cleavage site) to the octapeptide Abz GIVR*AK(Dnp)GX CONH2, which could be used as activation site in the final ACPP. Introduction of any amino acid other than glycine at the P4’ position resulted in hysteretic kinetics for the CatB-catalysed hydrolysis of the octapeptides, which might indicate the displacement of the occluding loop from the active site upon interaction with the substrates. Using LC-ESI-MS-based analysis of serum-incubated substrates, the positions P1 and P3’ where determined to be primary determinants of serum stability. After suppression of the P3’ instability by Nα-methylation and optimisation within the positions P1-P3, we were able to increase serum half-life from < 5 min to > 24 h under concomitant improvement of kinetic substrate efficiency towards CatB. Based on this optimised CatB-endopeptidase substrate, we have synthesised a fluorescently labelled ACPP with which we were able to demonstrate CatB-dependent uptake and subsequent nucleolar accumulation of the activated peptide in human U87 MG glioma cells. Radiolabelling of the probe with copper-64 was enabled by conjugating the ACPP to NODAGA as chelating moiety. Its evaluation in vivo using PET imaging is under current investigation.
 Yang et al., Cancer Growth Metastasis 2009, 2, 13
 Aggarwal and Sloane, Proteomics Clin. Appl. 2014, 8, 427
 Löser and Pietzsch, Front. Chem. 2015, 3, article 37
 Jiang et al., PNAS, 2004, 101, 17867
 Cotrin et al., Anal. Biochem. 2004, 335, 244
Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry, 24.-27.03.2019, Würzburg, Deutschland
Publ.-Id: 29159 - Permalink
Zhang, X.; Xu, M.; Li, Q.ORC; Wang, M.; Akhmadaliev, S.; Zhou, S.; Wu, Y.; Guo, B.
ZnSxTe1-x thin films were prepared by sulfur implantation into ZnTe grown by molecular beam epitaxy and subsequent pulsed laser melting. The chemical composition and layer thickness of the ZnSxTe1-x layer have been analyzed based on Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopies were employed to reveal the optical properties of the ZnSxTe1-x layer. Raman spectra exhibit a redshift of the longitudinal optical photon modes with increasing sulfur concentration. The room temperature photoluminescence measurement indicates the appearance of the sulfur induced energy state in the bandgap.
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 442(2019), 24-27
Publ.-Id: 29158 - Permalink
Behring, L.; Trapp, C.; Morales, M.; Wodtke, R.; Kuhne, K.; Belter, B.; Pietzsch, J.; Löser, R.;
Even though the C-C triple bond is largely considered as a bioinert functional group, two research groups observed the irreversible inhibition of a cysteine protease by an alkyne-functionalised substrate derivative: both EKKEBUS et al. and SOMMER et al. independently described the unexpected inactivation of de-ubiquitinating enzymes by ubiquitin or ubiquitin-like modifiers bearing propargylamine in place of C-terminal glycine by covalent targeting of the active-site cysteine residue [1, 2]. We intended to harness that finding for the design of inhibitor-based probes for the imaging of tumour-associated cysteine proteases.
All 11 human cysteine cathepsins have been linked to tumour progression. Especially high expression levels of the cathepsins B, K, L, S and X are correlated with an increased metastatic potential and poor prognosis.  Therefore, those enzymes represent promising targets for the therapy and imaging of tumours.
GREENSPAN et al. reported a potent, highly selective dipeptidyl nitrile-based cathepsin B inhibitor (1, structure shown above) . Based on that lead compound, dipeptide alkynes were designed by isoelectronic replacement of the nitrile nitrogen atom by a methine group (2) and consecutive variation of the 2,4-difluorobenzoyl group and the amino acid-derived side chains. Formation of the C-C triple bond by reaction of the corresponding open-chain serine-derived aldehyde with the Bestmann-Ohira reagent was accompanied by partial enantiomerisation. Therefore, the synthesis was performed via Garner’s aldehyde to ensure high stereochemical purity of the final compounds.
By investigating the inhibitory potential against cathepsin B, S, L and K potent alkyne-based inhibitors were identified for all tested cathepsins, with second-order inactivation constants (kinact/KI) up to 10133 M-1s-1 and interesting selectivity profiles. Based on these promising results and considering their absent indiscriminate thiol reactivity, dipeptidyl alkynes have the potential to be translated into activity-based probes for molecular imaging in vivo. In further studies, selected inhibitors will be labelled with suitable radionuclides such as fluorine-18, which will in turn enable further pharmacological evaluations.
 Ekkebus et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2013, 135, 2867-2870.
 Sommer et al., Bioorg. Med. Chem., 2013, 21, 2511-2517.
 Löser and Pietzsch, Front. Chem., 2015, 3, 37.
 Greenspan et al., J. Med. Chem., 2001, 44, 4524-4534.
Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry, 24.-27.03.2019, Würzburg, Deutschland
Publ.-Id: 29157 - Permalink
Xu, C.ORC; Wang, M.; Zhang, X.; Yuan, Y.; Zhou, S.
In the present work, we show the preparation of (In,Ga,Mn)As films with different Ga concentration by Mn ion implantation and pulsed laser melting. All films are confirmed to be well recrystallized by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry/channeling and to be ferromagnetic by magnetometry measurements, respectively. Their Curie temperatures depend on the Ga concentration. Our results show the perspective of ion implantation in the preparation of different III-Mn-V quaternary alloys as new members of diluted ferromagnetic semiconductors.
Keywords: Thin film, Ion implantation, Pulsed laser melting, III-V compounds
Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 442(2019), 31-35
Publ.-Id: 29152 - Permalink
Kulenkampff, J.; Karimzadeh, L.; Jankovsky, F.; Zuna, M.; Havlova, V.; Fischer, C.;
Advective fluid flow transport controls the migration of radionuclides in fractured crystalline rocks. Thus, the
safety assessment of deep geological repositories in crystalline rocks relies critically on fracture flow properties
and the reliability of transport modelling approaches. Here, we focus on heterogeneity and complexity of transport
processes, typically of limited predictability. In order to tackle this issue, we suggest experimental observations by
using tomographic methods, as well as feedback with and improvement of existing transport modelling approaches.
As an example, tracer propagation through fractured crystalline rock cores from the Czech Republic (Bukov URL,
depth of 500 m below the surface), was studied in collaboration between HZDR (Germany) and UJV (Czech
Republic). Spatiotemporal data of the tracer concentration during conservative transport are based on positron
emission tomography (PET), and the underlying fracture structure was characterized by microCT-imaging. The latter
yields a structural model for reactive transport modelling. The PET data sequences provide (i) the validation of
existing simulation approaches, and (ii) serve as input or the parameterization of advanced simulation concepts.
First results underscore the outlined approach. In particular, the PET measurements clearly show preferential and
localized pathways, a feature of the process that significantly reduces the effect of interactions at the fracture
surface (and thus retention by adsorption); although repeat experiments are suggesting that the identified pathways
are not constant over the experimental periods.
As a consequence of the combined experimental and simulation approach, we expect (i) advanced model concepts
based on experimental insights and (ii) an improved understanding of reactive transport processes with a focus on
temporal heterogeneity of preferential pathways.
EGU General Assembly 2019, 08.-12.04.2019, Wien, Österreich
Publ.-Id: 29150 - Permalink
Weber, N.; Chaparro, A.; Ferreira Aparicio, P.;
Der Vortrag gibt eine Übersicht über die Simulation von Luft atmenden Brennstoffzellen.
Institutsseminar am CIEMAT, 24.04.2019, Madrid, Spanien
Publ.-Id: 29147 - Permalink
Huang, L. G.; Takabe, H.; Cowan, T. E.;
In order to understand the transport of fast electrons within solid density targets driven by an optical high power laser, wehave numerically investigated the dynamics and structure of strong self-generated magnetic fields in such experiments.Here we present a systematic study of the bulk magnetic field generation due to the ponderomotive current, Weibel-likeinstability and resistivity gradient between two solid layers. Using particle-in-cell simulations, we observe the effect ofvarying the laser and target parameters, including laser intensity, focal size, incident angle, preplasma scale length, targetthickness and material and experimental geometry. The simulation results suggest that the strongest magnetic field isgenerated with laser incident angles and preplasma scale lengths that maximize laser absorption efficiency. The recentcommissioning of experimental platforms equipped with both optical high power laser and X-ray free electron laser(XFEL), such as European XFEL-HED, LCLS-MEC and SACLA beamlines, provides unprecedented opportunities toprobe the self-generated bulk magnetic field by X-ray polarimetry via Faraday rotation with simultaneous high spatialand temporal resolution. We expect that this systematic numerical investigation will pave the way to design and optimizenear future experimental setups to probe the magnetic fields in such experimental platforms
Keywords: laser–plasmas interaction; high energy density physics; X-ray free electron laser probi
High Power Laser Science and Engineering 7(2019)e22
Publ.-Id: 29146 - Permalink
Fasslrinner, F.; Arndt, C.; Koristka, S.; Feldmann, A.; Altmann, H.; von Bonin, M.; Schmitz, M.; Bornhäuser, M.; Bachmann, M.;
Induction chemotherapy is currently the standard of care for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with 5-year disease-free survival of 33%. Given the large proportion of non-responders and relapsed patients, novel adjuvant drugs are urgently needed. Especially, targeted therapies including small molecules and T cell based immunotherapies are under intensive preclinical and clinical investigation. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor Midostaurin recently received approval for treatment of FLT3-positive AML. In addition to chemotherapy, it significantly deepens remission rates and improves overall survival of patients. In light of future combinatorial approaches, simultaneous application of different targeted therapies should theoretically augment anti-tumor effects.
Therefore, we questioned whether Midostaurin could strengthen cytotoxic effector mechanisms of redirected switchable UniCAR T cells or bispecific antibody-redirected T cells against primary AML cells.
By performing in vitro co-cultivation assays with patient-derived AML cells, it was shown that Midostaurin concentrations ≥ 1 µM significantly impair the activation, proliferation, cytokine production and cytotoxicity of autologous and allogeneic T cells after engagement via bsAb or the UniCAR system. Data could be also verified in a solid tumor model.
At concentrations ranging between 0.1 and 10 M, it was shown that Midostaurin and its metabolites are indeed able to inhibit several components of the TCR signaling pathway including LcK, Zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 (ZAP-70), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Protein kinase C (PKC) in vitro. Therefore, we argue that the observed T cell inhibition by Midostaurin in our studies is caused by the inhibition of several of these kinases. This hypothesis is supported by the work of two individual research groups that were able to show synergistic effects by combining FLT3 selective TKIs with different T cell-based immunotherapies. Because Midostaurin through concentrations above ≥ 1 µM have been observed in earlier performed dose finding studies, we speculate that current standard Midostaurin therapy will inhibit T cell function in vivo.
In summary, our data underline that combination of Midostaurin and T cell-based immunotherapies in FLT3-positive AML patients is not recommended due to the suppressive effect of Midostaurin on T cells. Therefore, more selective TKI or other small molecules should be chosen to avoid impairment of T cell functions.
1st European CAR T Cell Meeting, 14.-16.02.2019, Paris, France
Publ.-Id: 29139 - Permalink
Sohr, J.; Bieberle, M.; Schubert, M.; Flechsig, S.; Kenig, E. Y.; Hampel, U.;
Durch die alternierend angeordneten Packungslagen mit unterschiedlichen geometrischen Oberflächen bilden sich in Anstaupackungen abhängig von den Betriebsbedingungen Filmströmung und Sprudelschicht gleichzeitig aus. Der intensive Kontakt zwischen der Gas- und Flüssigkeitsphase in den sprudelnden Bereichen der Anstaupackung führt zu einer Trenneffizienzsteigerung von bis zu 30 % im Vergleich zu konventionell gepackten Kolonnen . Zur Abschätzung der Beiträge der jeweiligen Bereiche mit unterschiedlichen Strömungsregimen zur Gesamttrennleistung ist die Kenntnis der Gas-Flüssigkeits-Grenzfläche erforderlich. Die Grenzfläche kann mittels ultraschneller Röntgentomographie bestimmt werden, welche die dynamischen Strömungsstrukturen mit einer Bildrate von 1000 Bildern pro Sekunde erfasst. Mithilfe eines modifizierten Level-set-Algorithmus wird die Phasengrenze zwischen Gas einerseits und Flüssigkeit sowie Metallpackung andererseits in den Querschnittsbildern detektiert (Abb.1).
In diesem Beitrag werden sowohl die Methodik zur Bestimmung der Phasengrenzfläche als auch Ergebnisse für unterschiedliche Gas- und Flüssigkeitsbelastungen bei verschiedenen Packungskombinationen präsentiert.
Wir danken der DFG für die finanzielle Unterstützung des Kooperationsprojekts "Experimentelle und theoretische Untersuchung der Fluiddynamik und des Stofftrennverhaltens von Anstaupackungen" (KE 837/26-1, HA 3088/10-1).
 M. Jödecke, T. Friese, G. Schuch, B. Kaibel, H. Jansen, Institution of Chemical Engineers Symposium Series, Institution of Chemical Engineers, 2006, Vol.152, pp. 786–789.
Jahrestreffen der ProcessNet-Fachgruppen Fluidverfahrenstechnik und Membrantechnik, 27.-29.03.2019, Potsdam, Deutschland
Publ.-Id: 29129 - Permalink
Flechsig, S.; Utchenko, Y.; Sohr, J.; Schubert, M.; Hampel, U.; Kenig, E. Y.;
Ein Weg zur Reduzierung des hohen Energiebedarfs thermischer Trennverfahren ist die Prozessintegration. Ein Beispiel dafür ist die Integration verschiedener Strömungsformen in einem Trennapparat durch den Einsatz von Anstaupackungen, wodurch eine Erhöhung der Trennleistung im Vergleich zu Strukturpackungen erzielt wird. Anstaupackungen bestehen aus zwei alternierend angeordneten Lagen von industriell verfügbaren Standardpackungen mit unterschiedlichen spezifischen Oberflächen. Die untere Anstaulage weist eine geringere Lastgrenze als die darüber angeordnete Abscheidelage auf, wodurch im Betrieb zwischen den Flutpunkten
beider Lagen ein heterogenes Strömungsmuster entsteht. Dabei bildet sich in der gezielt gefluteten Anstaulage eine bis in die Abscheidelage hineinreichende Sprudelschicht, die durch eine intensive Phasenvermischung und große
Phasengrenzflächen geprägt ist.
Um die Leistungscharakteristik von Anstaupackungen mit der von anderen Einbauten vergleichen zu können, wurde in einer vorherigen Arbeit  ein rate-based-Modell entwickelt, welches die Auswirkungen der belastungsabhängig auftretenden Regime in Anstaupackungen berücksichtigt. Basierend auf experimentellen Daten zur CO2-Absorption mit wässrigen Aminlösungen im Technikumsmaßstab sowie tomographischen Untersuchungen wurden Abhängigkeiten der modellspezifischen Parameter identifiziert und anschließend regimespezifisch ins Modell implementiert. Mittels Prozesssimulationen der CO2-Absorption aus Abgasen gasbefeuerter Kraftwerke im industriellen Maßstab werden im Rahmen dieser Arbeit Anstaupackungen und Strukturpackungen hinsichtlich der benötigten Kolonnenabmessungen und des zu überwindenden Druckverlustes verglichen. Um eine abschließende Bewertung durchzuführen, wurden mithilfe von Aspen Process Economic AnalyzerTM die Anlagen- und Betriebskosten für die CO2-Abscheidung bestimmt. Zusätzlich wurde zur Ermittlung eines optimalen Designs der Einfluss der wesentlichen Geometrieparameter von Anstaupackungen auf die Kosten untersucht.
 S. Flechsig, J. Sohr, M. Schubert, U. Hampel, E.Y. Kenig, Chem. Eng. Trans., 2018, 69, 169-174, DOI: 10.3303/CET1869029.
Jahrestreffen der ProcessNet-Fachgruppen Fluidverfahrenstechnik und Membrantechnik, 27.-29.03.2019, Potsdam, Deutschland
Publ.-Id: 29128 - Permalink
Huang, M.; Marinaro, G.; Yang, X.; Fritzsche, B.; Lei, Z.; Uhlemann, M.; Eckert, K.; Mutschke, G.;
The electrodeposition of copper on a conically shaped diamagnetic electrode was studied under the influence of a vertical magnetic field. Numerical simulations combined with measurements of the velocity and the concentration field were conducted to provide understanding of the influence of the Lorentz force on the deposition process. The secondary flow caused by the magnetic field is directed downward along the cone surface and thus supporting conical growth. Since the cathode is placed at the bottom of the electrochemical cell, natural convection is counteracting the influence of the Lorentz force. However, the different time scales of both forces involved allow to utilize the beneficial influence of the Lorentz force, e.g. in pulsed deposition regimes.
Keywords: copper electrodeposition, magnetic field, surface-structured electrode, Mach-Zehnder interferometry, shadowgraphy, numerical simulation
Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry 842(2019), 203-213
- Secondary publication expected from 01.06.2020
Publ.-Id: 29127 - Permalink
Discussion on progress of PW laser applications and advanced accelerators of protons and electrons
Keywords: Petawatt laser, laser particle acceleration, LWFA, secondary sources
Invited lecture (Conferences)
SPIE Optics + Optoelectronics, 02.-04.04.2019, Prag, Czech Republic
Invited lecture (Conferences)
JuSPARC Kick-off Workshop, 27.-29.03.2019, Vaals, Niederlande
Publ.-Id: 29099 - Permalink
Nomura, T.; Zhang, X.-X.; Zherlitsyn, S.; Wosnitza, J.; Tokura, Y.; Nagaosa, N.; Seki, S.;
The magnetochiral effect (MCE) of phonons, a nonreciprocal acoustic propagation arising due to symmetry principles, is demonstrated in the chiral-lattice ferrimagnet Cu2OSeO3. Our high-resolution ultrasound experiments reveal that the sound velocity differs for parallel and antiparallel propagation with respect to the external magnetic field. The sign of the nonreciprocity depends on the chirality of the crystal in accordance with the selection rule of the MCE. The nonreciprocity is enhanced below the magnetic ordering temperature and at higher ultrasound frequencies, which is quantitatively explained by a proposed magnon-phonon hybridization mechanism.
Physical Review Letters 122(2019), 145901
Publ.-Id: 29097 - Permalink
van den Hoff, J.; Hofheinz, F.; Weise, R.; Maus, J.; Preuß, R.; Burchert, W.;
Dynamic whole body (DWB) FDG PET has become available with the recent introduction of the "flow motion" package by Siemens which offers fully automated generation of parametric images of the metabolic uptake rate K[m]. While this approach is superior to SUV-based quantification, it requires substantially more scan time and reduces patient throughput. On the other hand, the tumor to blood standard uptake ratio (SUR) has outperformed SUV in several clinical studies, which is attributed to a very high correlation between SUR and K[m]. However, direct evidence for this correlation is scarce. Our study compares K[sur], the SUR-derived "static" estimate of K[m], with the Patlak-derived K[m].
Altogether, 12 oncological patients are enclosed and scheduled for DWB PET. Parametric images of K[m] and K[sur] are computed using the vendor provided Patlak procedure and in-house software, respectively. Evaluation of the voxel intensity correlation between both parametric images as well as ROI-based analysis is performed.
So far, 4 patients have been evaluated. K[m] and K[sur] are highly correlated (R^2=0.97) in areas with nonnegligible irreversible uptake (so far we investigated the range K[m]=[0.01,0.07]). K[m] and K[sur] images have very similar image contrast between such areas. Minor contrast differences exist in healthy soft tissue and regions where the Patlak approach is invalid (notably the liver). The relative scale factor between both parametric images is 0.86.
Our results suggest that SUR and K[sur] are proportional surrogates of true K[m]. The unquestionable potential of DWB PET might thus be more relevant for applications beyond oncological FDG PET. To test this conjecture, comprehensive studies in homogeneous patient groups are required in order to compare the prognostic value of K[m] and SUR/K[sur] in the context of survival analysis
Jahrestagung der DGN, 03.-06.04.2019, Bremen, Deutschland
Publ.-Id: 29096 - Permalink
Braune, A.; Bluth, T.; Kiss, T.; Hofheinz, F.; Gama De Abreu, M.; Kotzerke, J.;
Dynamische PET/CT Scans gefolgt von Patlak Modellierung der 18F-FDG-Aufnahmerate (Ki) ist eine etablierte Methode zur Quantifizierung der Lungenentzündung im tierexp. Modell des akuten Lungenversagens (ARDS), erfordert aber zeitintensive Aufnahmen und erlaubt nur ein begrenztes cranio-caudales FoV. Dyn. PET/CT Scans von Patienten mit Lebermetastasen zeigten gute Korrelationen zwischen Ki und Standard Uptake Ratio (SUR = ROI-SUV / Blut-SUV) . Wir analysierten in einem tierexp. ARDS-Modell, ob stat. PET/CT Messungen und SUR-Analysen alternativ zu dyn. PET/CT und Ki für die Quantifizierung der pulmonalen Inflammation genutzt werden können.
In 14 Schweinen erfolgten nach Induktion eines schweren ARDS sowie nach 24h Beatmung dyn. 18F-FDG-PET/CT Scans und Patlak Ki-Analysen. Anschließende stat. PET/CT Scans (77-81min p.i.) wurden für die Bestimmung von mittleren, zeitkorrigierten SUR-Werte genutzt. SUR- und Ki-Werte wurden für 5 ventro-dorsale ROIs mittels linearer Regression verglichen (Variationskoeffizient, r2). Anhand von Blutproben wurde die Variabilität der arteriellen Inputfunktion (AIF) zwischen Tieren und Messzeitpunkten verglichen.
SUR- und Ki-Werte korrelierten vor und nach 24h Beatmung (r2=0.84 bzw. 0.97). Der zeitliche Verlauf der AIF war zwischen Tieren und Aufnahmezeitpunkten vergleichbar und konnte mittels einer inversen Potenzfunktion beschrieben werden (r2 = 0.99). Die Patlak-Zeit war Zeit-, aber nicht AIF-abhängig, und wies eine geringe Variabilität auf (t=70min: 153.6 ± 13.3min).
Für die Quantifizierung der pulmonalen Inflammation in exp. Studien der Anästhesie können stat. PET/CT Scans und SUR-Analysen alternativ zu dyn. 18F-FDG-PET/CT und Patlak genutzt werden. Dies ermöglicht eine schnellere Datenakquisition, die Erfassung der gesamten Lunge und eine Reduktion der erforderlichen Blutproben. Grundlage der guten Ki-SUR Korrelation bildete die geringe Variabilität des AIF.
Jahrestagung der DGN, 03.-06.04.2019, Bremen, Deutschland
Publ.-Id: 29095 - Permalink
Rogasch, J.; Chibolela, C.; Frost, N.; Wedel, F.; Hofheinz, F.; Rückert, J.; Neudecker, J.; Böhmer, D.; von Laffert, M.; Amthauer, H.; Furth, C.;
In patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) undergoing treatment with curative intent, the asphericity (ASP) of the primary tumor’s metabolic tumor volume (MTV) has been demonstrated as a prognostic factor. This study aimed at validation in an independent cohort with sufficient sample size.
Retrospective study in 313 NSCLC patients (203 men; median age, 67 [41-87] a) undergoing FDG-PET/CT with the same scanner prior to treatment in curative intent (always including resection of the primary tumor). 137 patients had UICC stage I, 79 patients stage II and 97 patients stage III disease (adenocarcinoma [ADC], 153; squamous cell carcinoma [SCC], 143, other, 17). Delineation of primary tumor MTV with semiautomated background-adapted threshold relative to its SUVmax. Univariable Cox regression for progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for PET parameters (MTV, ASP, SUVmax, SUVmean), clinical (UICC stage I vs. II vs. III), histological (SCC vs. ADC) and treatment variables (Rx/1 vs. R0 resection, chemotherapy yes/no, radiotherapy yes/no). Multivariable Cox of parameters significant in univariate Cox.
Events (progression, relapse, death) occurred in 169/313 patients, 139 patients died (median follow-up in survivors, 37 months). In multivariable Cox for OS, ASP >33.3% (hazard ratio [HR], 1.53 [95%-confidence interval, 1.02-2.3]), Rx/1 vs. R0 resection (HR, 2.47 [1.5-4.2]) and SCC vs. ADC (HR, 1.53 [1.1-2.2]) were significant. Log-rank test for ASP was significant at any cut-off from 18% upwards. Among separate UICC stages, ASP was only prognostic for OS in stage II (optimal, >19.5%; median OS, 33 vs. 59 months; p<0.01). In multivariable Cox for PFS, ASP >21.2% (HR, 1.75 [1.2-2.5]) and Rx/1 vs. R0 (HR, 2.48 [1.5-4.1]) were significant. Log-rank test for ASP was significant at any cut-off from 10-60%.
ASP was validated as an independent predictor of PFS and OS in NSCLC patients with curative treatment intent. Subdividing UICC stages, ASP remained prognostic in stage II.
Jahrestagung der DGN, 03.-06.04.2019, Bremen, Deutschland
Publ.-Id: 29094 - Permalink
Hofheinz, F.; Maus, J.; Zschaeck, S.; Rogasch, J.; Schramm, G.; Oehme, L.; Apostolova, I.; Kotzerke, J.; van den Hoff, J.;
The standardized uptake value (SUV) is essentially the only means for quantitative evaluation of static FDG PET. However, the SUV approach has well-known shortcomings which adversely affect the reliability of the SUV as a surrogate of the metabolic rate of glucose consumption. The standard uptake ratio (SUR), i.e. the uptake time corrected ratio of tumor SUV to image-derived arterial blood SUV, has been shown to overcome most of these shortcomings and to increase the prognostic value in comparison to SUV. However, it is unclear, to what extent the SUR approach is vulnerable to observer variability of the required blood SUV (BSUV) determination. The goal of the present work was the investigation of the interobserver variability of image-derived BSUV.
FDG PET/CT scans from 83 patients were included. BSUV was determined by 8 individuals, each applying a dedicated delineation tool for the BSUV determination in the aorta. Altogether 5 different delineation tools were used. With each used tool, delineation was performed for the whole patient group, resulting in 12 distinct observations per patient. Interobserver variability of BSUV determination was assessed using the fractional deviations of the individual observers from the observer-average for the considered patient.
Interobserver variability in the pooled data amounts to SD=2.8% and is much smaller than the intersubject variability of BSUV (SD=16%). Averaged over the whole patient group, deviations of individual observers from the observer average are very small and fall in the range [-0.96,1.05]%. However, interobserver variability partly differs distinctly for different patients (range: [0.7,7.4]%).
The present investigation proofs unambiguously that the image-based manual determination of BSUV in the aorta provides sufficient accuracy and reproducibility for the purposes of the SUR approach. This finding is in line with the already demonstrated superiority of SUR in comparison to SUV in first clinical studies.
Jahrestagung der DGN, 03.-06.04.2019, Bremen, Deutschland
Publ.-Id: 29093 - Permalink
Wetz, C.; Genseke, P.; Pape, U.; Jann, H.; Furth, C.; Kreißl, M.; Hofheinz, F.; Venrito, M.; Stüven, A.; Amthauer, H.;
Bei Patienten mit pulmonalen oder gastrointestinalen neuroendokrinen Tumoren (NET) kann der teils nebenwirkungsreiche mTOR-Inhibitor Everolimus das progressionsfreie Überleben (PFS) verlängern. Ziel dieser Studie war die Evaluation der läsionalen Asphärizität (ASP) in der prätherapeutischen Somatostatinrezeptor (SSR)-Bildgebung hinsichtlich einer weiteren Spezifizierung von Patientensubgruppen die von der Therapie im Besonderen profitieren.
Retrospektive, bizentrische Analyse von 30 Patienten (m=17; w=13; medianes Alter, 59 [38-75] Jahre) mit einer prätherapeutischen [111In-DTPA0]octreotid Szintigraphie. Die funktionellen Volumina von bis zu 3 führenden Läsionen je Patient (n=74) wurden mittels halbautomatischer, hintergrundadaptierter Segmentierung erhoben (ROVER, Version 2.1.20) und jeweils die sphärische Heterogenität des SSR-Besatzes - die ASP - berechnet. Für die maximal gemessene ASP je Patient erfolgten Kaplan-Meier-Analysen inklusive log-rank-Tests sowie eine univariate Cox Regression bzgl. des PFS.
Alle 30 Patienten waren unter Everolimus progredient oder entwickelten ein Rezidiv. In der univariaten Analyse erwies sich die ASP [Median, 12,7%; Spannweite, 1,1–43,5] als Prädiktor des PFS (p=0,033; Hazard Ratio [HR], 2,391 je eine Einheit). Patienten mit einer hohen ASP (>14%) zeigten ein medianes PFS von 6,7 Monaten (95%-Konfidenzintervall [CI], 2,1-11,4 Monate) gegenüber 14,4 Monaten (95%-CI, 12,5-16,3 Monate; p=0,028) für eine ASP ≤14%.
Mittels ASP kann im untersuchten Patientenkollektiv eine Prädiktion des PFS erreicht werden. In Bezug auf eine Nutzen-/Risiko-Abwägung zur Indikationsstellung der Everolimusgabe erscheint der Einsatz der prätherapeutischen ASP bzgl. einer optimalen Patientenauswahl bedeutsam; Patienten mit einer ASP >14% hatten ein signifikant kürzeres PFS.
Jahrestagung der DGN, 03.-06.04.2019, Bremen, Deutschland
Publ.-Id: 29092 - Permalink
Appel, P.; Shields, B. J.; Kosub, T.; Hedrich, N.; Hübner, R.; Fassbender, J.; Makarov, D.; Maletinsky, P.;
Antiferromagnets have recently emerged as attractive platforms for spintronics applications, offering fundamentally new functionalities compared with their ferromagnetic counterparts. Whereas nanoscale thin-film materials are key to the development of future antiferromagnetic spintronic technologies, existing experimental tools tend to suffer from low resolution or expensive and complex equipment requirements. We offer a simple, high-resolution alternative by addressing the ubiquitous surface magnetization of magnetoelectric antiferromagnets in a granular thin-film sample on the nanoscale using single-spin magnetometry in combination with spin-sensitive transport experiments. Specifically, we quantitatively image the evolution of individual nanoscale antiferromagnetic domains in 200 nm thin films of Cr2O3 in real space and across the paramagnet-to-antiferromagnet phase transition, finding an average domain size of 230 nm, several times larger than the average grain size in the film. These experiments allow us to discern key properties of the Cr2O3 thin film, including the boundary magnetic moment density, the variation of critical temperature throughout the film, the mechanism of domain formation, and the strength of exchange coupling between individual grains comprising the film. Our work offers novel insights into the magnetic ordering mechanism of Cr2O3 and firmly establishes single-spin magnetometry as a versatile and widely applicable tool for addressing antiferromagnetic thin films on the nanoscale.
Nano Letters 19(2019)3, 1682-1687
Publ.-Id: 29090 - Permalink
Zeisner, J.; Bräuninger, S. A.; Opherden, L.; Sarkar, R.; Gorbunov, D. I.; Krizan, J. W.; Herrmannsdörfer, T.; Cava, R. J.; Wosnitza, J.; Büchner, B.; Klauss, H. H.; Kataev, V.;
We report high-frequency/high-field electron spin resonance (ESR) and high-field magnetization studies on single crystals of the bond-disordered pyrochlore NaCaCo2F7. Frequency- and temperature-dependent ESR investigations above the freezing temperature Tf ∼ 2.4 K reveal the coexistence of two distinct magnetic phases. A cooperative paramagnetic phase, evidenced by a gapless excitation mode, is found along with a spin-glass phase developing below 20 K which is associated with a gapped low-energy excitation. Effective g factors close to 2 are obtained for both modes, in line with pulsed high-field magnetization measurements which show an unsaturated isotropic behavior up to 58 T at 2 K. In order to describe the field-dependent magnetization in high magnetic fields, we propose an empirical model accounting for highly anisotropic ionic g tensors expected for this material and taking into account the strongly competing interactions between the spins which lead to a frustrated ground state. As a detailed quantitative relation between effective g factors as determined from ESR and the local g tensors obtained by neutron scattering [Ross et al., Phys. Rev. B 93, 014433 (2016)] is still sought after, our work motivates further theoretical investigations of the low-energy excitations in bond-disordered pyrochlores.
Physical Review B 99(2019), 155104
Publ.-Id: 29085 - Permalink
Gorbunov, D. I.; Strohm, C.; Henriques, M. S.; van der Linden, P.; Pedersen, B.; Mushnikov, N. V.; Rosenfeld, E. V.; Petricek, V.; Mathon, O.; Wosnitza, J.;
We report on x-ray magnetic circular dichroism experiments in pulsed fields up to 30 T to follow the rotations of individual magnetic moments through the field-induced phase transition in the ferrimagnet HoFe5Al7. Near the ground state, we observe simultaneous stepwise rotations of the Ho and Fe moments and explain them using a two-sublattice model for an anisotropic ferrimagnet with weak intersublattice exchange interactions. Near the compensation point, we find two phase transitions. The additional magnetization jump reflects the fact that the Ho moment is no longer rigid as the applied field acts against the intersublattice exchange field.
Physical Review Letters 122(2019), 127205
- Original PDF 768 kB Secondary publication
Publ.-Id: 29081 - Permalink
Zimmerer, C.; Salazar Mejia, C.; Utech, T.; Arnhold, K.; Janke, A.; Wosnitza, J.;
Induction heating is efficient, precise, cost-effective, and clean. The heating process is coupled to an electrically conducting material, usually a metal. As most polymers are dielectric and non-conducting, induction heating is not applicable. In order to transfer energy from an electromagnetic field into polymer induction structures, conducting materials or materials that absorb the radiation are required. This report gives a brief overview of induction heating processes used in polymer technology. In contrast to metals, most polymer materials are not affected by electromagnetic fields. However, an unwanted temperature rise of the polymer can occur when a radio frequency field is applied. The now available high-field magnetic sources provide a new platform for induction heating at very low frequencies, avoiding unwanted thermal effects within the material. Using polycarbonate and octadecylamine as an example, it is demonstrated that induction heating performed by a magnetic-field pulse with a maximum flux density of 59 T can be used to initiate chemical reactions. A 50 nm thick Ag loop, with a mean diameter of 7 mm, placed in the polymer-polymer interface acts as susceptor and a resistive heating element. The formation of urethane as a linker compound was examined by infrared spectroscopic imaging and differential scanning calorimetry.
Publ.-Id: 29080 - Permalink
Juckeland, G.ORC; Henschel, R.ORC
Get your hands on the latest versions of Score-P and Vampir to profile the execution behavior of your large-scale GPU-Accelerated applications. See how these HPC community tools pick up as other tools (such as NVVP) drop off when your application spans multiple compute nodes. Regardless of whether your application uses CUDA, OpenACC, OpenMP or OpenCL for acceleration, or whether it is written in C, C++, Fortran or Python, you will receive a high-resolution timeline view of all program activity alongside the standard profiles to identify hot spots and avenues for optimization. The novel Python support now also enables performance studies for optimizing the inner workings of deep learning frameworks.
GPU Technology Conference 2019, 17.-21.03.2019, San Jose, CA, USA
Publ.-Id: 29070 - Permalink
Huittinen, N.; Lösch, H.; Hirsch, A.; Holthausen, J.; Peters, L.; Xiao, B.; Neumeier, S.; Schmidt, M.;
In recent years, rare-earth orthophosphates LnPO4 have attracted attention as potential hosts for the immobilization of specific radioactive waste streams.
In the present work, the incorporation of Eu3+ in LnPO4 host materials predominantly having the xenotime structure has been investigated on the molecular level. As host cations we used Tb and Lu as well as a solid solution series of Gd1–xLuxPO4 (x = 0.3, 0.5, 0.7). The site selective laser luminescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) technique was applied to study the distribution of Eu3+ in the synthetic xenotime phases, while PXRD and Raman spectroscopy were used for bulk structural investigations direct after synthesis and after one year of storage at ambient conditions.
The PXRD patterns of the solid solution series show the formation of a single xenotime phase up to a substitution of x = 0.5 both before and after aging. The TRLFS emission spectra also show that Eu3+ is substituted for the host cation site in the xenotime hosts. After one year, the emission spectra show a broad dominant signal between the transitions regions of the 7F1‒ and 7F2‒bands, and the luminescence signal no longer corresponds to Eu3+‒incorporation in a xenotime environment, only. These changes indicate a time-dependent change in the local structure of the europium dopant. Based on these observations we suggest an exclusion of Eu3+ from the crystal structure and subsequent migration of the cation to the grain boundaries during aging. The migration of Eu3+ in void spaces through the crystal structure could be responsible for the additional signals in the emission spectra, while the narrow void space forces an overlap between Eu3+ and oxygen atomic orbitals, resulting in the broad signal between the 7F1‒ and 7F2‒bands.
The segregation of Eu3+ to grain boundaries after a relatively short aging in the xenotime materials, indicates that xenotime ceramics will not serve as a suitable waste form for trivalent actinides from high–level nuclear waste.
27th Annual Meeting of the German Crystallographic Society (DGK), 25.-28.03.2019, Leipzig, Germany
Publ.-Id: 29063 - Permalink
A blind test benchmark of transient 2-phase flow simulation codes will be organized.
The purpose is to give participants an opportunity to test their code capability to predict onset of dryout, post-dryout heat transfer phenomena as well as subsequent rewetting in a boiling water rod bundle geometry under realistic operational conditions. Experimental data that will be used in the blind test have been obtained in a 4 by 4 rod bundle and include pressure drops along the bundle divided into six sub-sections, rod clad temperatures at fourteen elevations and coolant temperatures at six elevations.
For analyzed experimental case, steady-state initial and boundary conditions as well as transient forcing functions have been recorded together with above-mentioned parameters.
Keywords: CFD, Subchannel codes, dryout, post dryout, rod bundle
The 9th International Conference & Workshop REMOO–2019, 16.-18.04.2019, Hong Kong, China
Publ.-Id: 29053 - Permalink
Singh, A.; Welsch, M.; Winnerl, S.; Helm, M.; Schneider, H.;
We study here the effect of the electrode parameters on the terahertz emission efficiency of large-area emitters based on interdigitated electrodes. Electrode parameters are optimized to get maximum terahertz emission by optimizing the balance condition among the emission efficiency of individual electrode pairs, number of emitters per unit area, and fraction of semiconductor exposed for optical pumping. A maximum enhancement by about 50 % in the peak to peak electric field is observed as compared to the previous state of the art design.
Keywords: Terahertz emitters, photoconductive switch, interdigitated electrode
Optics Express 27(2019)9, 13108-13115
Publ.-Id: 29048 - Permalink
The predictability of TFM-CFD is largely restricted by the reliability of closures that should reconstruct the information about the phenomena and processes occuring at the interface. The development of physically based models is severely obstructed by insufficient knowledge on the physics and numerous misleading work based on case-by-case tuning. A strategy towards general closures is necessary. A few years ago HZDR proposed a baseline model for TFM-CFD simulation of poly-dispersed bubbly flow with a fixed set of closures. It aims to identify the missing physics in the existing models and improve them step by step. In this work the baseline model is implemented and tested in the open source CFD code OpenFOAM for a large number of bubbly flow cases including vertical pipe flow and bubble column.
CFD-Verbund, 11.-12.03.2019, Garching bei München, Deutschland
Publ.-Id: 29047 - Permalink
Two-phase flows occur in many industrial processes. Reliable predictions on flow characteristics are necessary for the design, process optimization and safety analysis of related apparatuses and processes. Experimental investigations are expensive and in most cases not transferable to modified geometries or different scales and flow conditions. For this reason there is a clear requirement for numerical tools. Due to the 3D nature of flows and the importance of turbulence in most cases this means a strong need for reliable 3D CFD-tools rather than 1D system codes or simplified correlations. The general aim is to provide simulation tools for the design, optimization and safety analyses of medium and large scale applications in which multiphase flows are involved. Such tools can contribute to improve the efficient use of energy and resources (e.g. in chemical engineering and oil industries) and to guarantee the safe operation (especially nuclear safety) – provided that they are predictive. Since large scale applications are considered such as chemical reactors or components of the cooling system of a nuclear power plant the Euler-Euler two- or multi fluid model is the base for the development. Presently the predictive capabilities for basic hydrodynamics are restricted due to limitations of the closure models. For this reason one focus of our multiphase flow research is the improvement of the closures first for adiabatic flow modelling but also phase transfer, chemical reactions etc. have to be considered. A second focus is to establish modelling frameworks as iMUSIG, AIAD and GENTOP to allow a proper consideration of the local physical phenomena. These activities will help to improve the CFD code capabilities in energy related industrial applications.
Keywords: CFD, Multiphase, Fluid Dynamics, HZDR, AIAD, GENTOP
Invited lecture (Conferences)
The 9th International Conference & Workshop REMOO–2019, 16.-18.04.2019, Hong Kong, China
Contribution to proceedings
The 9th International Conference & Workshop REMOO–2019, 16.-18.04.2019, Hong Kong, China
Publ.-Id: 29041 - Permalink
Bauer, D.; Reissig, F.; Pietzsch, H.-J.; Steinbach, J.; Mamat, C.ORC
Due to their high biological effectiveness and suitable half-lives, there is increased interest in using the radionuclides radium-223 and radium-224 for radiopharmaceutical applications. Xofigo ([223Ra]radium chloride) is a bone-seeking, alpha-emitting radiopharmaceutical with EMA and FDA approval. It is used to treat bone metastasis of castrate-resistant prostate cancer. To expand the possible applications for these promising radionuclides, it is necessary to stably bind the radionuclide within a chelator. Therefore, calixarene-based ligands have been synthesized, which show encouraging affinities to radium ions. In our recent studies, we have already presented the high potential of these ligands. Since radium and barium have similar chemistry, and therefore comparable affinities to our ligands, it is possible to create a matched pair for theragnostic approaches. The radionuclide barium-131 has a suitable physical half-life for therapeutic applications and the potential of being a SPECT nuclide.
Keywords: Radium-224, Barium-131, Calixarene
11th International Symposium on Targeted-Alpha-Therapy, 01.-06.04.2019, Ottawa, Kanada
Abstract in refereed journal
Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences 50(2019)1, S39
Publ.-Id: 29039 - Permalink
Hofheinz, F.; Maus, J.; Zschaeck, S.; Rogasch, J.; Schramm, G.; Oehme, L.; Apostolova, I.; Kotzerke, J.; van den Hoff, J.;
Background: Today, the standardized uptake value (SUV) is essentially the only means for quantitative evaluation of static [18 F-]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) investigations. However, the SUV approach has several well-known shortcomings which adversely affect the reliability of the SUV as a surrogate of the metabolic rate of glucose consumption. The standard uptake ratio (SUR), i.e., the uptake time-corrected ratio of tumor SUV to image-derived arterial blood SUV, has been shown in the first clinical studies to overcome most of these shortcomings, to decrease test-retest variability, and to increase the prognostic value in comparison to SUV. However, it is unclear, to what extent the SUR approach is vulnerable to observer variability of the additionally required blood SUV (BSUV) determination. The goal of the present work was the investigation of the interobserver variability of image-derived BSUV.
Methods: FDG PET/CT scans from 83 patients (72 male, 11 female) with non-small cell lung cancer (N = 46) or head and neck cancer (N = 37) were included. BSUV was determined by 8 individuals, each applying a dedicated delineation tool for the BSUV determination in the aorta. Two of the observers applied two further tools. Altogether, five different delineation tools were used. With each used tool, delineation was performed for the whole patient group, resulting in 12 distinct observations per patient. Intersubject variability of BSUV determination was assessed using the fractional deviations for the individual patients from the patient group average and was quantified as standard deviation (SDis ), 95% confidence interval, and range. Interobserver variability of BSUV determination was assessed using the fractional deviations of the individual observers from the observer-average for the considered patient and quantified as standard deviations (SDp , SDd ) or root mean square (RMS), 95% confidence interval, and range in each patient, each observer, and the pooled data respectively.
Results: Interobserver variability in the pooled data amounts to RMS = 2.8% and is much smaller than the intersubject variability of BSUV (SDis = 16%). Averaged over the whole patient group, deviations of individual observers from the observer average are very small and fall in the range [− 0.96, 1.05]%. However, interobserver variability partly differs distinctly for different patients, covering a range of [0.7, 7.4]% in the investigated patient group.
Conclusion: The present investigation demonstrates that the image-based manual determination of BSUV in the aorta is sufficiently reproducible across different observers and delineation tools which is a prerequisite for accurate SUR determination. This finding is in line with the already demonstrated superior prognostic value of SUR in comparison to SUV in the first clinical studies.
Keywords: PET, FDG, Quantification, SUV, SUR, Blood SUV
EJNMMI Research 9(2019), 23
Publ.-Id: 29038 - Permalink
Costa, J. C.; Pouryazdan, A.; Panidi, J.; Spina, F.; Anthopoulos, T.; Liedke, M. O.; Schneider, C.; Wagner, A.; Münzenrieder, N.;
In this paper, Low Earth Orbit radiation, temperature and magnetic field conditions are mimicked to investigate the suitability of flexible Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide transistors for lightweight space wearables. Such wearable devices could be incorporated into spacesuits as unobtrusive radiation detectors or physiological monitors. Due to the harsh environment to which these space wearables would be exposed, they have to be able to withstand high radiation doses, low temperatures and magnetic fields. For this reason, the impacts of high energetic electron irradiation with fluences up to 1E12 e−/cm2, low operating temperatures down to 78K and magnetic fields up to 11mT are investigated. This simulates 278 h in Low Earth Orbit. The threshold voltage and mobility of transistors that were exposed to e- irradiation are found to shift by +(0.09 +- 0.05)V and (0.6 +- 0.5) cm 2 V−1 s−1. Subsequent low temperature exposure resulted in additional shifts of +0.38V and -5.95 cm2 V−1 s−1 for the same parameters. These values are larger than the ones obtained from non irradiated reference samples. In addition, the performance of the devices was observed not to be significantly affected by the magnetic fields. Finally, a Cascode amplifier presenting a voltage gain of 10.3 dB and a cutoff frequency of 1.2 kHz is demonstrated after the sample had been irradiate, cooled down and exposed to the magnetic fields. If these notions are considered during the systems’ design, these devices can be used to unobtrusively integrate sensor systems into space suits.
Keywords: Flexible electronics, Space applications, Amorphousnoxides; Wearables, Thin film transistors
IEEE Journal of the Electron Devices Society (2019), 98-101
Publ.-Id: 29037 - Permalink
Rothe, J.; Altmaier, M.; Dagan, R.; Dardenne, K.; Fellhauer, D.; Gaona, X.; González-Robles Corrales, E.; Herm, M.; Kvashnina, K.; Metz, V.; Pidchenko, I.; Schild, D.; Vitova, T.; Geckeis, H.;
For more than 120 years, systematic studies of X-ray interaction with matter have been the basis for our understanding of materials—both of natural or man-made origin—and their structure-function relationships. Beginning with simple radiographic imaging at the end of the 19th century, X-ray based analytical tools such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence and photoemission or X-ray absorption techniques are indispensable in almost any field of chemical and material sciences—including basic and applied actinide and radionuclide studies. The advent of dedicated synchrotron radiation (SR) sources in the second half of the last century has revolutionized the analytical power of X-ray probes, while—with increasing number of SR facilities—beamline instrumentation followed a trend towards increasing specialization and adaption to a major research topic. The INE-Beamline and ACT station at the KIT synchrotron source belong to the exclusive club of a few synchrotron beamline facilities—mostly located in Europe—dedicated to the investigation of highly radioactive materials. Since commissioning of the INE-Beamline in 2005, capabilities for synchrotron-based radionuclide and actinide sciences at KIT have been continuously expanded, driven by in-house research programs and external user needs.
Geosciences 9(2019)2, 91
Publ.-Id: 29035 - Permalink
Der Rohstoffsektor ist geprägt von enormem Materialbedarf für die Entwicklung und Produktion neuer High-Tech Produkte. Neben der Optimierung von Bergbauprozessen zur Gewinnung von primären Rohstoffen fokussiert das Helmholtz-Institut Freiberg für Ressourcentechnologie die Vision der Kreislaufwirtschaft. Diese setzte neben dem Schwerpunkt Nachhaltigkeit im Hinblick auf Produktdesign, Produktion, Verteilung, Konsum, Verwendung, Reparatur und Sammlung vor allem auf das Recycling von Wertstoffen.
Mikrobiologisch assistierte Recyclingprozesse zur Rückgewinnung von Wertstoffen aus Elektronikschrott und Bergbauresthalden sowie innovative und umweltfreundliche Lösungen für die Ressourcensicherung standen im Fokus der 29. Jenaer Industriegespräche der DPG.
Themenschwerpunkte des Vortrages waren Interaktionen von Mikroorganismen mit Metallen, das biotechnologische Potential neuer Ressourcentechnologien, Grenzen überwindende Bioflotation, die Metallgewinnung mittels Siderophoren, Evolution im Reagenzglas sowie Biokollektoren für das Recycling von Wertstoffen aus Elektroschrott.
Invited lecture (Conferences)
29. Jenaer Industriegespräche der DPG, 20.03.2019, Jena, Deutschland
Publ.-Id: 29034 - Permalink
Putora, P. M.; Glatzer, M.; de Ruysscher, D.; Faivre-Finn, C.; Belderbos, J.; Besse, B.; Blackhall, F.; Califano, R.; Cappuzzo, F.; de Marinis, F.; Dziadiuszko, R.; Felip, E.; Früh, M.; Garrido, P.; Le Pechoux, C.; Mcdonald, F.; Nestle, U.; Novello, S.; Brien, M. O.; Paz Ares, L.; Peeters, S.; Pöttgen, S.; Ramella, S.; Reck, M.; Troost, E. G. C.; van Houtte, P.; Westeel, V.; Widder, J.; Mornex, F.; Slotman, B. J.;
Background: The role of consolidative thoracic radiotherapy (TRT) in stage IV small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is not uniformly accepted. Methods: We obtained a list of 13 European medical oncologists from the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer (IASLC) and 13 European radiation oncologists from the European Society for Therapeutic Radiation Oncology (ESTRO). The strategies in decision making for TRT in stage IV SCLC were collected. Decision trees were created representing these strategies. Frequencies of recommending TRT were analysed for various parameter combinations based on the objective consensus methodology. Results: The factors associated with the recommendation for TRT included fitness of the patient, limited extrathoracic tumour burden, initial bulky thoracic disease and response to chemotherapy. The highest consensus for TRT was in fit patients with limited extrathoracic tumour burden and initial bulky disease with either a complete extrathoracic response or partial thoracic response (92% recommend TRT). For these patients the recommendations were the same for medical and radiation oncologists. In the setting of partial response (intra- and extra-thoracically) without initial bulky thoracic disease radiation oncologists were more likely to recommend TRT than medical oncologists. For unfit patients or for patients with poor overall response to chemotherapy, the majority did not recommend TRT. Conclusion: European radiation and medical oncologists specializing in lung cancer recommend TRT in selected patients with stage IV SCLC and restrict its use primarily to fit patients who responded to chemotherapy with limited extrathoracic tumour burden.
Keywords: ESTRO, Expert opinion, IASLC, Small cell lung cancer, Stage IV, Thoracic radiotherapy
Radiotherapy and Oncology 135(2019), 74-77
Publ.-Id: 29033 - Permalink
Löck, S.; Linge, A.; Seidlitz, A.; Bandurska-Luque, A.; Nowak, A.; Gudziol, V.; Buchholz, F.; Aust, D. E.; Baretton, G. B.; Zöphel, K.; Steinbach, J.; Kotzerke, J.; Overgaard, J.; Zips, D.; Krause, M.; Baumann, M.; Troost, E. G. C.;
Background: Hypoxia is an important factor of tumour resistance to radiotherapy, chemotherapy and potentially immunotherapy. It can be measured e.g. by positron emission tomography (PET) imaging or hypoxia-associated gene expressions from tumour biopsies. Here we correlate [ 18 F]fluoromisonidazole (FMISO)-PET/CT imaging with hypoxia-associated gene expressions on a cohort of 50 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients and compare their prognostic value for response to radiochemotherapy (RCTx). Methods: FMISO-PET/CT images of 50 HNSCC patients were acquired at four time-points before and during RCTx. For 42 of these patients, hypoxia-associated gene expressions were evaluated by nanoString technology based on a biopsy obtained before any treatment. The FMISO-PET parameters tumour-to-background ratio and hypoxic volume were correlated to the expressions of 58 hypoxia-associated genes using the Spearman correlation coefficient ρ. Three hypoxia-associated gene signatures were compared regarding their correlation with the FMISO-PET parameters using their median expression. In addition, the correlation with tumour volume was analysed. The impact of both hypoxia measurement methods on loco-regional tumour control (LRC) and overall survival (OS) was assessed by Cox regression. Results: The median expression of hypoxia-associated genes was weakly correlated to hypoxia measured by FMISO-PET imaging (ρ ≤ 0.43), with higher correlations to imaging after weeks 1 and 2 of treatment (p < 0.001). Moderate correlations were obtained between FMISO-PET imaging and tumour volume (ρ ≤ 0.69). Prognostic models for LRC and OS based on the FMISO-PET parameters could not be improved by including hypoxia classifiers. Conclusion: We observed low correlations between hypoxia FMISO-PET parameters and expressions of hypoxia-associated genes. Since FMISO-PET showed a superior patient stratification, it may be the preferred biomarker over hypoxia-associated genes for stratifying patients with locally advanced HNSCC treated by primary RCTx.
Keywords: FMISO-PET, Gene signature, Hypoxia, Locally advanced HNSCC, Radiochemotherapy
Radiotherapy and Oncology 135(2019), 43-50
Publ.-Id: 29032 - Permalink
Hähnel, V.; Khan, F. Z.; Mutschke, G.; Cierpka, C.; Uhlemann, M.; Fritsch, I.;
A novel method to drive and manipulate fluid in a contactless way in a microelectrode-microfluidic system is demonstrated by combining the Lorentz and magnetic field gradient forces. The method is based on the redox-reaction [Fe(CN)6]3−/[Fe(CN)6]4− performed in a magnetic field oriented perpendicular to the ionic current that crosses the gap between two arrays of oppositely polarized microelectrodes, generating a magnetohydrodynamic flow. Additionally, a movable magnetized CoFe micro-strip is placed at different positions beneath the gap. In this region, the magnetic flux density is changed locally and a strong magnetic field gradient is formed. The redox-reaction changes the magnetic susceptibility of the electrolyte near the electrodes, and the resulting magnetic field gradient exerts a force on the fluid, which leads to a deflection of the Lorentz force-driven main flow.
Particle Image Velocity measurements and numerical simulations demonstrate that by combining the two magnetic forces, the flow is not only redirected, but also a local change of concentration of paramagnetic species is realized.
Keywords: microfluidics, electrochemistry, redox-reaction, magnetic field, Lorentz force, magnetic gradient force, flow control
Scientific Reports 9(2019), 5103
Publ.-Id: 29031 - Permalink
Reuter, M. A.; Palacios, J.-L.; Fernandes, I.; Abadias, A.; Valero, A.; Valero, A.;
There is growing concern about the decline of the ore grade in mines and the increased energy usage for processing and refining metals. In the limit, where no concentrated deposits exist, minerals must be obtained from bare rock. A method for quantitatively assessing the “free bonus” granted by nature in providing concentrated minerals in mines and thus assessing the quality of the different resources is estimating how much energy is needed to concentrate the minerals, as they are already in mines, from bare rock. This bonus granted by nature reduces the costs of human mining and metallurgical processes, as well as the mining effort required of future generations. In this study, the concentration of high-iron-content minerals in common rocks was investigated via a computational model developed using the HSC software. As expected, the range of results for the specific energy for the concentration of iron from common rocks was considerably higher than the energy required by modern processes. This reveals the need to value current iron deposits and the challenge of developing sustainable methods of metal production to satisfy the needs of the present and future generations.
Keywords: Energy consumption, Exergy replacement cost, Iron, Metallurgy, Mining, Thanatia
Energy Reports 5(2019), 364-374
Publ.-Id: 29030 - Permalink
Franke, S.; Räbiger, D.; Eckert, S.;
The monitoring of the flow rate is an inherent part of process control in all technical large-scale plants to guarantee process stability and safety. It is particularly important for nuclear applications. In the case of a liquid metal coolant in addition, the control of the aggregate state is important.
The use of ultrasound techniques opens an attractive opportunity to measure both the fluid velocity by evaluating the Doppler phase shift and the phase boundary by the detection of the reflection signal from the interface. In addition, the measuring principle enables a noninvasive implementation of the measuring technique. A test facility is necessary to qualify the measuring technique for real applications.
In this study a new LBE experimental facility has been designed and constructed. The setup enables to control the temperature and the fluid flow in the liquid. Further a partial solidification can be induced. The liquid metal vessel is equipped with ten ports for ultrasonic probes. These ports allow for testing the ultrasound measuring principle for different conditions. It was demonstrated that the ultrasonic sensors can be operated up to 200°C at the piezo element. First measuring results demonstrate the potential of ultrasound measuring techniques for monitoring liquid metal applications.
SESAME International Workshop, 19.-21.03.2019, Petten, Netherlands
Publ.-Id: 29026 - Permalink
Mueller, S. E.ORC; Ferrari, A.ORC
The Mu2e experiment, currently under construction at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory near Chicago, will search for the neutrinoless conversion of muons to electrons in the field of an aluminum nucleus. In the Standard Model, this process, which violates charged lepton flavor, is highly suppressed and therefore undetectable. However, scenarios for physics beyond the Standard Model predict small but observable rates. The Mu2e experiment aims at a sensitivity four orders of magnitude better than existing experiments. This is achieved by a rigorous control of all backgrounds that could mimic the monoenergetic conversion electron.
At HZDR, we use the ELBE radiation facility to study radiation hardness and performance of components for the Mu2e calorimeter and contribute with Monte Carlo simulations to the understanding of the optimal configuration for the detector that will monitor the rate of stopped muons in the aluminum target. Additional simulations are performed for both the pion production target and the muon stopping target.
In the presentation, the design and status of the Mu2e experiment will be presented, and results from the ELBE beamtimes and the simulation studies will be given.
Keywords: Mu2e, CLFV, ELBE
Spring Meeting DPG, 22.03.2019, Muenchen, Deutschland
Publ.-Id: 29025 - Permalink
Ding, W.; Geißler, T.; Krepper, E.; Hampel, U.;
In this work, we report on a theoretical analysis and experimental investigations on critical heat flux (CHF) in subcooled flow boiling firstly. Commonly, CHF is considered as a local phenomenon. A validated CHF- concept recently developed in our group indicated that CHF may be initiated in two different ways, that is, locally and globally. We designed and conducted an experiment to verify this hypothesis. The experimental results agree well with the expectations from our CHF- modelling and confirm the two mechanisms. Following that, we continued to clarify the role of different parameters, such as channel orientation, channel length and hydraulic diameter. The new concept of CHF is useful to explain and predict CHF at conditions of low pressure and low fluid velocity. Further we applied this concept into an Euler-Euler computational multiphase fluid dynamics (CMFD) approach with wall boiling model which successfully predict the critical volume fraction under different conditions. The simulation results also had a good agreement with the corresponding experimental results.
Keywords: Critical heat flux, Boiling, CMFD
Invited lecture (Conferences)
9th China-Korea Workshop on Nuclear Reactor Thermal-Hydraulics (WORTH-9), 15.-18.05.2019, Chongqing, China
Publ.-Id: 29017 - Permalink
Steiniger, K.ORC; Albach, D.ORC; Bussmann, M.ORC; Debus, A.ORC; Kluge, T.ORC; Loeser, M.ORC; Pausch, R.ORC; Siebold, M.; Zeil, K.; Schramm, U.ORC
Laser ion accelerators utilize high-power laser pulses in tight-focusing geometries to provide pulsed, high-intensity ion beams. Efficient capturing, transport and application of these beams is an ongoing effort which depends on precise knowledge of the accelerated ion distribution's properties and how to control these. For example, it is known that the propagation direction of the accelerated ions can be controlled by tilting the driving laser pulse-front. Since laser pulse-front tilts can be present accidentally, for example by a small misalignment of the compressor gratings in a chirped-pulse amplification system, knowledge of the scaling of the pulse-front tilt at a target position is desired. The talk gives relations for pulse-front orientation dependent on setup parameters and identifies regimes were pulse-front tilt has a sizable impact.
Keywords: Pulse-front tilt, high-power laser
DPG-Frühjahrstagung, 17.-22.03.2019, München, Deutschland
Publ.-Id: 29015 - Permalink
Es werden die grundsätzlichen Eigenschaften von Flüssigmetallbatterien beschrieben sowie Methoden und Ergebnisse zum Scale-Up vorgestellt. Des weiteren werden Funktionsweise und Anwendung der LMB-System-Calculator Software erläutert sowie Anwendungsoptionen für Flüssigmetallbbatterien, insbesondere bei der Sektorkoppelung vorgestellt.
Basic properties of Liquid Metal Batteries are described and methods and results for scale-up calculations are presented.
Also, functioning and usage of the LMB-System-Calculator software are discussed and options for the operation of Liquid Metal Batteries, especially for the sector-coupling are presented.
Keywords: LMB, Flüssigmetallbatterien, Scale-Up, Speicher, Sektorkoppelung, LMB, liquid metal battery, scale-up, storage, sectro-coupling
Energie System 2050 Forschungsthema 1, 1. Workshop 2019, 19.-20.03.2019, Karlsruhe, Deutschland
Publ.-Id: 29014 - Permalink
Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is the most sensitive analytical method to measure long-lived radionuclides. The detection limits are generally several orders of magnitude better, i.e. as low as 10-16 (radionuclide/stable nuclide), than any other mass spectrometry or decay counting method. AMS needs smaller sample sizes and measurements are finished within a few minutes to hours.
However, it is often forgotten that research projects applying AMS start with taking appropriate samples, followed by labour- and cost-intensive sample preparation. The goal can easily be described as “making the big samples (up to several kg’s) to fit in an AMS target holder (< 10 mg)”. This includes getting rid of the matrix and the troublesome isobars. By technical improvements of AMS leading to lower detection limits or better mass-and-element discrimination, sample masses can be reduced to gram-quantities instead of kg’s allowing easier, faster, and cheaper chemistry. Recent AMS developments also address very efficiently isobar elimination.
Nevertheless, some samples can contain different sources of the radionuclide-of-interest such as ¹⁰Be produced in the Earth’s atmosphere polluting the ¹⁰Be of interest produced in-situ in quartz. Hence, in this case chemistry is inevitable for cleaning the samples from the contamination. Another “mission” of chemistry might be the reduction of corresponding stable nuclides, e.g. 35,37Cl, ²⁷Al, natFe by preceding cleaning or by gentle leaching to enhance the radionuclide/stable nuclide ratio or to minimize interfering nuclear reactions such as thermal-neutron capture on ³⁵Cl. When applying isotope-dilution AMS to simultaneously determine the natCl content of a sample, which is an absolute requirement for surface exposure dating of Ca- or K-rich minerals, chemical sample preparation is also mandatory.
As the majority of research projects involving AMS is of true interdisciplinary character, knowledge of sample preparation is usually passed-on to (young) non-chemists. These are trained learning-by-doing to perform the chemical preparation of their own samples. Therefore, the development of “routine” AMS sample preparation needs to have a strong focus on safety and easy-to-be-trained aspects with the least opportunity for failure.
In conclusion, although new AMS technical developments for isobar suppression like the laser-negative ion interaction system at VERA promise to reduce elaborate chemistry in some cases, we should keep in mind that chemical knowledge will always be needed for a lot of interdisciplinary research projects.
VERA-Seminar, Institut für Isotopenphysik, Universität Wien, 28.03.2019, Wien, Österreich
Publ.-Id: 29013 - Permalink
Pushkarev, R.; Fainer, N.; Kirienko, V.; Matsynin, A.; Nadolinnyy, V.; Merenkov, I.; Trubina, S.; Ehrenburg, S.; Kvashnina, K.;
Amorphous ferromagnetic materials with the variable composition are promising candidates for application in rapidlygrowing technological fields, such as spintronics. However, the significant downside of current state-of-art materials is a conductivity mismatch between injector and semiconductor which often is associated with the unavailability to control and precisely tailor magnetic properties and conductivity. We report on the synthesis of soft-magnetic SiCxNy:Fe films with the saturation magnetization of 20 e.m.u./cm3 and conductivity similar to the one of Si, which is crucial for possible applications.
XRD with synchrotron radiation and EXAFS revealed the complex composite structure of the films: crystals of Fe3Si, Fe5Si3, SiC and graphite are embedded into the amorphous matrix of SiCxNy. The variation of deposition conditions allowed us to separately control the magnetic properties through the iron concentration and the conductivity of the material through the amorphous SiCxNy matrix composition. The reported results revealed a significant potential of SiCxNy:Fe films as a prospective object for analysis of spin-polarized transport in amorphous semiconductors and for application in field of spintronics.
Journal of Materials Chemistry C 7(2019), 4250-4258
- Secondary publication expected from 13.03.2020
Publ.-Id: 29011 - Permalink
Haldar, R.; Batra, K.; Marschner, S. M.; Kuc, A. B.; Zahn, S.; Fischer, R. A.; Bräse, S.; Heine, T.; Wöll, C.;
In organic photovoltaics, porphyrins (PPs) are among the most promising compounds owing to their large absorption cross section, wide spectral range, and stability. Nevertheless, a precise adjustment of absorption band positions to reach a full coverage of the so-called green gap has not been achieved yet. We demonstrate that a tuning of the PP Q- and the Soret bands can be done using a computational approach where substitution patterns are optimized in silico. The Most promising candidate structures were then synthesized. The experimental UV/Vis data for the solvated compounds were in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. By attaching further functionalities, which allow using the PP chromophores as linkers for the assembly of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), we were additionally able to exploit packing effects resulting in pronounced red shifts, which allowed to further optimizing the photophysical properties of PP assemblies. Finally, we use a layer-by-layer method to assemble the PP linkers into surface-mounted MOFs (SURMOFs), thus obtaining high optical quality, homogeneous and crystalline multilayer films. Experimental results are in full accord with the calculations, demonstrating a huge potential of computational screening methods in the tailoring of MOF and SURMOF photophysical properties.
Chemistry - A European Journal (2019)
- Secondary publication expected from 10.04.2020
Publ.-Id: 29010 - Permalink
Reissig, F.; Bauer, D.; Pietzsch, H.-J.; Steinbach, J.; Mamat, C.ORC
The radionuclides radium-223 and radium-224 are two alpha-emitting radionuclides with suitable properties for the TAT. To this date, radium-223 in form of [223Ra]radium chloride (Xofigo) is the only EMA and FDA approved alpha-emitting radiopharmaceutical. Due to its calcimimetic behavior, the radium ion is a bone-seeking therapeutic. To extend the radiopharmaceutical potential of both radionuclides, novel carrier systems have to be developed. Therefore, it is appropriate to investigate different kinds of nanoparticles for their ability to transport radium. Especially, a barium sulfate matrix seems to be sufficient since the principle of co-precipitating the sulfates of radium and barium allows an easy and fast synthesis of radium-doped nanoparticles. Beyond the incorporation of alpha-emitting radionuclides like radium-223 and radium-224, the homologue radionuclide barium-131 can be incorporated as well. Barium 131 decays by electron capture and provides suitable properties for diagnostic applications in nuclear medicine. Radium-223/-224 and barium-131 form a matched pair for new theragnostic approaches. In our research group, we are developing simple methods for the synthesis of small radiolabeled radium/barium sulfate nanoparticles. Furthermore, we are investigating suitable surface functionalizations to attach biological targeting moieties.
Keywords: Bariumsulfat, Radium-224, Nanopartikel
11th International Symposium on Targeted-Alpha-Therapy, 01.-06.04.2019, Ottawa, Kanada
Abstract in refereed journal
Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences 50(2019)1, S38-S38
Publ.-Id: 29009 - Permalink
Ritawidya, R.; Teodoro, R.; Wenzel, B.; Kranz, M.; Toussaint, M.; Dukic-Stefanovic, S.; Deuther-Conrad, W.; Scheunemann, M.; Brust, P.;
Objectives: Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 2A (PDE2A), an enzyme which hydrolyzes the second messengers cAMP and cGMP, is highly enriched in distinct areas of the brain. Accordingly, PDE2A is involved in important signaling pathways related to normal brain function but also to
neurodegeneration and neuro-oncology . To enable the visualization of this protein in the brainwith PET, we developed a novel fluorine-18 radioligand for PDE2A.
Methods: Based on the benzoimidazotriazine (BIT) tricyclic scaffold, several fluorine-containing derivatives were synthesized via a multi-step synthesis route, and their inhibitory profiles were assessed by PDE isoenzyme-specific activity assays. The most potent and selective PDE2A ligand
BIT1 was radiolabeled via nucleophilic aromatic substitution of the corresponding 2-nitro pyridine precursor by [18F]fluoride in DMSO with thermal heating (Figure 1). [18F]BIT1 was isolated using semi-preparative HPLC (Reprosil-Pur C18-AQ column, 250 x 10 mm, 46% ACN/aqu. 20 mM
NH4OAc, flow 5.5 mL/min) followed by final purification with solid-phase extraction and formulation in isotonic saline containing 10% ethanol. Preliminary in vitro autoradiography and in vivo PET studies (60 min dynamic PET imaging, nanoScan® PET/MRI, MEDISO, Budapest, Hungary) of [18F]BIT1 were performed using pig brain slices and female CD-1 mice, respectively. The in vivo metabolism of [18F]BIT1 was investigated by radio-HPLC analysis of mouse plasma and brain samples at 30 min p.i.
Results: From the series of BIT derivatives, BIT1 was selected as candidate for PET imaging of PDE2A based on the most suitable inhibitory potential and profile (IC50 PDE2A3 = 3.3 nM;16-fold selectivity over PDE10A). [18F]BIT1 was successfully synthesized with a radiochemical yield of 54 ± 2% (n = 3, EOB), molar activities of 155 – 175 GBq/μmol (EOS) and radiochemical purities of ≥99%. [18F]BIT1 was stable in saline, pig plasma, and n-octanol up to 60 min at 37 °C. The distribution pattern of [ 18F]BIT1 in pig brain cryosections corresponds to the spatial distribution of PDE2A with accumulation in the striatal regions caudate nucleus and nucleus accumbens. Additionally, the displacement of [18F]BIT1 with BIT1 as well as TA1 (a potent PDE2A ligand) indicated saturability and selectivity of these binding sites. Uptake of [18F]BIT1 in the brain was shown by subsequent imaging studies in mice (SUVwhole brain = 0.7 at 5 min p.i.); however, more detailed analyses revealed nonspecific distribution of the tracer in the brain (78% parent compound at 30 min p.i.).
Conclusions: The potent and selective PDE2A inhibitor [18F]BIT1 binds in vitro in brain regions known to express PDE2A. Further structural modifications will be performed to develop radiotracers with improved brain uptake and target-selective accumulation in vivo.
1. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Research Foundation, SCHE 1825/3-1).
2. Scholarship Program for Research and Innovation in Science and Technology Project
(RISET-PRO)-Indonesia Ministry of Research, Technology and Higher Education (World
Bank Loan No: 8245-ID)
 S. Schröder, B. Wenzel, W. Deuther-Conrad, M. Scheunemann, P. Brust, Novel Radioligands
for Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterase Imaging with Positron Emission Tomography: An Update
on Developments Since 2012, Molecules 21 (2016) 650–685.
Keywords: Phosphodiesterases, positron emission tomography, molecular imaging, benzoimidazotriazines
International Symposium in Radiopharmaceutical Sciences, 26.-31.05.2019, Beijing, China
Publ.-Id: 29007 - Permalink
Kelling, J.ORC; Ódor, G.ORC; Gemming, G.
The problem of synchronization is recently attracting much attention because it relates to current topics in science. The dynamics of electrical grids can be affected by de-synchronizations between supplier and consumer nodes. In brains, synchronization of neuronal activity plays an important role in most functions. The Kuramoto model describes systems of coupled oscillators which, which exhibit non-trivial behavior on complex graphs, making it a suitable tool to study the synchronization dynamics of brains an other systems.
Numerical solution of Kuramoto type ordinary differential equations for long times and large systems requires strong computation power, due to the inherent chaoticity of this nonlinear system.
This poster presents a GPU implementation of a solver achieving large speedups over CPU on sparse random graphs. The key to performance here, is the presented memory layout which supplements the SIMT usage of our design.
# extended abstract
The problem of synchronization is recently attracting much attention because it relates to current topics in science. The dynamics of electrical grids can be affected by de-synchronizations between supplier and consumer nodes. In brains, synchronization of neuronal activity plays an important role in most functions.
Using the Kuramoto model, we are studying a range of problems, from basinc questions about synnchronisation transitions on disordered lattices and random graphs to problems mentioned in the short abstract. The model shows komplex behavior on human connectome graph, which allow the study of synchronization in the human brain. An extension of the model allows modeling power grid networks[3,4].
Very intensive Simulations are required to obtain precise result especiall near criticality, which these systems show at synchronization transitons. To enable the study of these systems at sufficent precision, we implemented a GPU code, which we are presenting in this poster. To this end we used boost::odeint to get the standart numerical integartion out of the way an focus on the most performance critical aspect: the evaluation of the model itself. The key to our implementation is the choice of SIMT vectorization and a suitable memory layout, which are presented in the poster. The aspects also remain the same, when we add the extension to the second-order Kuramoto Model, which is required to model powergrids.
 Kuramoto, Y. In Araki, H. (ed.) Mathematical Problems in Theoretical Physics, vol. 39 of Lecture Notes in Physics, Berlin, 420
 Villegas, P., Moretti, P. & Muñoz, M. A. Scientific Reports 4, 5990 (2014).
 Filatrella, G., Nielsen, A. H. & Pedersen, N. F. Eur. Phys. J. B 61, 485–491 (2008)
 Ódor, G. & Hartmann, B. Phys. Rev. E 98, 022305 (2018).
Keywords: GPGPU, random graph, Kuramoto model
GTC 2019 Silicon Valley, 17.-21.03.2019, San Jose, CA, USA
Contribution to WWW
Publ.-Id: 29004 - Permalink
Lumpkin, A.; Laberge, M.; Rule, D.; Zgadzaj, R.; Hannasch, A.; Downer, M.; Zarini, O.; Bowers, B.; Irman, A.; Couperus, J.ORC; Debus, A.; Kohler, A.; Schramm, U.
We report initial observations of coherent optical transition radiation interferometry (COTRI) patterns generated by microbunched electrons from laser-driven plasma accelerators (LPAs). These are revealed in the angular distribution patterns obtained by a CCD camera with the optics focused at infinity, or the far-field, viewing a Wartski two-foil interferometer. The beam divergences deduced by comparison to results from an analytical model are sub-mrad, and they are smaller than the ensemble vertical beam divergences measured at the downstream screen of the electron spectrometer. The transverse sizes of the beamlet images were obtained with focus at the object, or near field, and were in the few-micron regime as reported by LaBerge et al. . The enhancements in intensity are significant relative to incoherent optical transition radiation (OTR) enabling multiple cameras to view each shot. We present two-foil interferometry effects coherently enhanced in both the 100-TW LPA at 215 MeV energy at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf and the PW LPA at 1.0-GeV energy at the University of Texas-Austin. A transverse emittance estimate is reported for a microbunched beamlet example generated within the plasma bubble.
Keywords: LPA, microbunching, COTR, beam size, divergence
Contribution to proceedings
18th Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop (AAC 2018), 12.-17.08.2018, Breckenridge, CO, USA
2018 IEEE Advanced Accelerator Concepts Workshop (AAC): IEEE, 978-1-5386-7721-6
Publ.-Id: 29001 - Permalink
Mashita, T.; Tsushima, S.ORC; Takao, K.ORC
Oxygenation reaction of cyclohexene was studied under presence of a 4-fold UO22+ complex with cyclohexyldiphenylphosphine oxide, [UO2(OPCyPh2)4]2+, and blue light irradiation at 436 nm in acetonitrile. As a result, 1,6-hexanedial, cyclohexene oxide, 2-cyclohexen-1-one, and 2-cyclohexen-1-ol were photocatalytically generated as oxygenated products with TOF = 6.7 h−1. In contrast, dimerization of cyclohexene was observed under Ar atmosphere. This implies that a hydrogen atom at the allyl position is abstracted by photoexcited *[UO2(OPCyPh2)4]2+ to give a cyclohexene radical and a U(V) intermediate [UVO2(OPCyPh3)4]+, being well supported by DFT calculation. Under O2 atmosphere, the former reacts with dissolved O2 to give 2-cyclohexen-1-one and 2-cyclohexen-1-ol. Dissolved O2 would be activated by the U(V) intermediate to afford O22− in the end, which drives oxygenation of C=C bond of unreacted cyclohexene.
ACS Omega 4(2019)4, 7194-7199
Publ.-Id: 28999 - Permalink
Nikulin, P.ORC; Maus, J.ORC; Hofheinz, F.ORC; Lougovski, A.; van den Hoff, J.ORC
Utilization of Time-Of-Flight (TOF) information allows to improve image quality and convergence rate in iterative PET image reconstruction. In order to obtain quantitatively correct images accurate scatter correction (SC) is required that accounts for the non-uniform distribution of scatter events over the TOF bins. However, existing simplified TOF-SC algorithms frequently exhibit limited accuracy while the currently accepted gold standard — the TOF extension of the single scatter simulation approach (TOF-SSS) — is computationally demanding and can substantially slow down the reconstruction. In this paper we propose and evaluate a new accelerated TOF-SC algorithm in order to improve this situation. The key idea of the algorithm is the use of an immediate scatter approximation (ISA) for scatter time distribution calculation which speeds up estimation of the required TOF scatter by a factor of up to five in comparison to TOF-SSS. The proposed approach was evaluated in dedicated phantom measurements providing challenging high activity contrast conditions as well as in representative clinical patient data sets. Our results show that ISA is a viable alternative to TOF-SSS. The reconstructed images are in excellent quantitative agreement with those obtained with TOF-SSS while overall reconstruction time can be reduced by a factor of two in whole-body studies, even when using a listmode reconstruction not optimized for speed.
Keywords: PET, Scatter Correction, Immediate Scatter Approximation, Image Reconstruction, TOF, SSS, TOF-SSS, TOF-SC, ISA
Physics in Medicine and Biology 64(2019), 075005
Publ.-Id: 28997 - Permalink
Kelling, J.; Gebhardt, R.; Helbig, U.; Bock, S.; Schramm, U.; Juckeland, G.;
In Petawatt laser systems, firing at 10Hz, suddenly appearing scatterers can damage components. Damage(-spreading) can be avoided by suspending operation immediately on occurrence of such an event. This poster presents our approach for the automatic detection of critical failure states in real-time, employing state-of-the-art object localization on intensity profiles of the laser beam.
Learn, how we fitted the You Look Only Once (YOLO) approach, which is suited to low-latency object detection, to our problem and how we adapted the required multi-step training protocol to the available experimental data.
In this application accuracy trumps high recall, as false positives would severely impede productivity or even render our system useless. This had us refrain from general anomaly detection and thus we also present different ways in which we tune the object-detection for minimal false-positive rates.
# extended abstract
High-power lasers are operated at our research center for investigations of exotic states of matter and medical applications, among others. This project to improve the automatic shutdown/interlock system of two lasers (one in operation, one currently under construction) has the goal of reducing the probability of, potentially expensive, damage-spreading scenarios, while at the same time avoiding false alarms. In order to achieve high precision, we train for high recall only for known indicators, instead of using anomaly detection.
After we presented a proof-of-concept for this type of failure-state-detection at GTC 2018, where the main challenge was in dealing with a far too small dataset, we are now working on a pure deep-learning approach driven by systematic experimental data. In the new design, intended for production use, the classification takes place on differences between a running average of non-signaling images and the current shot. This is required, because no images can be obtained which can be classified as "good" without context. In order to achieve fast object-detection, to highlight potential problems for the operator, the you look only once (YOLO) approach, which we modify by removing the final layers for bounding-box prediction and train the network to directly produce an expressive feature map (lazy YOLO).
From this talk, the audience can learn how we adapted the well-known YOLO approach to our real-world application, from the employed network to the multi-step training protocol. Another topic is the design for short response times, to which end we employ Caffe, OpenCV on GPU and use C++ as main programming language instead of python.
 Redmon, J., Farhadi, A.: YOLO9000: Better, Faster, Stronger, ArXiv e-prints, 2016
Keywords: Image Classification, Caffe, automatic Laser-safety shutdown, Object Detection
GTC 2019 Silicon Valley, 17.-21.03.2019, San Jose, CA, USA
Contribution to WWW
Publ.-Id: 28992 - Permalink
Seiboth, F.; Fletcher, L. B.; Mcgonegle, D.; Anzellini, S.; Dresselhaus-Cooper, L. E.; Frost, M.; Galtier, E.; Goede, S.; Harmand, M.; Lee, H. J.; Levitan, A. L.; Miyanishi, K.; Nagler, B.; Nam, I.; Ozaki, N.; Rödel, M.; Schropp, A.; Spindloe, C.; Sun, P.; Wark, J. S.; Hastings, J.; Glenzer, S. H.; Mcbride, E. E.;
In this work, we demonstrate simultaneous phase-contrast imaging (PCI) and X-ray diffractionfrom shock compressed matter at the Matter in Extreme Conditions endstation, at the LinacCoherent Light Source (LCLS). We utilize the chromaticity from compound refractive X-ray lensesto focus the 24.6 keV 3rd order undulator harmonic of the LCLS to a spot size of 5lm on target toperform X-ray diffraction. Simultaneous PCI from the 8.2 keV fundamental X-ray beam is used tovisualize and measure the transient properties of the shock wave over a 500lm field of view.Furthermore, we demonstrate the ability to extend the reciprocal space measurements by 5 Angstroem, rel-ative to the fundamental X-ray energy, by utilizing X-ray diffraction from the 3rd harmonic of theLCLS.
Keywords: Phase Contrast Imaging, PCI, Matter in Extreme Conditions, MEC, LCLS, shock compression, x-ray diffraction, XFEL, germanium, shock, release
Applied Physics Letters 112(2018)22, 221907
Publ.-Id: 28990 - Permalink
Haindl, S.; Kampert, E.; Sasase, M.; Hiramatsu, H.; Hosono, H.;
We report on the upper critical fields in SmO1−xFxFeAs thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition. With an F-content gradient along their thickness, the films could be described approximately as layered two-phase hybrid structures comprised of one superconducting layer and one antiferromagnetic layer. An analytical characterization of different thin film samples by Auger electron spectroscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy in scanning transmission electron microscopy is provided and structural defects, such as antiphase boundaries, were confirmed for films grown at lower deposition temperatures. Electrical transport measurements in pulsed magnetic fields yielded upper critical fields higher than 80 T with an anisotropy γHc2 ≤ 2.25.
Superconductor Science and Technology 32(2019), 044003
Publ.-Id: 28988 - Permalink
O'Toole, N.; Lecourt, C.; Suffren, Y.; Hauser, A.; Khrouz, L.; Jeanneau, E.; Brioude, A.; Luneau, D.; Desroches, C.;
The photophysical properties of the compound [(ThiaSO₂)(MnII)₂(DMF)₄(H₂O)₂] (2), ThiaSO₂ = p-tert-butylsulfonylcalixarene, are presented and compared to the ones of [(ThiaSO₂)₂(MnII)₄F]K (1). The orange luminescence of 2 is attributed, as for 1, to the MnII centred ⁴T₁→⁶A₁ transition and shows, for this type of complex, the weak influence of the Mn²⁺ coordination and ThiaSO₂ conformation on this luminescence, the temperature and pressure dependence and quenching bymolecular dioxygen of which are reported for 2. The latter is attributed to energy transfer from the ⁴T₁ state exciting dioxygen to its ⁱΣ⁺ᵍ state and is responsible for the photosynthesis of the [(ThiaSO₂)(MnIII)(DMF)₂]Na (3) complex in DMF solution from 1 or 2. This reaction was studied by UV/Visible and EPR spectroscopy. The molecular structure and EPR spectroscopy of 3 are also presented.
Keywords: Thiacalixarene, Luminescence, Photooxidation, Manganese
European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry 2019(2019)1, 73-78
Publ.-Id: 28984 - Permalink
Roebuck, J. W.; Bailey, P. J.; Doidge, E. D.; Fischmann, A. J.; Healy, M. R.; Nichol, G. S.; O'Toole, N.; Pelser, M.; Sassi, T.; Sole, K. C.; Tasker, P. A.;
Bidentate 5,5ʹ-alkyl-3,3ʹ-bi-1H-pyrazole and 2-(5-alkyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)pyridine ligands, L⁵ and L⁶ , have been shown to be stronger synergists for the solvent extraction of Ni(II) from sulfate solutions by dinonylnaphthalene sulfonic acid (DNNSAH) than the structurally related tridentate ligand 2,6-bis-[5-n-nonylpyrazol-3-yl]pyridine, L¹ , previously reported by Zhou and Pesic. The bidentate ligands are highly selective, providing the option of sequential recovery of Ni(II) and Co(II) and rejection of other metals commonly found in the liquors resulting from the acidic sulfate leaching of laterite ores. They were the strongest synergists identified in a screening carried out on 18 types of bidentate and tridentate N-heterocyclic ligands, including the recently reported 2-(2ʹ-pyridyl)imidazoles, L⁹⁻¹¹ . X-ray crystal structures of Ni(II) complexes of model ligands for L⁵ and L⁶ , having t-butyl rather than long-chain alkyl groups and with 2-naphthalene sulfonate rather than DNNSA⁻ as counteranions, show that the [Ni(L)₃ ]²⁺ complexes form strong H-bonds from the pyrazolyl NH groups to the oxygen atoms of the sulfonate groups, an arrangement that will stabilize [Ni(L)₃ ·(DNNSA)₂ ] assemblies and shield their polar functionalities from diluent molecules of the water-immiscible phase. UV–visible spectra and mass spectrometry provide evidence for the strong synergists displacing all water molecules from the inner coordination sphere of the Ni(II) ions.
Keywords: Ni recovery, laterite processing, synergistic solvent extraction, outer-sphere bonding, supramolecular chemistry
Solvent Extraction and Ion Exchange 36(2019)5, 437-458
- Secondary publication expected from 02.11.2019
Publ.-Id: 28983 - Permalink
Wang, X.; Faßbender, J.; Posselt, M.;
In the example of oxygen diffusion in dilute ferritic iron alloys it is shown that the calculation of the diffusion coefficient can be separated into a contribution related to the migration in the interaction region between oxygen and the substitutional solute and a part related to diffusion in pure bcc Fe. The corresponding diffusion times are determined by analytical expressions using Density-Functional-Theory (DFT) data for the respective binding energies. The diffusion coefficient in the interaction region must be determined by atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo (AKMC) simulations with DFT values for the migration barriers as inputs data. However, in contrast to previous calculations, AKMC simulation must be performed only for one concentration of the substitutional solute, and the obtained results can be employed to obtain data for other concentrations in a very efficient manner. This leads to a tremendous decrease of computational efforts. Under certain conditions it is even possible to use only analytical expression where merely DFT data for the binding energies are needed. The limits of applicability of the presented calculation procedures are discussed in detail. The methods presented in this work can be generalized to interstitial diffusion in other host materials with small concentrations of substitutional solutes.
Keywords: Diffusion coefficient; Interstitial solute; dilute alloy; Efficient calculation; First-principle calculations; Atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo simulations
Publ.-Id: 28979 - Permalink
Mushtaq, K.; Zhao, J.; Weber, N.; Sadoway, D.;
Übersicht über die Forschungsarbeiten zu "Liquid Displacement Batteries" am MIT, USA.
14th Workshop on Reactive Metal Processing, 15.03.2019, Boston, USA
Publ.-Id: 28977 - Permalink
Pan, X.; Shuai, Y.; Wu, C.; Luo, W.; Sun, X.; Zeng, H.; Guo, H.; Yuan, Y.; Zhou, S.; Böttger, R.; Cheng, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, W.; Schmidt, H.;
Resistive switching behavior of a ca. 600 nm thick single-crystalline LiNbO3 (LNO) film has been investigated after vacuum-annealing. Oxygen vacancies (OVs) were generated in the LNO thin film during the annealing process. After electro-forming, filamentary resistive switching has been observed, and the performance of switching can be tuned by the compliance current level. Multi-level resistance states including four different low resistance states, were realized by setting different compliance currents, revealing that both concentration of OVs within the conductive filament and the geometry of the conductive filament influence the switching behavior. The conduction mechanisms of the charge transport during switching is discussed based on the current-voltage curves.
Solid State Ionics 334(2019), 1-4
Publ.-Id: 28976 - Permalink
Bardeleben, H.; Zhou, S.; Gerstmann, U.; Skachkov, D.; Lambrecht, W.; Ho, Q.; Deák, P.;
Proton irradiation of both n-type and semi-insulating bulk samples of β-Ga2O3 leads to the formation of two paramagnetic defects with spin S = 1/2 and monoclinic point symmetry. Their high introduction rates indicate them to be primary irradiation induced defects. The first electron spin resonance (EPR1) has a g-tensor with principal values of gb = 2.0313, gc = 2.0079, and ga* = 2.0025 and quasi-isotropic superhyperfine interaction of 13G with two equivalent Ga neighbors. Under low temperature photoexcitation, this defect is quenched and replaced by a different metastable spin S = 1/2 center of comparable intensity. This second defect (EPR2) has similar principal g-values of gb = 2.0064, gc = 2.0464, and ga* = 2.0024 and shows equally superhyperfine interaction with two equivalent Ga atoms. This EPR2 defect is stable up to T = 100 K, whereas for T > 100 K the initial defect is recovered. Density functional theory calculations of the spin Hamiltonian parameters of various intrinsic defects are carried out using the gauge including projector augmented wave method in order to determine the microscopic structure of these defects. The intuitive models of undistorted gallium monovacancies or self-trapped hole centers are not compatible with neither of these two defects.
APL Materials 7(2019), 022521
Publ.-Id: 28975 - Permalink
Li, K.; Jin, S.; Guo, J.; Xu, Y.; Su, Y.; Feng, E.; Liu, Y.; Zhou, S.; Ying, T.; Li, S.; Wang, Z.; Chen, G.; Chen, X.;
We report the properties of a triangular lattice iron-chalcogenide antiferromagnet FeAl2Se4.The spin susceptibility reveals a significant antiferromagnetic interaction with a Curie-Weiss temperature Θ_CW≃−200K and a spin-2 local moment. Despite a large spin and a large ∣Θ_CW∣, the low-temperature behaviors are incompatible with conventional classical magnets. No long-range order is detected down to 0.4 K. Similar to the well-known spin-1 magnet NiGa2S4, the specific heat of FeAl2Se4 exhibits a double-peak structure and a T2 power law at low temperatures, which are attributed to the underlying quadrupolar spin correlations and the Halperin-Saslow modes, respectively. The spin freezing occurs at ∼14 K, below which the relaxation dynamics is probed by the ac susceptibility. Our results are consistent with the early theory for the spin-1 system with Heisenberg and biquadratic spin interactions. We argue that the early proposal of the quadrupolar correlation and gauge glass dynamics may be well extended to FeAl2Se4. Our results provide useful insights about the magnetic properties of frustrated quantum magnets with high spins.
Physical Review B 99(2019), 054421
Publ.-Id: 28974 - Permalink
Cornelius, S.; Colombi, G.; Nafezarefi, F.; Schreuders, H.; Heller, R.; Munnik, F.; Dam, B.;
Thin films of rare-earth (RE)−oxygen−hydrogen compounds prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering show a unique color-neutral photochromic effect at ambient conditions. While their optical properties have been studied extensively, the understanding of the relationship between photochromism, chemical composition, and structure is limited. Here we establish a ternary RE−O−H composition-phase diagram based on chemical composition analysis by a combination of Rutherford backscattering and elastic recoil detection. The photochromic films are identified as oxyhydrides with a wide composition range described by the formula REOxH3−2x where 0.5 ≤ x ≤ 1.5. We propose an anion-disordered structure model based on the face-centered cubic unit cell where the O2− and H− anions occupy tetrahedral and octahedral interstices. The optical band gap varies continuously with the anion ratio, demonstrating the potential of band gap tuning for reversible optical switching applications.
The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 10(2019), 1342-1348
Publ.-Id: 28973 - Permalink
DYN3D is a well-established Light Water Reactor (LWR) simulation tool and is being extended for safety analyses of Sodium cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) at the Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. This thesis focuses on the first stage of the development process, that is, the extension and application of DYN3D for steady-state and transient SFR calculations on reactor core level. In contrast to LWRs, the SFR behavior is especially sensitive to thermal expansions of the reactor components. Therefore, a new thermal-mechanical module accounting for thermal expansions is implemented into DYN3D. At first step, this module is capable of treating two important thermal expansion effects occurring within the core, namely axial expansion of fuel rods and radial expansion of diagrid. In order to perform nodal calculations with DYN3D, pre-generated homogenized few-group cross sections (XS) are necessarily needed. Therefore, prior to the development of thermal expansion models, a general methodology for XS generation is established for SFR nodal calculations based on the use of the Monte Carlo code Serpent. The new methodological developments presented in this thesis are verified against the Monte Carlo solutions of Serpent. Two SFR cores are used for testing: the large oxide core of the OECD/NEA benchmark and a smaller core from the Phenix end-of-life tests. Finally, the extended DYN3D is validated against selected IAEA benchmark tests on the Phenix end-of-life experiments that contain both steady-state and transient calculations. The contribution to the SFR-related developments at the HZDR, as presented in this thesis, makes it possible of performing steady-state and transient calculations for SFRs on reactor core level by using DYN3D. With this study, the basis of the next stage of DYN3D developments is established, that is, the up-scale of SFR analysis to system level can continue by coupling with a sodium capable thermal-hydraulic system code.
Keywords: SFR ; thermal expansion ; group constant generation ; nodal methods ; spatial kinetics ; Monte Carlo ; Serpent ; DYN3D
Lausanne, EPFL, 2019
Mentor: Pautz, Andreas; Fridman, Emil
Publ.-Id: 28972 - Permalink
This dataset includes the processed data of the fast neutron-induced fission of Pu(242) experiement performed in November 2014 at the neutron time-of-flight facility nELBE which was published in T. Kögler et al., Phys. Rev. C 99, 024604
It contains the absolute (Pu242_nfis_Koegler_2019.csv) and relative (Pu242_U235_nfis_Koegler_2019.csv) cross section data ranging from 0.5 MeV to 10 MeV. The cross section data is given in comma separated ASCII files, as well as in a MS Excel-Sheet.
The columns of the tables are defined as follows:
- EN...neutron kinetic energy from the measured time of flight (ToF)
- EN-ERR...uncertainty of neutron kinetic energy = 0.5*(ToF bin width) = 1 ns
- DATA...cross section data
- ERR-S...statistical uncertainty of the cross section data
- ERR-SY...systematic uncertainty of the cross section data
- ERR-T...combined standard uncertainty of the cross section data
- ERR-0...relative uncertainty counting
- ERR-1...relative uncertainty normalization
- ERR-2...relative uncertainty reference cross section
- ERR-3...relative uncertainty FF detection inefficiency
- ERR-4...relative stat. uncertainty scattering correction H19
- ERR-5...relative sys. uncertainty scattering correction H19
- ERR-6...relative stat. uncertainty scattering correction PuFC
- ERR-7...relative sys. uncertainty scattering correction PuFC
Additionally, a root (see https://root.cern.ch/) file is supplied, including the determined cross sections and all nessessary data to reconstruct the experiment. This includes the measured quantities, reference data, correction factors, evaluated cross sections etc.Keywords: neutron-induced fission; plutonium-242; cross section measurements; nuclear reactions; nucleon induced nuclear reactions; nELBE
Fast-neutron-induced fission cross section of Pu(242) … (Id 28878) has used this publication of HZDR-primary research data
Die Bestimmung des neutroneninduzierten Spaltquerschnitts … (Id 26338) has used this publication of HZDR-primary research data
Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
Publication date: 2019-03-06
Publ.-Id: 28970 - Permalink
Huebl, A.ORC; Rehwald, M.ORC; Obst-Huebl, L.ORC; Ziegler, T.ORC; Garten, M.ORC; Widera, R.ORC; Zeil, K.; Cowan, T. E.ORC; Bussmann, M.ORC; Schramm, U.ORC; Kluge, T.ORC
Supplementary materials for our paper "Spectral Control via Multi-Species Effects in PW-Class Laser-Ion Acceleration".
Additional high-resolution, raw HDF5 files using the openPMD standard (DOI:10.5281/zenodo.1167843) increase simulation output data to 4.7 TByte and are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.Keywords: LPA; laser-ion acceleration; TNSA; multi-species; cryogenic target; particle-in-cell
Spectral Control via Multi-Species Effects in PW-Class … (Id 28962) has used this publication of HZDR-primary research data
Reseach data in the HZDR data repository RODARE
Publication date: 2019-03-06
Publ.-Id: 28969 - Permalink
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