Publications Repository - Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf

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35810 Publications

Comparative resistivity studies under hydrostatic pressure on different variants of the organic superconductor κ - (ET)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br

Strack, C.; Akinci, C.; Wolf, B.; Lang, M.; Schlueter, J.; Wosnitza, J.; Schweitzer, D.

Resistivity measurements on four samples of κ - (ET)2Cu[N(CN)2]Br, synthesized by following two different preparation routes, yield strongly sample-dependent ρ(T) profiles. By comparing the interlayer resistivities and their response to hydrostatic pressure we infer: (i) a significant part of the inelastic-scattering contribution, causing the anomalous ρ(T) maximum around 90K, is extrinsic in nature, (ii) the abrupt change in the slope of ρ (T) around T* ≈ 40K is sample independent and most likely marks a second-order phase transition, (iii) the origin of the ρ(T) ∝ AT2 dependence at low temperatures, with a strongly sample dependent coefficient A and range of validity, is different from coherent Fermi-liquid excitations.

  • Poster
    Frühjahrstagung der Deutschen Physikalischen Gesellschaft, 03.-09.03.2005, Berlin, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 9149

Quantum Well Infrared Photodetector: High Absorption and High Speed Properties, and Two-Photon Response (Chapter 7)

Schneider, H.; Liu, H. C.

Keywords: quantum well infrared photodetector; QWIP; GaAs/AlGaAs; two-photon transition

  • Contribution to external collection
    Paiella, R.: Intersubband Transitions in Quantum Structures, New York: Mc. Graw-Hill, 2006, 0071457925, 285-313

Publ.-Id: 9148

Surface Modification of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy with a Low-Energy, High-Current Electron Beam at Elevated Initial Temperatures

Rotshtein, V. P.; Markov, A. B.; Proskurovsky, D. I.; Gunzel, R.; Pham, M.; Richter, E.; Shevchenko, N.; Shulov, V. A.; Rubshtein, A. P.

Surface topography, evolution of chemical and phase composition of the surface layers of Ti-6Al-4V alloy subjected to multiple pulsed electron-beam melting at the initial temperature of the target To ranging from 20 to 550 °С have been investigated using optical, laser microscopy, SEM/EDS, AES and XRD analyses. Pulsed melting was induced by a low-energy (~20 keV), high-current electron beam (3 µs, 2.5 J/cm2). At To<200 °С the cleaning of the near-surface layer from oxygen takes place. In contrast, at To<400 °С a 1 µm thick surface layer quenched from the melt is enriched with oxygen from the residual gases of vacuum chamber.
The influence of initial temperature on the microstructure and properties of the surface layers are discussed based on the results of temperature field predictions.

Keywords: Ti-6Al-4V alloy; high-current electron beam; surface modification; phase composition

  • Poster
    8th International Conference on Modification of Materials with Particle Beams and Plasma Flows, 10.-15.09.2006, Tomsk, Russia
  • Russian Physics Journal 49(2006)8, 337-342

Publ.-Id: 9147

Surface alloying of Ti-6Al-4V with zirconium by pulsed electron-beam melting of film – substrate system

Rotshtein, V. P.; Markov, A. B.; Proskurovsky, D. I.; Kagadei, V. A.; Guenzel, R.; Shevchenko, N.; Reuther, H.; Shulov, V. A.

Evolution of chemical and phase composition of the surface layers of Ti-6Al-4V subjected to surface alloying with zirconium has been studied. Alloying was carried out by liquid-phase mixing of multilayer systems of type (Ti/Zr) film on (Ti-6Al-4V alloy) substrate by a low-energy, high-current electron beam with the following parameters: pulse duration 2.5 µs, beam energy density 2.5-3 J/cm2. The number of pulses and the overall thickness of coating was ranging from 1 to 5 and from 500 to 800 nm, respectively. It has been recognized using X-ray analysis, scanning electron microscopy and electron X-ray microanalyzer, that surface layer after one-pulsed melting has a two-phase microstructure consisting of matrix solid solution of titanium with ~ 23 at.% of zirconium and a relatively pure (~ 4.5 at.% Zr) titanium particles of micron dimensions. The formation of such a microstructure takes place owing to segregation of solid solution at high-rate cooling (~ 109 K/s) of melted Ti-Zr alloy. The following vacuum annealing (550 0С, 2 hours) courses a decrease in the size of particles and a reduction in zirconium concentration in precipitations of titanium to ~ 1 at.% whereas zirconium concentration in the matrix increases and reaches 26 at.%. Auger electron spectroscopy revealed that in the latter case a thickness of surface alloy is 1-2 µm and an average concentration of zirconium equals to 20 at.%. The concentration of aluminum and vanadium is 8 and 6 times less then that of untreated Ti-6Al-4V alloy, respectively. An increase in number of pulses results in a decrease in zirconium concentration near the surface due to its evaporation. Corrosion tests in 1% NaCl solution showed that surface alloying of Ti-6Al-4V with Zr leads to approximately one order of magnitude higher corrosion resistance than that for untreated specimen.

Keywords: Ti-6Al-4V; surface alloying; zirconium; electron beam

  • Lecture (Conference)
    8th International Conference on Modification of Materials with Particle Beams and Plasma Flows, 10.-15.09.2006, Tomsk, Russia
  • Russian Physics Journal 49(2006)8, 262-267

Publ.-Id: 9146

Pulsed electron-beam irradiation followed by nitriding of Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy

Markov, A. B.; Günzel, R.; Reuther, H.; Shevchenko, N.; Akhmadeev, Y. K.; Schanin, P. M.; Koval, N. N.; Rotshtein, V. P.; Proskurovsky, D. I.

Titanium alloys have some attractive properties enabling them to be used in many industries, while their poor tribological properties often are an obstacle in mechanical engineering applications. The latter properties can be improved by applying surface treatment, for instance, nitriding.
Aim of the research was to investigate the effect of pulsed electron-beam pre-irradiation on the process of titanium alloy (Ti–6Al—4V) low-temperature (783 K) nitriding.
AES revealed that the depth of penetration of nitrogen into the specimen bulk for the pre-irradiated specimen is noticeably larger than that for the non-irradiated one (110 and 170 nm, respectively). Moreover, the overall quantity of nitrogen absorbed by the pre-irradiated specimen during nitriding is two times as much as in the non-irradiated one. So, pre-irradiation of the titanium alloy stimulates its saturation with nitrogen.
XRD analysis revealed that irradiation of this titanium alloy leads to the formation of martensite phases referred to as alpha’ and alpha’’ in the thin surface layer of specimen. Appearance of these metastable phases results in high residual stress values in the irradiated target. In such a way the subsequent nitrogen diffusion in the irradiated specimens will take place in the field of intrinsic stresses. After nitriding the phase composition of titanium alloy was changed and the new TiN and Ti2N phases have appeared. It can be concluded from X-ray diffraction patterns that a fraction of these new phases is much larger for the pre-irradiated before nitriding specimen.
The microhardness measurements showed that the microhardness of surface layer of pre-irradiated with subsequent nitriding specimens is almost four times as much as the initial one (11.3 and 3 GPa, respectively). As for the specimens subjected to the nitriding without pre-irradiation their microhardness appeared to be 8.9 GPa, i.e. three times larger than that for the initial specimen.
Thus, the combined treatment, involving pulsed e-beam pre-irradiation, subsequent cleaning and nitriding is promising and leads to increase in the absorption of nitrogen, the fractions of TiN and Ti2N phases and the surface microhardness in processed titanium alloy.

Keywords: Titanium alloy; Ti–6Al—4V; pulsed electron-beam; nitriding

  • Lecture (Conference)
    8th International Conference on Modification of Materials with Particle Beams and Plasma Flows, 10.-15.09.2006, Tomsk, Russia
  • Russian Physics Journal 49(2006)8, 276-279

Publ.-Id: 9145

Multigroup coupled neutron-gamma cross-section library for deterministic and Monte Carlo borehole logging analysis

Kodeli, I.; Aldama, D. L.; de Leege, P. F. A.; Legrady, D.; Hoogenboom, J. E.; Cowan, P.

A special purpose multigroup cross-section library optimized for nuclides and reactions arising in nuclear oil well logging was prepared for use in deterministic and Monte Carlo transport codes. The library is based on the recent ENDF/B-VI.8 evaluation, which includes among others improved oxygen and chlorine cross-sections. A 175 neutron and 45 gamma ray energy group structure was selected in a way to take into account the requirements of oil well logging applications. This library is expected to improve the prediction of the neutron and gamma spectra at the detector positions of the logging tool and its use for the interpretation of the Carbon/Oxygen (C/O) neutron logging measurements in boreholes was studied. For the Monte Carlo codes this library can be useful in particular in calculations requiring multigroup cross sections, like adjoint or MIDWAY methods. Furthermore, comparison of deterministic and Monte Carlo calculations using same or similar cross sections can reveal the uncertainty linked to the computational method and model. Preparation and testing of this library is described.

Keywords: Monte Carlo; Well Logging; Multigroup; Cross Section; Carbon/Oxygen Logging

  • Nuclear Science and Engineering 157(2007)2, 210-224

Publ.-Id: 9144

Application of adjoint monte carlo to accelerate simulations of mono-directional beams in radiotherapy treatment planning

Nievaart, V. A.; Legrady, D.; Moss, R. L.; Kloosterman, J. L.; van der Hagen, T. H. J. J.; van Dam, H.

Boron Neutron Capture Therapy is a well recognised cancer therapy applied usually for spread brain tumors. The alpha particles emitted at neutron capture in Boron will bring localised and excessive damage to surrounding cells while special medicaments are reponsible to achive higher Boron concentration in tumor than in healthy tissue. This article discusses a method to calculate treatment planning for BNCT using adjoint Monte Carlo. The proposed method aims at resolving a problematic issue of obtaining nonzero estimates for a monodirectional beam as sampled adjoint pseudoparticles would hardly coincide with a single preferred direction. The method descibed in this paper uses Legendre expansion to utilise adjoint scores at the beam exit not paralel with the beam tube to interpolate to the direction of paralel direction.

Keywords: adjoint; Monte Carlo; mono-directional; treatment planning

  • Medical Physics 34(2007)4, 1321-1335

Publ.-Id: 9143

Electrical Conductivity of Nitrogen Doped SiC Nanocrystals in Diamond

Weishart, H.; Heera, V.; Skorupa, W.

Nanocrystals of silicon carbide were synthesized inside natural diamond using high dose silicon implantation. In order to retain the diamond structure implantation was done at 900 °C. The samples were subsequently annealed in an rf-heated furnace at 1500 °C for 10 min. A more detailed study on the formation of epitaxially aligned 3C-SiC nanocrystallites within the implanted diamond was published recently[i]. However, investigation of electrical properties was restricted to four-point measurements. Here we will present Hall measurements as function of temperature of the high-fluence Si-implanted diamonds. The results indicate a highly conductive, buried layer inside the diamond. The exceptional high electron concentration may originate in implantation-induced electrical active defects as well as n-type doping by unintentionally co-implanted 28(N2).

[i] H. Weishart, V. Heera, F. Eichhorn, B. Pécz, Á. Barna and
W. Skorupa, J. Appl. Phys. 94 (2003) 1195.

  • Poster
    5. Siliziumkarbid-Rundgespräch, 17.-18.07.2006, Kloster Banz, Staffelstein, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 9142

Halbleiterspektroskopie mit ultrakurzen Laserpulsen

Schneider, H.

  • Lecture (others)
    Physikalisches Kolloquium, 05.07.2006, Freiberg, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 9139

A nodal expansion method for solving the multigroup SP3 equations in the reactor code DYN3D

Beckert, C.; Grundmann, U.

The core model DYN3D which has been developed for three-dimensional analyses of steady states and transients in thermal reactors with quadratic or hexagonal fuel assemblies is based on nodal methods for the solution of the two-group neutron diffusion equation. Loading cores with higher content of MOX fuel, the increase of the fuel cycle length and new types of reactors are challenging for these standard methods. A nodal expansion method for solving the equations of the simplified P3 approximation (SP3) of the multigroup transport equation was developed to improve the accuracy of the DYN3D code. In this paper, the method used in DYN3D-SP3 is described. It is applied for the pinwise calculation of a steady state of the OECD/NEA and U.S. NRC PWR MOX/UO2 Core Transient Benchmark. The eigenvalue keff, assembly powers and the pin powers are computed. The results calculated with different approaches including diffusion theory are compared with the reference solution obtained from a heterogeneous transport calculation with the code DeCART. Different approaches of the diffusion coefficient used in the SP3 equations are investigated. The SP3 results obtained with the transport cross section of multigroup diffusion theory show the smallest deviations from the reference solution. These deviations are in the same order as the results of the code DORT, whereas the DORT and DYN3D calculations were carried out with the same library of group constants for homogenized pin cells.

Keywords: SP3; nodal methods; neutron transport; neutron diffusion; multigroup

  • Contribution to proceedings
    M&C+SNA 2007 - Joint International Topical Meeting on Mathematics & Computations and Supercomputing in Nuclear Applications, 15.-19.04.2007, Monterey, United States
  • Lecture (Conference)
    M&C+SNA 2007 - Joint International Topical Meeting on Mathematics & Computations and Supercomputing in Nuclear Applications, 15.-19.04.2007, Monterey, United States

Publ.-Id: 9138

Development and verification of a multigroup SP3 method for reactor calculations

Beckert, C.; Grundmann, U.

A nodal approach for the multigroup SP3 equations was developed and integrated in the DYN3D code. The method is verified by pinwise multigroup calculations for a steady state of the OECD/NEA and U.S. NRC PWR MOX/UO2 Core Transient Benchmark. The results of different approaches including diffusion theory are compared with the reference transport solutions of the code DeCART. Different approaches of the diffusion coefficient used in the SP3 equations are investigated. The SP3 results obtained with the transport cross section of multigroup diffusion theory show a good agreement with the DeCART transport solutions.

Keywords: SP3; DYN3D; nodal methods; multigroup; neutron transport; neutron diffusion

  • Contribution to proceedings
    Annual meeting on nuclear technology 2007, 22.-24.05.2007, Karlsruhe, Germany
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Annual meeting on nuclear technology 2007, 22.-24.05.2007, Karlsruhe, Germany

Publ.-Id: 9137

Epitaxial thin films of undoped ZnO grown by reactive pulsed magnetron sputtering

Vinnichenko, M.; Rogozin, A.; Shevchenko, N.; Kolitsch, A.; Moeller, W.

The process of ZnO thin film growth by reactive pulsed magnetron sputtering is optimized to enable formation of epitaxial layers on Al2O3 (0001) substrates. The effects of the oxygen partial pressure, substrate temperature (Ts), base pressure, state of the target and substrate are investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) phi-scans suggest formation of the epitaxial ZnO layers with two types of domains in the case of chemically cleaned substrate (Ts=550°C, high oxygen, and base pressure of 5•10-7 mbar). One type of domains is 30° rotated relatively to the dominating orientation. Employing the target presputtering and additional substrate cleaning in oxygen plasma at the same other parameters, the formation of two-domain structure is suppressed and single-domain structure is obtained without additional buffer layers. The XRD rocking curve full width on half maximum is of 0.409°. According to spectroscopic ellipsometry analysis, the highly in-plane ordered ZnO films show no grading of optical constants and have significantly lower optical absorption. The Lorentz oscillator broadening obtained from the dielectric function is significantly smaller for the improved layer that also points to a higher ordering of the material. The oxygen plasma treatment of the sapphire substrate is shown to be crucial for preparation of epitaxial ZnO film with high in-plane alignment.

Keywords: ZnO thin film; in-plane ordering; reactive pulsed magnetron sputtering; optical properties

  • Poster
    E-MRS Spring Meeting, 29.05.-02.06.2006, Nice, France

Publ.-Id: 9136

Magnetic quantum oscillations in the normal and superconducting state of YNi2B2C

Ignatchik, O.; Wosnitza, J.; Jäckel, M.; Souptel, D.; Behr, G.; Canfield, P.

The de Haas-van Alphen (dHvA) effect, or quantum oscillations of the magnetization, is the most direct method to study Fermi-surface properties in metals.It is remarkable, that these magnetic quantum oscillations persist deep into the vortex state of many type-II superconductors. The damping of the oscillation amplitude below the upper critical field can be related to the magnitude of the superconducting gap. For YNi2B2C, however, quite controversial results for the dHvA signal in the superconducting state have been reported. We will present dHvA measurements of YNi2B2C single crystals prepared by different methods. The flux-grown crystals exhibit dHvA oscillation in the superconducting state down to 3 T as reported in literature. However, we observed an unexpectedly sudden vanishing of the dHvA signal in the mixed state for crystals grown by a zone-melting method. The very quick disapppearance of the oscillating signal below B c2 suggests an unexpected fast opening of a large superconducting gap. At high magnetic fields six different dHvA frequencies could be detected.

  • Poster
    Frühjahrstagung Berlin, 03.-09.03.2005, Berlin, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 9135

Ion implantation of halogens: a promising technique for enhancing the high-temperature oxidation resistance of TiAl alloys

Yankov, R. A.; Donchev, A.; Schuetze, M.; Richter, E.

kein Abstrakt vorhanden

  • Poster
    21st General Conference (Meeting of the German Physical Society, Session MM: Metal- and Material Physics), 27.-31.03.2006, Dresden, Germany

Publ.-Id: 9134

Improving the Oxidation Resistance of TiAl-alloys with Fluorine

Donchev, A.; Richter, E.; Schuetze, M.; Yankow, R. A.

  • Poster
    12th International IUPAC-Conference on High Temperature Materials Chemistry HTMC, 17.-22.09.2006, Vienna, Austria

Publ.-Id: 9133

Improvement of the Oxidation behavior of TiAl-alldoys by treatment with halogens

Donchev, A.; Richter, E.; Schuetze, M.; Yankow, R. A.

Titanium aluminides are of great interest for several structural high temperature applications because of their low specific weight (about 4 g/cm3) and their excellent high temperature strength. They could replace the much heavier high temperature steels or Ni-based superalloys (up to 9 g/cm3) which are usually in service. The implementation of this new group of intermetallic alloys in e.g. the aerospace or automotive industry is therefore due to economic and ecologic reasons. The use of TiAl-based alloys is still limited to a temperature of about 750 °C because of their poor oxidation resistance despite of their good mechanical properties which would allow the use at higher temperatures. The oxidation resistance can be improved significantly by small amounts of halogens such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine and iodine (so called halogen effect). A defined dose of these halogens has to be provided at the metal/oxide interface of the component. The halogens promote the selective formation of gaseous Al-halides at temperatures above 700 °C which are oxidised to Al2O3 during their outward diffusion through the naturally grown oxide scale. So finally a protective alumina scale is formed which is stable for long times even under thermocyclic exposure and wet atmospheres. In this paper the results of isothermal and thermocyclic high temperature oxidation tests of technical TiAl-alloys with and without halogen treatment are shown. Additionally the results of high temperature creep tests of halogen treated TiAl-alloys are presented and compared with the untreated alloys.

  • Intermetallics 14(2006)10-11, 1168-1174

Publ.-Id: 9131

Wavelength-selective enhancement of the intensity of visible photoluminescence in hydrogen-ion-implanted silicon-on-insulator structures annealed under high pressure

Tyschenko, I. E.; Zhuravlev, K. S.; Cherkov, A. G.; Popov, V. P.; Misiuk, A.; Yankov, R. A.

Characteristic features of the visible photoluminescence (PL) spectra were studied in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers following high-dose (3×1017 cm–2) ion implantation of hydrogen and annealing at high hydrostatic pressures. The PL behavior of the SOI material was compared with that of hydrogen-implanted bulk Si. Annealing at a pressure above 6 kbars produced a wavelength-selective increase (~37 times) in the intensity of the visible PL from the implanted SOI structures. The results are explained in terms of the effect of an optical resonant cavity formed between the air/SOI and the Si/SiO2 interfaces as a result of the high-pressure annealing.

  • Applied Physics Letters 89(2006), 013106 Jul 3 2006

Publ.-Id: 9130

Materialaspekte bei der Untersuchung von Störfallszenarien in Kernkraftwerken

Altstadt, E.

Es wird ein Überblick zu den Aspekten der Materialsicherheit in der Kerntechnik gegeben. Im Mittekpunkt der Betrachtungen steht der Reaktordruckbehälter von Leichtwasserreaktoren bei hypothetischen Unfällen mit Kernschmelze. Es wird auf den Aufbau von Leichtwasserreaktoren und die Sicherheitsphilosophie bei deutschen KKW eingegangen. Die Im FZD angwendeten Methoden und Modelle zur Simulation von Schmelzerückhaltungsszenarien werden erläutert. (Vorlesung ca. 80 min.)

Keywords: Reactor pressure vessel; Material Safety; In-vessel melt retention; Corium

  • Lecture (others)
    Ringvorlesung des Materialforschungsverbundes Dresden für das Studium generale der Technische Universität Dresden, 29.11.2006, Dresden, Germany

Publ.-Id: 9129

Modification of NiTi surface by plasma immersion ion implantation

Shevchenko, N.; Maitz, M. F.; Richter, E.

The NiTi alloy has a high nickel concentration of 50 at%, which may result in nickel ion release into the body environment, preventing from biomedical application. It was demonstrated that the nickel surface concentration may be reduced significantly using plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII). In the present work the surface processes during oxygen (or nitrogen) PIII and the microstructure and properties of the modified surface layers were studied. The samples were examined by X-ray diffraction analysis, Auger electron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry and corrosion and blood compatibility tests. Oxygen PIII at an ion energy of 40 keV and a substrate temperatures below 300°C results in the formation of a transparent rutile TiO2 surface layer with a Ni content down to below 1 at%. This layer prevents from corrosion and out-diffusion of Ni ions. Biocompatibility tests show a largely superior in vitro blood compatibility compared to the untreated samples.

Keywords: Shape memory alloy; biocompatibility; PIII

  • Lecture (Conference)
    International Conference on Shape Memory and Superelastic Technologies (SMST 2006), 07.-11.05.2006, Pacific Grove, California, USA

Publ.-Id: 9128

Electromagnetic control of a transitional boundary layer

Albrecht, T.; Grundmann, R.; Mutschke, G.; Gerbeth, G.

The stability of a transitional boundary layer controlled by a wall-parallel, streamwise oriented Lorentz force is investigated by means of direct numerical simulation. Damping of Tollmien-Schlichting waves is observed already at weak control amplitudes.
For a particular control amplitude, similar to homogeneous suction, the initial Blasius layer evolves towards an exponential velocity profile of strongly enhanced stability. Here, intermediate velocity profiles are found to have linear stability properties superior to that of the asymptotic exponential profile. Additional 3-D simulations support the 2-D results as Lorentz force control clearly damps the coherent structures of the transitional flow.
Furthermore, results to optimize the energy consumption of the control by evolutionary strategies are presented.

Keywords: MHD; Control; Boundary Layer; DNS; linear stability analysis

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Fifth international Conference on Computational Fluid Dynamics in the Process Industries, 13.-15.12.2006, Melbourne, Australia

Publ.-Id: 9127

Plasma immersion ion implantation for NiTi surface modification

Shevchenko, N.; Reuther, H.; Kreissig, U.; Richter, E.

The shape-memory and superelastic nickel-titanium alloy (NiTi, nitinol) has a high nickel concentration of 50 at% which may result in nickel ion release in biological solutions, preventing from application in biomedical implants and devices. Recently, it was demonstrated that the nickel surface concentration may be reduced significantly using plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) [1, 2]. Our previous biocompatibility tests show a superior in vitro blood compatibility of the oxygen ion implanted NiTi surfaces compared to the untreated ones [3]. Understanding of the mechanisms of surface modification and nickel depleted layer formation during PIII as well as its phase composition evolution is to date rather limited.
In present paper we consider the effect of both ion fluence and implantation temperature on the phase composition, surface morphology, and electrochemical properties of PIII processed NiTi. The samples were examined by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction analysis (GIXRD), Auger electron spectroscopy, elastic recoil detection analysis, atomic force microscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry and corrosion test.
Oxygen PIII from an inductively coupled RF plasma at an ion energy of 20 keV, an ion fluence of E17-E18 cm-2, and a substrate temperature below 250°C results in the formation of a transparent rutile TiO2 surface layer with a thickness of 50-200 nm and a Ni content below 1 at%. In contrast, the underlying alloy is enriched with Ni. The GIXRD analysis indicates the presence of the Ni4Ti3 and Ni3Ti phases in addition to NiTi. The oxide layer thickness as well as the surface roughness are controlled by the balance of reactive ion-induced diffusion and ion sputtering. The nickel-depleted TiO2 layer prevents from corrosion and out-diffusion of Ni ions.
The results of this study show that PIII is a promising technique for the surface modification of NiTi alloy for biomedical applications.

Keywords: Plasma implantation; NiTi alloy; surface; phase composition

  • Lecture (Conference)
    International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials (IBMM 2006), 18.-22.09.2006, Taormina, Italy

Publ.-Id: 9126

Electroluminescence properties of the GD3+ ultraviolet luminescent centers in SiO2 gate oxide layers

Sun, J. M.; Prucnal, S.; Skorupa, W.; Dekorsy, T.; Muecklich, A.; Helm, M.; Rebohle, L.; Gebel, T.

Electroluminescence (EL9) properties in the ultraviolet (UV) range were studied on Gd-implanted indium tin oxide/SiO2 :Gd/ Si metal-oxide-semiconductor light emitting devices. The efficient UV line at 316 nm from Gd3+ centers shows a maximum power density of 2 mW/cm2 and a quantum efficiency above 5%. The Gd3+ luminescent center has an excitation cross section above 7.4 x10−15 cm2 with an EL decay time around 1.6 ms at a Gd concentration of 3%. A decrease of the
EL efficiency is observed by a cross relaxation at a high Gd concentration and by clustering of Gd atoms at an annealing temperature of 1000 °C. A strong quenching of the UV EL due to electron trapping around optically active Gd3+ centers is observed during the injection of hot electrons.

  • Journal of Applied Physics 99(2006), 103102

Publ.-Id: 9125

Complete characterization of selected model alloys and VVER1000 steels by SANS, TEM and PAS

Ulbricht, A.; Bergner, F.; Cizek, J.; Melikhova, O.; Prochazka, I.; Kuriplach, J.

The aim of the present report is to contribute small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) data, positron annihilation (PAS) data and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) data to the experimental database. We draw conclusions from the combined application of these methods on the nature of the irradiation-induced features in RPV steels and model alloys.

Keywords: SANS; PAS; TEM; RPV steel; iron alloy; neutron irradiation; defect/solute atom clusters

  • Article, self-published (no contribution to HZDR-Annual report)
    Forschungszentrum Rossendorf 2006
    14 Seiten
    ISSN: 1437-322X

Publ.-Id: 9124

RPV-1 models sensitivity for VVER 1000 materials parameters

Bergner, F.; Ulbricht, A.

The multiscale prediction code RPV-1 was applied to VVER 1000 reactor pressure vessel steels. A sensitivity study was performed for VVER 1000 materials parameters.

  • Lecture (others)
    3rd Plenary Meeting of the Perfect Physics Subproject, 08.-10.11.2006, Mol, Belgium

Publ.-Id: 9123

Characterization of Ni-Ti SMA thin films: from annealing to in-situ sputtering

Martins, R. M. S.; Schell, N.; Beckers, M.; Silva, R. J. C.; Braz Fernandes, F. M.

Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) NiTi thin films have attracted much interest as functional and smart materials due to their unique properties. However, there are still important issues unresolved like formation of film texture and its control as well as substrate effects. For microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) integration, there is a need for an electrically and thermally insulating or sacrificial layer like poly-Si. In the present study, NiTi thin films have been prepared by d.c. magnetron sputtering on Si(100) and poly-Si/Si(100) substrates to elucidate the substrate influence on the crystallization of these films. Following the structural development of the films during crystallization (at a constant temperature of 430 ºC) by GIXD, is was observed that the crystallization process is significantly enhanced for low target/substrate distances of 4 cm instead of 7 cm for Si(100) substrates. The presence of an intermediate layer of poly-Si furthermore drastically enhances the crystallization process.
In-situ XRD during the growth of Ni-Ti thin films was chosen in order to investigate their texture development using a deposition chamber installed at ROBL. Near-equiatomic films were obtained by co-sputtering from Ni-Ti and Ti targets. The texture evolution during deposition is clearly affected by the substrate type and the ion bombardment of the growing film. On naturally oxidized Si(100) substrates the NiTi B2 phase starts by stacking onto (h00) planes, and as the thickness increases evolves into a (110) fiber texture. This pronounced cross-over is only observed when a substrate bias voltage (-45 V) is applied for the deposition on thermally oxidized Si(100) substrates. The oxide layer plays an important role on the development of the (100) orientation of the B2 phase during deposition on heated substrates (~ 470ºC).
The effect of a TiN layer deposited on top of the SiO2/Si(100) substrate prior to the deposition of the NiTi films was also analysed. These experiments have shown that TiN acts not only as a diffusion barrier, but also induces different crystallographic orientations. These are promising results concerning the manipulation of the crystallographic orientations of NiTi thin films, since the texture has a strong influence on the extent of the strain recovery.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    ESRF Science Days 2006, 07.-08.06.2006, Autrans, France

Publ.-Id: 9122

In-situ study of Ni-Ti film growth by synchrotron radiation scattering

Martins, R. M. S.; Schell, N.; Silva, R. J. C.; Mahesh, K. K.; Braz Fernandes, F. M.

Ni-Ti thin films are promising high performance materials in the field of micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) applications. Their preferential orientation is a crucial factor in determining the shape memory behavior since it has a strong influence on the extent of the strain recovery. The relationship between structure and deposition parameters is of extreme importance for future device applications. Our approach is in-situ x-ray diffraction during deposition carried out in a process chamber installed at a synchrotron radiation beamline. Near-equiatomic films (800nm) were co-sputtered from Ni-Ti and Ti targets on heated substrates (~470C) without applying a substrate bias voltage. The texture evolution during deposition is clearly affected by the substrate type. On naturally oxidized Si(100) substrates the Ni-Ti B2 phase starts by stacking onto (h00) planes, and, as the thickness increases, evolves to a (110) fiber texture. An initial significant change of the lattice parameter, as calculated from d(200) , is observed and its tendency for stabilization is coincident with the deposition time where the preferential stacking of B2 phase on (110) planes is starting.
For the deposition on thermally oxidized Si(100) there is a strong preferential stacking on (h00) planes of B2 leading to a (100) fiber texture. The measured lattice constants do not exhibit such a strong initial variation as for the sample deposited on naturally oxidized Si(100) substrate, but a continuous slight decrease of this value is perceptible.
Ni-Ti films were also deposited on top of a TiN buffer layer. There is a preferential growth of <110> oriented grains of the Ni-Ti B2 phase [ grains are defined as grains with a plane from the {hkl} family parallel to the film surface] from the beginning of the deposition, with a constant growth rate during the whole deposition for a Ni-Ti film deposited on TiN with a topmost layer formed mainly by <111> oriented grains. The Ni-Ti films deposited on top of a TiN layer where a dominating orientation could not be identified (primarily <001> and <111> oriented grains nucleate and grow) exhibit a different behavior. In this case <110> oriented grains of the Ni-Ti B2 phase dominate at small thicknesses while <211> oriented grains take over at larger thicknesses. The decrease of the lattice parameter suggests that the films experience compressive stress which is significantly relaxed with increasing film thickness.

  • Poster
    MICRODIFF'06 - Local Mechanical Stresses and Microdiffraction, 28.-29.09.2006, Grenoble, France

Publ.-Id: 9121

The role of a TiN buffer layer on the growth of Ni-Ti sputtered thin films

Martins, R. M. S.; Schell, N.; Beckers, M.; Silva, R. J. C.; Mahesh, K. K.; Braz Fernandes, F. M.

  • Poster
    ESRF Science Days 2006, 07.-08.06.2006, Autrans, France

Publ.-Id: 9120

In-situ XRD during sputtering deposition of Ni-Ti Shape Memory Alloys on TiN/SiO2/Si(100)

Martins, R. M. S.; Schell, N.; Beckers, M.; Silva, R. J. C.; Mahesh, K. K.; Braz Fernandes, F. M.

  • Poster
    ESRF User's Meeting 2006, 07.-08.02.2006, Grenoble, France

Publ.-Id: 9119

Modification of bubble-driven liquid metal flows under the influence of a DC magnetic field

Zhang, C.; Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.

The paper presents an experimental study devoted to a bubble-driven liquid metal flow under the influence of an external DC magnetic field. Experiments have been performed on laboratory scale at ambient temperature using the ternary alloy GaInSn. Measurements of the bubble-driven liquid metal flow have been carried out using the Ultrasound Doppler Velocimetry (UDV). The magnetic field has been imposed either in vertical direction parallel to the main bubble motion or in horizontal direction, respectively. Whereas a global damping of the flow field was generally observed in the case of the vertical aligned magnetic field, the application of a horizontal magnetic field can provoke a restructuring of the flow pattern with strong, non-steady vortical structures. This finding could attain relevance for metallurgical engineering, for instance the control of the mould flow during the continuous casting of steel by means of an electromagnetic brake.

Keywords: liquid metal; bubble plume; DC magnetic field; Ultrasound Doppler method; velocity measurements

  • Open Access Logo ISIJ International 47(2007)6, 795-801

Publ.-Id: 9118

Texture evolution during annealing of Ni-Ti Shape Memory Alloy

Braz Fernandes, F. M.; Paula, A. S.; Canejo, J.; Mahesh, K. K.; Silva, R. J. C.; Martins, R. M. S.; Cardoso, A. M. A.; Schell, N.

Anisotropy of the shape recovery associated with shape memory effect strongly depends on the type of preferential orientation, that is present, as well as the ‘strength’ of the texture. In the present paper, we report the results obtained by the in-situ study of texture evolution during the annealing process in Ti-rich Ni-Ti Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) with different thermal and mechanical histories. For this purpose, a Be-dome furnace installed into a 6-circle goniometer at the BM20 beamline (ROBL-CRG) at the ESRF (Grenoble) has been used. It is shown that there is a significant change in the preferential orientation of B2 phase, with the change in microstrain/coherence domain size, as a function of annealing temperature. This effect is also observed in the B19’ phase after cooling. The alpha-fiber II (austenite texture - <110>||RD ({111}<110>-{110}<110>) was present in the as-received alloy, but only up to 400ºC. The evolution of {111}<110> austenite texture component is quite clear for annealing temperatures above 400ºC.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Conference on Shape Memory and Superelastic Technology-Europe 2004, 03.-07.10.2004, Baden-Baden, Germany
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Conference on Shape Memory and Superelastic Technology-Europe 2004, 03.-07.10.2004, Baden-Baden, Germany
    Proceedings of Shape Memory and Superelastic Technology 2004, Baden-Baden: ASM International, 45-50

Publ.-Id: 9117

In-situ study of the preferential orientation of magnetron sputtered Ni-Ti thin films as a function of bias and substrate type

Martins, R. M. S.; Schell, N.; Beckers, M.; Mücklich, A.; Reuther, H.; Silva, R. J. C.; Mahesh, K. K.; Braz Fernandes, F. M.

The preferential orientation of Ni-Ti thin films is a crucial factor in determining the shape memory behavior. The texture has a strong influence on the extent of the strain recovery. The relationship between structure and deposition parameters is of extreme importance for future device applications. Our approach is in-situ x-ray diffraction during deposition carried out in a process chamber installed at a synchrotron radiation beamline. Near-equiatomic films were co-sputtered from Ni-Ti and Ti targets. Substrate type and bias voltage play an important role for the preferred orientation. On naturally oxidized Si(100) substrates the NiTi B2 phase starts by stacking onto (h00) planes and then changes to (110) fiber texture with increasing film thickness. For thermally oxidized Si(100) substrates, this cross-over is only observed when a bias voltage is applied. The experiments were supplemented by ex-situ transmission electron microscopy and Auger Electron Spectroscopy allowing an additional deeper insight into the film/substrate interface.

Keywords: Ni-Ti; Sputter deposition; In-situ x-ray diffraction; Texture development; Interface

  • Contribution to proceedings
    Conference on Shape Memory and Superelastic Technology 2006, 07.-11.05.2006, Asilomar, U.S.A.
    Proc. of SMST 2006, 363-372
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Conference on Shape Memory and Superelastic Technology 2006, 07.-11.05.2006, Asilomar, U.S.A.

Publ.-Id: 9116

Role of the substrate on the growth of Ni-Ti sputtered thin films

Martins, R. M. S.; Schell, N.; Beckers, M.; Silva, R. J. C.; Mahesh, K. K.; Braz Fernandes, F. M.

Ni-Ti thin films have been recognized as promising and high performance materials in the field of microelectromechanical system applications. However, important issues like formation of film texture and its control are still unresolved. Widening the scope of previous experiments concerning the influence of the deposition parameters on the Ni-Ti films structure, here we show how different crystallographic orientations can be obtained by changing the substrate type. The growth of near-equiatomic Ni-Ti films, deposited by magnetron co-sputtering from Ni-Ti and Ti targets on heated substrates ( 470C), has been studied in situ by x-ray diffraction at a synchrotron radiation beamline. As mentioned in other studies for depositions on Si(100), a (110) fiber texture is observed for the B2 phase. However, a preferential stacking of (100) planes of the B2 phase parallel to the film surface was observed when using a MgO(100) substrate. The preferential orientation of B2(100) // MgO(100) was very strong and was kept as such until the end of the deposition, which lasted for 2 hours (~ 900 nm). Ni-Ti films were also deposited on a TiN layer (~ 15 nm) previously deposited on top of a SiO2/Si(100) substrate. In this case, a crossover from (110) oriented grains dominating at small thicknesses, to (211) oriented grains taking over at larger thicknesses was observed. These are promising results concerning the manipulation of the crystallographic orientations of Ni-Ti thin films, since the texture has a strong influence on the extent of the strain recovery.

Keywords: structure and morphology; deposition by sputtering; in-situ x-ray diffraction

  • Poster
    ESOMAT 2006 - European Symposium on Martensitic Transformations and Shape Memory Alloys, 10.-15.09.2006, Bochum, Germany
  • Materials Science and Engineering A 4812-482(2008), 626-629

Publ.-Id: 9114

In-situ study of Ni-Ti thin film growth on a TiN intermediate layer by x-ray diffraction

Martins, R. M. S.; Schell, N.; Silva, R. J. C.; Pereira, L.; Mahesh, K. K.; Fernandes, F. M. B.

Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) Ni-Ti thin films have attracted much interest as functional and smart materials due to their unique properties. However, there are still important issues unresolved like formation of film texture and its control as well as substrate effects. In this study, near-equiatomic films were obtained by co-sputtering from Ni-Ti and Ti targets in a process chamber installed at a synchrotron radiation beamline. In-situ x-ray diffraction during the growth of these films allowed establishing a relationship between structure and deposition parameters. The effect of a TiN layer deposited on top of the SiO2/Si(100) substrate prior to the deposition of the Ni-Ti films was analysed. These experiments show that TiN acts not only as a diffusion barrier, but also induces different crystallographic orientations. A TiN layer with ~ 215 nm thickness induces the preferential growth of (110) planes of the Ni-Ti B2 phase parallel to the substrate from the beginning of the deposition with a constant growth rate during the whole deposition. For a TiN thickness of ~ 15 nm, the diffraction peak B2(110) also appears from the beginning of the deposition but much less intense. In this latter case, the B2(211) peak was also detected having observed a crossover from <110> oriented grains dominating at small thicknesses, to <211> oriented grains taking over at larger thicknesses. The same orientations and similar intensities were observed for a Ni-Ti film deposited on a TiN layer with ~ 80 nm.

Keywords: Shape memory alloy; Ni-Ti; deposition by sputtering; in-situ x-ray diffraction; texture development

  • Poster
    E-MRS 2006 Spring Meeting, 29.05.-02.06.2006, Nice, France
  • Sensors and Actuators B 126(2007)1, 332-337

Publ.-Id: 9113

Structural in-situ studies of Ni-Ti thin films

Martins, R. M. S.; Braz Fernandes, F. M.; Silva, R. J. C.; Beckers, M.; Schell, N.

Ni-Ti thin films present great advantages for the fabrication of micro-actuators. The phase transformation and precipitation, which are responsible for the shape memory effect, have been widely studied in bulk material and thin films. However, in-situ studies have been limited to the ageing/annealing treatments after deposition. In this study we present a series of results that clearly illustrate the interest of in-situ studies, not only during annealing, but also during sputtering. The in-situ annealing experiments, using a Be-dome furnace installed into the six-circle diffractometer of the ROssendorf BeamLine (ROBL-CRG) at the ESRF, Grenoble, allowed us to determine the kinetics of the phenomena, to identify the sequence of precipitation and to correlate the build-up of the final structure with the processing conditions. The in-situ sputtering experiments were performed using a magnetron sputter deposition chamber also installed into the six-circle diffractometer of the ROBL-CRG beamline. This facility allowed us to follow the structural evolution of the films also during the deposition process.

Keywords: Ni-Ti; SMA; x-ray diffraction

  • Contribution to proceedings
    Shape Memory and Superelastic Technologies 2004, 03.-07/10/2004, Baden Baden, Germany
    Proceeding of SMST 2004, Baden Baden: ASM International, 421-426
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Conference on Shape Memory and Superelastic Technology-Europe 2004, 03.-07.10.2004, Baden-Baden, Germany

Publ.-Id: 9112

Long-term corrosion and leaching of depleted uranium (DU) in the soil

Schimmack, W.; Gerstmann, U.; Schultz, W.; Geipel, G.

The corrosion and leaching of depleted uranium (DU) was investigated for three years using six DU munitions (145 – 264 g DU) each buried in a column with a soil core of ca. 3.3 kg dry soil mass. The columns were installed in an air-conditioned la-boratory. Each week they were irrigated and 238U was determined in the effluents by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. In addition, 235U was measured oc-casionally in order to assure that the origin of 238U was predominantly the DU muniti-on. On average, 14.5 g corresponding to 7.9 % of the initial DU mass was corroded after three years indicating an acceleration of the corrosion as compared to the first year (see Schimmack et al., Radiat Environ Biophysics 44: 183-191 (2005)). The leaching rates increased much stronger than the corrosion by factors of more than 100 resulting in a mean total amount of leached 238U of 13 mg as compared to 0.03 mg after the first year. The uranium species identified by time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy were mainly hydroxo and carbonate compounds in the seepage water and phosphate compounds in the corroded material. It is concluded that the dramatic increase of the leaching and its large temporal and spatial variability do not allow any extrapolation into the future. However, the high level of the 238U concentrations in the seepage water demands further investigations on the transport of 238U through the soil in order to estimate the concentration of 238U from DU muniti-ons in the groundwater for areas affected by DU weapons.

Keywords: depleted Uranium; soil; corrosion; leaching; speciation

Publ.-Id: 9111

Structure, stability and electronic properties of composite Mo_(1-x)Nb_xS_2 nanotubes

Ivanovskaya, V. V.; Heine, T.; Gemming, S.; Seifert, G.

The effect of Mo -> Nb substitution on the electronic structure of MoS2 nanotubes has been investigated using the density functional tight binding method (DFTB). It has been found that composite Mo1-xNbxS2 nanotubes (with Nb contents of 5, 10 and 25 at%) are more stable than the corresponding pure tubes, especially for larger tube diameters. The defect-formation energy indicates that the most stable dopant arrangement is a NbS2 stripe along the tube direction. However, entropy effects may favor a random arrangement of Nb dopant atoms at high temperatures in the tubes with a larger diameter. All of the studied Mo1-xNbxS2 nanotubes have metallic properties, independent of their chirality, diameters and ordering type of substitutional atoms.


Publ.-Id: 9110

A study on the two-phase flow in a stirred tank reactor agitated by a gas inducing turbine

Hristov, H. V.; Boden, S.; Hampel, U.; Kryk, H.; Hessel, G.; Schmitt, W.

Experimental and numerical studies of a gas-liquid two-phase flow were applied to a non-baffled laboratory-scale stirred tank reactor, mechanically agitated by a gas-inducing turbine. The dispersion of air as gas phase into isopropanol as liquid phase at room temperature under different stirrer speeds was investigated. The X-ray cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) measurements were taken at five different stirrer speeds starting from 1000 rpm at which the gas inducement occurs for the given operating conditions. The considerable difficulties in acquiring the phase distribution due to beam hardening and radiation scattering effects were overcame by developing a suitable measurement setup as well as by calibration and software correction methods to achieve high accuracy. The computational fluid dynamics analyses of the stirred tank reactor were performed in 3D with CFX 10.0 numerical software.

Keywords: stirred tank reactor; gas-inducing impeller; mixing; X-Ray computed tomography; CFD

Publ.-Id: 9108

A Method for System Matrix Construction and Processing for Reconstruction of In-Beam PET Data

Shakirin, G.; Crespo, P.; Enghardt, W.

At the experimental heavy ion therapy facility (Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt, Germany) an in-beam PET scanner is operated for quality assurance monitoring simultaneously to the therapeutic irradiation. The fixed dual-head PET scanner, which is completely integrated into the treatment facility, registers the annihilation γ-rays following the decay of minor amounts of β+-radioactive nuclei produced via nuclear reactions between the ions of the therapeutic beam and the atomic nuclei of the irradiated tissue. From a comparison of the reconstructed activity distributions with those predicted from the treatment plan, deviations between the prescribed and the applied dose distributions can be detected. The quality assurance monitoring of the therapeutic irradiation could profit significantly of a very fast (ideally, real time) reconstruction algorithm and, therefore, an accurate knowledge of the system response function (system matrix) is required. These requirements lead to the development of a dedicated method of system matrix calculation which has to model the system response precisely and deliver system matrix values rapidly. By exploiting the system symmetries, in combination with an optimized interpolation and approximation strategies, the proposed method delivers the system response function in a continuous 3D image space with a high accuracy.

Keywords: Positron emission tomography; image reconstruction; biomedical applications of radiation; in-beam PET

  • Poster
    2006 Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, 31.10.-05.11.2006, San Diego, USA
  • Contribution to proceedings
    2006 Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, 31.10.-05.11.2006, San Diego, USA
    2006 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium conference record: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 1-4244-0561-0, 3351-3354
  • IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science 54(2007), 1710-1716

Publ.-Id: 9107

Experimental and numerical prediction of horizontal stratified flows

Höhne, T.; Vallee, C.; Prasser, H.-M.

Slug flow as a multiphase flow regime can occur in the cold legs of pressurized water reactors, for instance after a small break Loss of Coolant Accident (SB-LOCA). Slug flow is potentially hazardous to the structure of the system due to the strong oscillating pressure levels formed behind the liquid slugs. It is usually characterized by an acceleration of the gaseous phase and by the transition of fast liquid slugs, which carry out a significant amount of liquid with high kinetic energy. For the experimental investigation of air/water flows, a horizontal channel with rectangular cross-section was build at Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD). Experimental data were used to check the feasibility to predict the slugging phenomenon with the existing multiphase flow models build in ANSYS CFX. Further it is of interest to prove the understanding of the general fluid dynamic mechanism leading to slug flow and to identify the critical parameters affecting the main slug flow parameters (like e.g. slug length, frequency and propagation velocity; pressure drop).

Keywords: CFD; flow pattern; stratified flow; slug flow

  • Contribution to proceedings
    International Conference on Multiphase Flow ICMF 2007, 09.-13.07.2007, Leipzig, Germany
    CD-ROM, paper S5_Tue_C_23
  • Lecture (Conference)
    International Conference on Multiphase Flow ICMF 2007, 09.07.2007, Leipzig, Germany

Publ.-Id: 9106

CFD-simulation of thermal hydraulic benchmark V1000CT–2 using ANSYS CFX

Höhne, T.

The OECD/NEA and AER coupled code benchmarks for light water reactors markedly contribute to the testing of best estimate coupled codes in reactivity transients. At the same time, these benchmarks and flow mixing studies indicate that further improvement of the mixing computation tools in the integrated codes is necessary.
Plant measured data from VVER-1000 coolant mixing experiments were used to test and validate CFD codes. The task is to compare the various calculations with measured data, using specified boundary conditions and core power distributions.
The experiments, which are provided for CFD validation, include single loop cooling down or heating-up by disturbing the heat transfer in the steam generator (SG) through the steam valves at low reactor power in the range of 5-14% and with all main coolant pumps (MCP) in operation. They were conducted during the plant commissioning phase at Kozloduy-6, Bulgaria and Kalinin-1, 2, Russia.
CFD calculations have been performed for the thermal hydraulic benchmark V1000CT-2 using ANSYS CFX. The numerical grid model was generated with the grid generator ICEM-CFD and contains 4.7 Mio. tetrahedral elements. The Best Practice Guidelines (BPG) in using CFD in Nuclear Reactor Safety Applications have been used. Different advanced turbulence models were used in the numerical simulation. The best agreement with the Kozloduy heating-up experiment at the core inlet shows the Detached Eddy Simulation (DES). Strong fluctuations occur in the downcomer of the RPV. The results show a clear sector formation of the affected loop at the downcomer, lower plenum and core inlet. The maximum local values of the relative temperature rise in the experiment amount 97.7% and in the calculation 97.3%. Uncertainties are still the estimation and interpolation of experimental values at the core outlet to the core inlet.

Keywords: WWER-1000; CFD; Benchmark; Coolant Mixing

  • Contribution to proceedings
    15th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE15), 22.-26.04.2007, Nagoya, Japan
    CD-Rom, ICONE15-10259
  • Lecture (Conference)
    15th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE15), 22.04.2007, Nagoya, Japan

Publ.-Id: 9105

Erzeugung von Nano-Strukturen mit Ionenstrahlen

Schmidt, B.

  • Lecture (others)
    Seminar bei AMD, 27.03.2006, Dresden, Germany

Publ.-Id: 9103

Materials Science issues for the fabrication of nanocrystal memory devices by ultra low energy ion implantation

Claverie, A.; Bonafos, C.; Ben Assayag, G.; Schamm, S.; Cherkashin, N.; Paillard, V.; Dimitrakis, P.; Kapetenakis, E.; Tsoukalas, D.; Muller, T.; Schmidt, B.; Heinig, K.-H.; Perego, M.; Fanciulli, M.; Mathiot, D.; Carrada, M.; Normand, P.

Nanocrystal memories are attractive candidate for the development of non volatile memory devices for deep submicron technologies. In a nanocrystal memory device, a 2D network of isolated nanocrystals is buried in the gate dielectric of a MOS and replaces the classical polysilicon layer used in floating gate (flash) memories. Recently, we have demonstrated a route to fabricate these devices at low cost by using ultra low energy ion implantation. Obviously, all the electrical characteristics of the device depend on the characteristics of the nanocrystal population (sizes and densities) but also on their exact location with respect to the gate and channel of the MOS transistor. It is the goal of this paper to report on the main materials science aspects of the fabrication of 2D arrays of Si nanocrystals in thin SiO2 layers and at tunable distances from their SiO2/interfaces.

Keywords: Silicon nanocrystals; non volatile memories; Ion implantation; diffusion in SiO2; TEM; Raman spectroscopy; photoluminescence; single electron phenomena

  • Lecture (Conference)
    2nd International Conference on Diffusion in Solids and Liquids, 26.-28.07.2006, Aveiro, Portugal

Publ.-Id: 9102

FIB induced cobalt disilicide nanowire growth in silicon

Schmidt, B.; Akhmadaliev, C.; Bischoff, L.

In the present work FIB ion implantation of Co+ ions and subsequent anneaeling was applied to ion beam synthesis of CoSi2 nanowires with feature dimensions of about 20-50 nm in diameter and wire lengths of some µm. Using the CANION 31Mplus FIB column (Orsay Physics) a focusing of the Co++ ion beam down to a spot diameter of 30-50 nm was achieved. The ion energy was chosen to be 60 keV corresponding to a mean ion penetration depth of Rp = 33 nm. For the study of the conventional ion beam synthesis of CoSi2 nanowires (phase separation through precipitation and wire ripening during thermal treatment) and their decay into chains of nanoparticles due to nanowire instabilities the samples were implanted with high doses (1x1016-2x1017 cm-2) and at 420 °C sample temperature. Additionally, the scan direction of the FIB relative to the crystal directions was varied (normal FIB scan-direction was parallel to the [110]-direction on the Si surface). Small misalignment of the FIB trace relative to the [110] orientations leads to the decay of the CoSi2 nanowires into chains of more or less prolonged CoSi2 nanoparticles. Samples implanted at lower ion doses (1014-1016 cm-2) and at room temperature were used to investigate the influence of locally FIB induced irradiation defects on the CoSi2 nanowire growth. In this case, nanowires were again formed during thermal treatment by reacting of cobalt from a thin evaporated layer on the sample back side with defects induced by Co+ ion implantation with the FIB. The nanowires here are self-aligned along the in-plane [110] silicon crystal directions in (001)- and (111)-Si. In contrast to conventional ion beam synthesis of CoSi2 nanowires by high dose FIB implantation along a narrow trace defect-induced and self-aligned nanowire growth seems to be more stable.

Keywords: FIB; ion beam synthesis; CoSi2 nanowires

  • Lecture (Conference)
    15th International Conference on Ion Beam Modification of Materials, 18.-22.09.2006, Taormina, Italy

Publ.-Id: 9100

Vorstellung des Instituts für Radiochemie und Erläuterungen zum Ablauf des Kernbrennstoffkreislaufes

Steudtner, R.

Erläuterungen zum Kernbrennstoffkreislauf, zur Herstellung von Brennelementen sowie zur Funktionsweise von Reaktoren

  • Lecture (others)
    Vortrag anlässlich des Besuches einer Schülergruppe, 13.06.2006, Dresden, Germany

Publ.-Id: 9099

Bacteria from extreme environments and their interaction with uranium(VI)

Raff, J.

After a long lasting period of uranium mining and production in Saxony and Thuringia, Eastern Germany, mines have fallen into disuse.
Soil, subsoil and waste waters of former mines and production sites contain still high concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides, such as uranium. Besides chemical and physical factors influencing the mobility of uranium, also microbial metabolism plays a decisive role in enhancing or retarding migration effects. For instance bacteria are able to bind uranium on the cell surface, to accumulate uranium inside the cell, to reduce or oxidize uranium or to form insoluble uranium precipitates. Intensive studies on the uranium-microbe interaction allow on the one hand to obtain a more detailed understanding of the macroscopic behaviour of uranium in nature and on the other hand the development of new innovative bioremediation strategies for cleaning uranium contaminated water and soil. Starting from several examples of microbes interacting with uranium, the lecture will give an overview about bacterial detoxification strategies, the underlying molecular mechanisms and their application potential for bioremediation.

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    Institut für Gewässerschutz/Wassertechnologie, Forschungszentrum für Limnologie (EAWAG), 25.-27.06.2006, Kastanienbaum, Swizerland

Publ.-Id: 9097

Solution processable organic field-effect transistors utilizing an alpha,alpha '-dihexylpentathiophene-based swivel cruciform

Zen, A.; Bilge, A.; Galbrecht, F.; Alle, R.; Meerholz, K.; Grenzer, J.; Neher, D.; Scherf, U.; Farrell, T.

A pentathiophene-based swivel cruciform, which allows rotation between the cruciform arms, was synthesized. Homogeneous microcrystalline films were processed from solution, and field-effect transistors utilizing this dimer gave hole mobilities up to 0.012 cm2/V·s.

Keywords: organic field-effect transistors (OFETs); pentathiophene-based swivel cruciform; hole mobilities

  • Journal of the American Chemical Society 128(2006)12, 3914-3915

Publ.-Id: 9096

Investigation of Environmental Colloids/Nanoparticles at the FZD

Zänker, H.

  • wird nachgereicht
  • Lecture (others)
    1st meeting of the working group "Aquatic Nanoscience and Nanotechnology", 11.-12.12.2006, Vienna, Austria

Publ.-Id: 9095

Joint Project: Migration of Actinides in the System Clay, Humic Substance, Aquifer - Migration Behavior of Actinides (Uranium, Neptunium) in Clays: Characterization and Quantification of the Influence of Humic Substances (Final Report BMWi Project No.: 02 E 9673)

Sachs, S.; Krepelova, A.; Schmeide, K.; Koban, A.; Günther, A.; Mibus, J.; Brendler, V.; Geipel, G.; Bernhard, G.

Objective of this project was the study of interaction processes between humic substances, U(VI), Np(V) and kaolinite KGa-1b. It contributed to the attainment of a better process understanding, the improvement of the knowledge on the interaction of humic substances and metal ions and the enhancement of the thermodynamic database.
With a synthetic humic acid (HA), N-containing functional groups of HA were characterized by 15N-NMR spectroscopy. Based on these results, model studies of the influence of amino groups on the complexation behavior of HA were performed. Spectroscopic studies with amino acids show that the amino group do not contribute to the U(VI) complexation at pH 4.
The impact of kaolinite on the formation of HA and humic substance-kaolinite-sorbates was studied in model syntheses. The results exhibit that the presence of kaolinite during the syntheses mainly influences the yields on HA and their elemental compositions. Synthetic humic substance-kaolinite-sorbates were isolated.
Under exclusion of CO2, the U(VI) complexation by HA was investigated at pH 7 by means of the conventional time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) and TRLFS with ultrafast pulses. Complexation parameters for the ternary complex UO2(OH)HA(I) were determined.
Studies of the Np(V) reduction in presence of HA with different functionalities under anaerobic conditions have shown that Np(V) is reduced to Np(IV) by HA. The redox capacity depends on the HA functionality. Applying a modified HA it was verified that phenolic/acidic OH groups play a dominating role in the Np(V) reduction.
The influence of HA on the U(VI) and Np(V) sorption onto kaolinite was investigated in batch experiments. In dependence on the experimental conditions, HA effects the sorption and consequently the mobility of U(VI) and Np(V). From studies of the U(VI) sorption onto synthetic humic substance-kaolinite-sorbates it was concluded that the structure and functionality of sorbed/associated humic substances considerably influence the sorption behavior of U(VI). The structure of U(VI)-kaolinite-surface complexes in presence of HA was studied by means of X-ray absorption spectroscopy and TRLFS and compared to those of U(VI)-kaolinite-complexes.
Investigations of the migration of HA and U(VI) in the laboratory system kaolinite-water were carried out in diffusion experiments. The migration of HA in compacted clay is governed by diffusion and influenced by its colloidal properties. Humic substances exert an immobilizing effect on the U(VI) transport in compacted kaolinite.

Keywords: Actinides; Uranium; Neptunium; Humic substances; Humic acids; Model substances; Clay; Kaolinite; Complexation; Reduction; Sorption; Migration; Diffusion; Repository

  • Other report
    Dresden: Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, 2006
    116 Seiten
  • Open Access Logo Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf; FZD-460 2007
    ISSN: 1437-322X
  • Contribution to external collection
    C.M. Marquardt: Migration of Actinides in the System Clay, Humic Substances Aquifer. Forschungszentrum Karslruhe, Wissenschaftliche Berichte FZKA 7407, Karlsruhe: Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 2008, 23-140


Publ.-Id: 9094

EXAFS spectra analysis: the mother wavelet choice

Schabelnikova, S.; Funke, H.; Chukalina, M.

  • wird nachgereicht
  • Contribution to proceedings
    International science-technical Conference "Fundamental problems of the radioelectronic instrument-making industry", 24.-28.10.2006, Moscow, Russia
    Book of Proceedings, MIREA, 143-146
  • Poster
    International science-technical Conference "Fundamental problems of the radioelectronic instrument-making industry", 24.-28.10.2006, Moscow, Russia

Publ.-Id: 9093

Wavelet analysis of the EXAFS spectra: new wavelet function as a linear combination of two Morlet wavelets

Schabelnikova, S.; Funke, H.; Chukalina, M.

  • wird nachgereicht
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Digest Reports of the XVI International Synchrotron RadiationConference., 10.-14.07.2006, Novosibirsk, Russia
    Book of Abstracts, 76
  • Poster
    Digest Reports of the XVI International Synchrotron RadiationConference. Book of Abstracts, 11.-14.07.2006, Novosibirsk, Russia

Publ.-Id: 9092

Wavelet transform usage to analyse the signals and images collected by the X-ray techniques

Chukalina, M.; Funke, H.

  • wird nachgereicht
  • Contribution to proceedings
    International scientific Workshop "Modern techniques for the X-ray diffraction data analysis", 22.-25.05.2006, Velikii Novgorod, Russia, 278-281
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Wavelet transform usage to analyse the signals and images collected by the X-ray techniques, 22.-25.05.2006, Velikii Novgorod, Russia

Publ.-Id: 9091

The local structure of soddyite: EXAFS shell fitting and wavelet analysis

Funke, H.; Hennig, C.; Rossberg, A.; Scheinost, A.

  • wird nachgereicht
  • Poster
    Actinides XAS 2006, 18.-20.09.2006, Karlsruhe, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 9090

XAFS studies of cobalt(II) binding by solid peat and soil-derived humic acids and plant-derived humic acid-like substances

Ghabbour, E.; Scheinost, A.; Davies, G.

This work has examined cobalt(II) binding by a variety of solid humic acids (HAs) isolated from peat, plant and soil sources at temperatures down to 60 K. The results confirm that X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) measurements cannot distinguish between aquo and carboxylato ligands in the inner coordination sphere of Co(II). However, between I and 2 inner-sphere carboxylato ligands can be detected in all the peat, plant and soil-derived HA samples by extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) measurements, indicating inner-sphere coordination of HA-bound Co(II). The precision of C(carboxylate) detection is limited by the extent and quality of the data and the contribution from inner-sphere O to the Fourier transformed peaks used to detect carbon. Putative chelate ring formation is consistent with a relatively negative entropy change in step A, the stronger Co(II) binding step by HA functional groups, and could relate to 'non-exchangeable' metal binding by HSs.

  • Chemosphere 67(2007)2, 285-291

Publ.-Id: 9089

Investigation of a TSEE dosimetry system for determination of dose in a cell monolayer

Lehnert, A.; Beyreuther, E.; Lessmann, E.; Pawelke, J.

A prototype system for radiobiological studies has been investigated. It is based on thermally stimulated exoelectron emission (TSEE) detectors and can be used for precise determination of the absorbed dose in a live cell monolayer of several µm thickness. In the present study, five types of BeO detectors, different in structure and method of production, were tested in combination with a Geiger-Müller counter. The dose response and dose range, reproducibility and long-time stability of response, as well as the applicability in a simulated cell culture environment have been studied. The dose response was found to be linear over two orders of magnitude and limited by the counter resolution. However, by a variation of detector sensitivity, the whole dose range of interest for radiobiological experiments can be covered. The irradiation in a simulated cell environment was successful only for one detector type. The system performance was found to be limited by the variation in the system response for time periods longer than several hours, therefore, it is suitable for absolute dose measurement with calibrated detectors if reproducible laboratory conditions are provided.

Keywords: TSEE; exoelectron emission; BeO; Geiger-Müller counter; dosimetry; cell monolayer

Publ.-Id: 9088

Plutonium incorporation in phosphate and titanate ceramics for minor actinide containment

Deschanels, X.; Picot, V.; Glorieux, B.; Jorion, F.; Peuget, S.; Roudil, D.; Jegou, C.; Broudic, V.; Cachia, J. N.; Advocat, T.; Den Auwer, C.; Fillet, C.; Coutures, J. P.; Hennig, C.; Scheinost, A.

Two ceramics, zirconolite and a monazite-brabantite solid solution (MBss) were studied for the immobilization of minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm) produced by reprocessing spent fuel. Monoclinic zirconolite (CaZrTi2O7) is a fluorite derivative structure and is the primary actinide host phase in Synroc (a titanate composite). Monazite (LnPO(4), where Ln = La, Ce, Nd, Gd, etc.) is a monoclinic orthophosphate containing trivalent cations, and brabantite (Ca(0.5)An(0.5)PO(4)) is ail isostructural monazite compound containing tetravalent cations (An = Th and U). The nominal composition of the ceramics studied in this work is (Ca0.87Pu0.13)Zr(Al0.26Ti1.74)O-7 for zirconolite and (Ca0.09Pu0.09La0.73Th0.09)PO4 for the monazite-brabantite solid solution. These formulas correspond to 10 wt% PuO2 loading ill each material. XANES spectroscopy showed that the plutonium is tetravalent in zirconolite and trivalent in MBss. Thorium, another tetravalent cation, call be incorporated at 10 wt% ThO2 in MBss. Aluminum and calcium balance the excess cationic charge resulting from the incorporation of Pu(IV) in zirconolite and Th(IV) in brabantite, respectively. The relative density of the pellets exceeded 90% of theoretical density. The samples exhibited a homogeneous microstructure even if some minor phases. representing less than 2% of the surface area, were detected. The two ceramics are compared in terms of actinide loading, and preliminary results on their long-term behavior are discussed. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • Journal of Nuclear Materials 352(2006)1-3, 233-240

Publ.-Id: 9087

Enhancing cerium and plutonium solubility by reduction in borosilicate glass

Cachia, J. N.; Deschanels, X.; Den Auwer, C.; Pinet, O.; Phalippou, J.; Hennig, C.; Scheinost, A.

High-level radioactive wastes produced by spent fuel reprocessing containing fission and activation products as well as actinides are incorporated in a borosilicate glass. To ensure optimum radionuclide containment, the resulting glass must be as homogeneous as possible. Microscopic heterogeneity can arise from various processes including the excess loading of an element above its solubility limit. The current actinide loading limit is 0.4 wt%. Work is in progress to assess the actinide solubility in these glasses, especially for plutonium. Initially the actinides were simulated by lanthanides and hafnium. The results show that trivalent elements (La, Gd) exhibit greater solubility than tetravalent elements (Pu, Hf). Cerium is an interesting element because its oxidation state varies from IV to III depending on the process conditions, such as the temperature and redox potential of the melt. In order to quantify the solubility increase, cerium-doped glass samples were melted under reducing conditions by adding a reducing agent. The solubility observed at 1473 K increased significantly from 0.95 to 13.00 wt%. Several reducing compounds have been tested. This paper deals with this study and the application to reduce Pu(IV) to Pu(III). The reduction state was characterized by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES) for plutonium and by chemical analysis for cerium. The material homogeneity was verified by optical and scanning electron microscopy. Preliminary findings concerning the reduction of Pu-doped glasses fabricated in hot cells are also discussed. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • Journal of Nuclear Materials 352(2006)1-3, 182-189

Publ.-Id: 9086

The molecular topology of uranium(VI) bonding to iron and aluminium oxyhydroxide nanoclusters revisited by EXAFS spectroscopy

Rossberg, A.; Ulrich, K.-U.; Scheinost, A. C.

Applying a novel approach to the spectral analysis of Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) we were able to derive an advanced 3-D structural model of the uranyl sorption complex on hydrated carbonate-free surfaces of aluminum(III) and iron(III) oxyhydroxide nanoclusters. The calculated molecular model fits the EXAFS data consistently up to a radial sphere of 4.5 Å around the uranium absorber. Being unaware of the physicochemical reasons for the specific complex topology characterized by a slightly tilted and distorted geometry, alternative ideas of EXAFS interpretation are discussed.

Keywords: uranium; sorption; iron oxides; monte carlo simulation; x-ray absorption spectroscopy

  • Poster
    Actinides XAS 2006, 18.-20.09.06, Karlsruhe, Germany
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Actinides XAS 2006, 18.-20.09.2006, Karlsruhe, Germany
    Speciation Techniques and Facilities for Radioactive Materials at Synchrotron Light Sources: OECD, 978-92-64-99006-7, 281

Publ.-Id: 9085

Spectroscopic Studies on Colloid-borne Uranium(VI)

Rossberg, A.; Ulrich, K.-U.; Scheinost, A. C.

wird nachgereicht

Keywords: uranium; mining; sorption; iron oxide; x-ray absorption spectroscopy

  • Poster
    16th Users Meeting, ESRF, 08.-11.02.2006, Grenoble, France, 06.-10.02.2006, Grenoble, France

Publ.-Id: 9084

Production of 86Y and 56Co at the Rossendorf CYCLONE 18/9

Preusche, S.; Wüst, F.; Seifert, S.; Schilling, K.-D.; Wenzel, R.; Dohn, N.; Steinbach, J.

The Rossendorf version of the CYCLONE 18/9 is equipped with a 2 m long external beam transport line (BTL) to have the possibility of producing non-standard PET radionuclides. For this purpose a solid target system was developed and mounted to the BTL. This system increases the flexibility of the CYCLONE 18/9 and enables the production of e.g. 86Y and 56Co for applications in radiochemistry, nuclear medicine and nuclear physics. The solid target system is introduced shortly and the parameters, data and results of the production of 86Y and 56Co are given.

  • Lecture (Conference)
    11th International Workshop on Targetry and Target Chemistry, 28.-31.08.2006, Cambridge, Great Britain
  • Contribution to proceedings
    11th International Workshop on Targetry and Target Chemistry, 28.-31.08.2006, Cambridge, UK
    11th International Workshop on Targetry and Target Chemistry, 86

Publ.-Id: 9083

Experimental investigation and CFD validation of horizontal air/water slug flow

Vallee, C.; Höhne, T.

In different scenarios of small break Loss of Coolant Accident (SB-LOCA), stratified two-phase flow regimes can occur in the main cooling lines of pressurized water reactors. Because these flow patterns cannot be predicted with the required accuracy and spatial resolution by the one-dimensional system codes, the stratified flows are increasingly modelled with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. In CFD, closure models are required that must be validated, especially if they are to be applied to nuclear reactor safety. Because the structure of the interface is strongly connected with the momentum transfer between the phases, the water surface characteristics can be used for validation purposes. Experimental data suitable for CFD validation must satisfy special quality criteria, in particular the boundary conditions and the measurement resolution.

For the investigation of co-current two-phase flows at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, the Horizontal Air/Water Channel (HAWAC) was built at Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. At the channel inlet, a special device was designed for a separate injection of water and air into the test-section. A blade separating the phases can be moved up and down to control the free inlet cross-section for each phase. This provides adjustable and well-defined inlet boundary conditions and therefore very good CFD validation possibilities.

The HAWAC facility is designed for the application of optical measurement techniques, which deliver the high resolution required for CDF validation. Therefore, the 8 m long acrylic glass test-section with rectangular cross-section provides good observation possibilities. High-speed video observation and particle image velocimetry (PIV) were applied during slug flow. The camera images show the generation of slug flow from the inlet of the test-section. An algorithm was developed to recognise the interface and the extraction of quantitative values, like water level and slug propagation velocity. The PIV measurements reveal the inner flow rotation inside a slug.

Parallel to the experiments, CFD calculations were carried out. The aim of the numerical simulations is to validate the prediction of slug flow with the existing multiphase flow models built in the commercial code ANSYS CFX. The Euler-Euler two-fluid model with the free surface option was applied to a grid of 600,000 control volumes. The turbulence was modelled separately for each phase using the k-ω based shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model. The results compare well in terms of slug formation, velocity, and breaking. The qualitative agreement between calculation and experiment is encouraging, while quantitative comparison show that further model improvement is needed.

Keywords: Horizontal two-phase flow; Slug flow; High-speed video observations; CFD

  • Contribution to proceedings
    15th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE15), 22.-26.04.2007, Nagoya, Japan
    Paper ICONE15-10469
  • Lecture (Conference)
    15th International Conference on Nuclear Engineering (ICONE15), 22.-26.04.2007, Nagoya, Japan

Publ.-Id: 9082

Impact of optical in-plane anisotropy on near-field phonon polariton spectroscopy

Schneider, S.; Seidel, J.; Grafström, S.; Eng, L. M.; Winnerl, S.; Stehr, D.; Helm, M.

To examine the influence of optical anisotropy on the near-field signal measured in a scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscope, we excite optically uniaxial LiNbO3 close to a phonon resonance at a wavelength of 13 µm in the infrared regime using a tunable free-electron laser. This allows us to excite a phonon polariton resonance in the coupled tip-sample system. We find that the resonance shows a clear dependence on the orientation of the optical axis of the birefringent crystal.

  • Applied Physics Letters 90(2007), 143101

Publ.-Id: 9081

High-resolution rapid-scan THz spectrometer using a large-area photoconductive emitter in combination with asynchronous optical sampling

Dreyhaupt, A.; Winnerl, S.; Schneider, H.; Helm, M.; Bartels, A.; Thoma, A.; Janke, C.; Dekorsy, T.

We present an approach for photoconductive THz generation providing a broad bandwidth and exceptionally high electric-field amplitude. A large-area interdigitated two-electrode structure on a GaAs substrate offers high electric fields at moderate bias voltages. In order to avoid destructive interference of the THz waves in the far field, every second electrode gap is masked by an additional metallization [1]. Thus all semiconductor regions exposed to incident radiation exhibit parallel electric fields and photocarriers excited by a mode locked Ti:Sapphire laser with MHz or GHz repetition rates are accelerated in the same direction. Areas with anti-parallel fields do not contribute to the THz radiation, thus the resulting constructive interference gives rise to an intense THz output. Using electro-optic sampling, we detect a THz field amplitude of 1.7 kV/cm, which is almost one order of magnitude higher as compared to previous photoconductive emitters excited with pulses from an unamplified oscillator. This field value corresponds to an average THz power of 145 µW and yields a NIR-to-THz power-conversion efficiency as high as 2 × 10-4. We have employed this emitter concept in a compact THz spectrometer based on asynchronous optical sampling (ASOPS) [2]. ASOPS allows us to scan the THz electric field over a nanosecond time delay at a kilohertz scan rate without using a mechanical delay stage. To this end, two mode-locked femtosecond lasers with approximately 1 GHz repetition rate are combined at a fixed, stabilized kHz difference frequency ∆f. One laser delivers the THz excitation pulse, the other provides the probe pulses for electro-optic detection. In this way, the relative time delay between the THz pulses and the probe pulses is linearly ramped, thus enabling high-speed scanning over a 1 ns time delay with the scan rate ∆f. At a scan rate of 9 kHz a time resolution of 230 fs is accomplished. High-resolution spectra from 50 GHz up to 3 THz are obtained and water absorption lines with a width of 11 GHz are observed. A dynamic range larger than 3 orders of magnitude is achieved in a few 10 seconds averaging time.
[1] A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, T. Dekorsy, M. Helm, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86, 121114 (2005).
[2] A. Bartels, A. Thoma, C. Janke, T. Dekorsy, A. Dreyhaupt, S. Winnerl, M. Helm, Opt. Express 14, 430-437 (2006).

  • Poster
    2nd Workshop on Terahertz Technology, 01.-02.03.2006, Kaiserslautern, Deutschland

Publ.-Id: 9080

Radiation damage in zirconia investigated by positively charged particles

Grynszpan, R. I.; Anwand, W.; Brauer, G.

nicht vorhanden

  • Lecture (Conference)
    19th International Conference on the Application of Accelerators in Research and Industry (CAARI2006), 20.-25.08.2006, Ft. Worth/Texas, USA

Publ.-Id: 9079

Characterization of semi-conducting nanorods by AFM and conducting AFM

Andreev, A.; Hou, Y.; Teichert, C.; Brauer, G.; Djurisic, A.

nicht vorhanden

  • Lecture (Conference)
    56. Jahrestagung der Österreichischen Physikalischen Gesellschaft (ÖPG), 18.-21.09.2006, Graz, Österreich

Publ.-Id: 9078

Electrical characterization of deep acceptor states in ZnO

von Wenckstern, H.; Schmidt, H.; Pickenhain, R.; Biehne, G.; Brandt, M.; Brauer, G.; Lorenz, M.; Dadgar, A.; Krost, A.; Grundmann, M.

nicht vorhanden

  • Lecture (Conference)
    MRS Fall Meeting 2006, 27.11.-01.12.2006, Boston/MA, USA

Publ.-Id: 9077

Synthesis of Nanowire Structures using Focused Ion Beams

Röntzsch, L.; Heinig, K.-H.; Akhmadaliev, C.; Bischoff, L.; Schmidt, B.

Nanowires (NWs) play an important role as basic components of electronic and photonic devices. Here, theoretical studies using atomistic computer simulations and experi¬mental results are presented on the CMOS-compatible fabrication of metal silicide and semiconductor NWs by focused ion beam (FIB) implantation and subsequent thermal annealing. The FIB implantation along a straight trace leads to a local and surface-near supersaturation in the substrate. Post-implantation annealing causes NW formation by self-organization. It is demonstrated that the evolution of the FIB implantation profile proceeds in three well-separated stages: (1) Phase separation by nucleation and growth, (2) NW formation by coalescence of nanoclusters, (3) NW surface smoothening. Likewise, components for functional devices involving several NWs, like T- or X-junctions, can be obtained by crossing different FIB traces. During long-term thermal annealing, NWs disintegrate into regular chains of nanoparticles (Rayleigh instability) that can be used as surface-plasmon-polariton waveguides. Crosses, corners or ends of NWs are subject to a preferential disintegration. Thus, structures suitable for single-electron-transistors and for multi-gate NW field effect transistors may be fabricated by crossing FIB traces.

Keywords: Nanowire; computer modeling; kinetic Monte Carlo; TRIM; ion beam synthesis; phase separation

  • Invited lecture (Conferences)
    17th Symposium of the MRS-J, 08.-10.12.2006, Tokyo, Japan

Publ.-Id: 9076

Der Reaktordruckbehälter in der Spätphase eines Kernschmelzunfalls - eine thermomechanische Modellierung

Willschütz, H.-G.

Gibt es Möglichkeiten, die Bevölkerung vor den Folgen eines hypothetischen schweren Kernschmelzunfalls in einem Reaktor zu schützen? Welche Schutzvorkehrungen sind bisher vorgesehen? Neue Antworten auf diese Fragen werden in der Reaktorsicherheitsforschung erarbeitet. In diesem Vortrag werden die Ergebnisse einer Forschungsarbeit zur Rückhaltbarkeit von Kernschmelze im Reaktordruckbehälter eines großen Kernkraftwerks dargelegt.

Keywords: Severe Accident; Nuclear Power Plant; Core Melt Down; Physical Barriers; In-Vessel-Retention

  • Lecture (others)
    Jahresabschlussveranstaltung 2006 der Sektion Sachsen der Kerntechnischen Gesellschaft, 12.12.2006, Dresden, Germany

Publ.-Id: 9075

Development and verification of a nodal approach for solving the multigroup SP3 equations

Beckert, C.; Grundmann, U.

The core model DYN3D which has been developed for three-dimensional analyses of steady states and transients in thermal reactors with quadratic or hexagonal fuel assemblies is based on nodal methods for the solution of the two group neutron diffusion equation. Loading cores with higher content of MOX fuel, the increase of the fuel cycle length, and the consideration of new reactor types are challenging for these standard methods. A nodal expansion method for solving the equations of the simplified P3 (SP3) approximation of the multigroup transport equation was developed to improve the accuracy of the DYN3D code. The method described in the paper is verified with pinwise calculations of a steady state of the OECD/NEA and U.S. NRC PWR MOX/UO2 Core Transient Benchmark. The used 16-group cross section library was generated for DORT calculations with homogenized pin cells. Two different approximations of the diffusion coefficient which occurs in the within-group form of the SP3 equations are investigated. Using the transport cross section for the calculation of the diffusion coefficient gives much better results than those obtained with the removal cross section. The improvement of the results in comparison to a pinwise diffusion calculation is shown. The results are compared with the DORT and the heterogeneous reference solution of the code DeCART. Concerning the SP3 calculation using the diffusion coefficient based on the transport cross section (DYN3D-SP3-TR) the deviations of the eigenvalue keff and the assembly powers from the transport solutions of DORT and DeCART are in the same order as those between the two transport solutions themselves. The improvement of the DYN3D-SP3-TR results in comparison to the diffusion calculation is presented. As the DYN3D-SP3-TR and DORT calculations are performed with homogenized pin cells, the pin powers of the two calculations are closer to each other than to the pin powers of the DeCART solution. To estimate the contribution of higher flux moments, the ratio of the second flux moment to the zeroth flux moment is investigated along a horizontal row of pins. It is shown that it is low in the fuel assemblies with small peaks at the water channels. Considering the baffle and the water reflector regions higher values are obtained in the fast neutron groups.

Keywords: SP3; DYN3D; nodal methods; multigroup; neutron transport; neutron diffusion

  • Annals of Nuclear Energy 35(2008)1, 75-86

Publ.-Id: 9074

The stimulatory effects of low density lipoprotein on steroidogenesis in adrenocortical cells decline with in vitro oxidation and in vivo modification

Kopprasch, S.; Ansurudeen, I.; Krug, A.; Pietzsch, J.; Graessler, J.; Bornstein, S. R.

kein Abstract verfügbar

  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Atherosclerosis 7(2006)Suppl. 3, 522
  • Poster
    XIV International Symposium on Atherosclerosis, 18.-22.06.2006, Rome, Italy

Publ.-Id: 9073

Stimulation of adrenal steroidogenesis by low-density lipoprotein: Impact of oxidative stress and blockage of the ERK signalling pathway

Kopprasch, S.; Ansurudeen, I.; Pietzsch, J.; Graessler, J.; Bornstein, S. R.

kein Abstract verfügbar

  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Diabetes, Stoffwechsel und Herz 15(2006), 28
  • Lecture (Conference)
    2nd Internatinal Symposium on Metabolic Syndrome, 06.-08.10.2006, Dresden, Germany

Publ.-Id: 9072

Differences in VLDL production in impaired glucose tolerance, Type 2 diabetes and familial combined hyperlipidemia

Julius, U.; Pietzsch, J.

kein Abstract verfügnbar

  • Abstract in refereed journal
    Atherosclerosis 7(2006)Suppl. 3, 507
  • Lecture (Conference)
    XIV International Symposium on Atherosclerosis, 18.-22.06.2006, Rome, Italy

Publ.-Id: 9071

Lipid transfer protein activities in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

Julius, U.; Jauhiainen, M.; Ehnholm, C.; Pietzsch, J.

Background: Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis that may be due in part to dyslipidemia. The purpose of this study was to assess the regulatory role of lipid transfer proteins in the development of this dyslipidemia. Methods: Activities of cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), as well as lipid and protein components of the major lipoprotein fractions, were evaluated in probands with IGT and were compared with those in subjects with normal glucose tolerance. The effect of a fat-rich meal on these variables was also investigated. Results: IGT probands had a higher triglyceride content in subfractions of low- (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). IGT patients had higher fasting CETP activity. The latter was positively correlated with HDL2 triglycerides and negatively with HDL3 total cholesterol. PLTP activity and mass were not higher in IGT patients. However, PLTP activity correlated with components of VLDL and LDL and was influenced by the type of obesity. Neither CETP and PLTP activities nor PLTP mass were altered by a fat-rich meal. PLTP and CETP activities correlated in both fasting and postprandial conditions. Conclusions: Increased fasting CETP activity may contribute to increased risk of atherosclerosis in subjects with IGT.

  • Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 45(2007)2, 237-243

Publ.-Id: 9070

Small-angle neutron scattering study of neutron irradiated Fe and Fe-Ni

Bergner, F.; Ulbricht, A.; Hernandez-Mayoral, M.; Pranzas, P. K.

Nickel plays a key role in the degradation mechanism of neutron-irradiated reactor pressure vessel steels. Binary Fe-Ni alloys are basic for understanding and modeling of the behaviour of more complex steels. The nature of irradiation-induced features in Fe-3wt%Ni was investigated by means of small-angle neutron scattering and Vickers hardness measurements and compared with results for commercially pure Fe. We have observed a vacancy-Ni ratio of 0.4 to 0.5 in the average scatterer. This finding is consistent with the hardness increase observed.

Publ.-Id: 9069

Consequences of different fuel cycle options on the produced plutonium mass in the German reactor park

Merk, B.

In this cycle study the Pu production in the German reactor park will be analyzed and compared to different limiting scenarios. The effects on the Pu production due to a postulated lifetime extension of roughly 10 years are discussed.

Keywords: Plutonium; Cycle Study; German Reactorpark; Lifetime extension; Stockpile Management

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Jahrestagung Kerntechnik 2007, 22.-24.05.07, Karlsruhe, Germany
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Jahrestagung Kerntechnik 2007, 22.-24.05.07, Karlsruhe, Germany

Publ.-Id: 9068

Der Einfluss von Kolloiden auf den Urantransport in radioaktiven Endlagern und in stillgelegten Uranbergwerken - Ein kritischer Vergleich

Zänker, H.; Ulrich, K.-U.; Opel, K.; Brendler, V.

Durch Laborexperimente und durch den Vergleich mit der geochemischen Erfahrung wird die Rolle von U(IV)- und U(VI)-haltigen Kolloiden für radioaktive Endlager und für stillgelegte Uranbergwerke analysiert. Gezeigt wird, dass in der natürlichen Umwelt sowohl transportunterstützende Einflüsse von Kolloiden auf „immobile“ radiotoxische Kontaminanten wie Uran(IV) als auch transporthemmende Einflüsse auf „mobile“ radiotoxische Kontaminanten wie Uran(VI) möglich sind. Bei Performance-Asssessment-Berechnungen für radioaktive Endlager stehen die transportfördernden Einflüsse der Kolloide im Vordergrund, transporthemmende werden meist vernachlässigt. Für Bergwerke dagegen sind, neben transportfördernden auch transporthemmende Kolloideinflüsse (Natural Attenuation) von großem Interesse, denn sie können in Remediationsstrategien ausgenutzt werden.

Keywords: Colloids; uranium(IV); Uranium(VI); transport-facilitating effects; transport-impeding effects

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Wasser 2007. Jahrestagung der Wasserchemischen Gesellschaft, 14.-16.05.2007, Passau, Germany
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Wasser 2007. Jahrestagung der Wasserchemischen Gesellschaft, GDCh, 14.-16.05.2007, Passau, Deutschland, 14.-16.05.2007, Passau, Germany, ISBN 3-936028-43-5, 68-71

Publ.-Id: 9066

Nanocrystals: Catalysts on the edge

Gemming, S.; Seifert, G.

MoS2 nanoplatelets have catalytically active sites along their edegs that are promising for desulfurizing fuels

Keywords: clusters; catalysis; molybdenum sulfide

Publ.-Id: 9065

Changes in hardness and elasticity of a Ti6Al4V alloy under helium irradiation

Chen, S. H.; Schumacher, G.; Xu, Z. Y.; Richter, E.

Ti6Al4V specimens have been irradiated at different temperatures with 200 keV He ions. Microhardness and elastic modulus of the unirradiated and irradiated specimens were measured by means of the nano-indentation technique and analyzed using the Oliver-Pharr method. The indentation depth of all samples is 700 nm, which is comparable in magnitude to the ion range. The subsurface structure of the Ti6Al4V specimens was investigated by the X-ray diffraction technique. The measurements indicate that the microhardness increased with the irradiation temperature from room temperature to 600 degrees C while the elastic modulus almost monotonically decreased. The Irradiation at 700 degrees C, however, caused softening and slight increase of the elastic modulus within the surface layer of the specimens. The hardening and reduction of the elastic modulus of the Ti6Al4V alloy under irradiation conditions used in this study is tentatively explained by a model based on the presence of point defects and dispersed obstacles of P-precipitates. The softening and slight increase of elastic modulus of helium-irradiated Ti6Al4V at 700 degrees C might be related to the coarsening of beta-precipitates and formation of the hybrid gamma-TiH phase in alpha-phase.

  • Journal of Nuclear Materials 358(2006)1, 26-34

Publ.-Id: 9064

DYN3D-MSR spatial dynamics code for Molten Salt Reactors

Krepel, J.; Rohde, U.; Grundmann, U.; Weiß, F.-P.

The development of spatial dynamics code for Molten Salt Reactors (MSR) is reported in this paper. The graphite-moderated channel type MSR - one of the 'Generation IV' concepts - was selected for the numerical simulation. It has several peculiarities (e.g. the drift of delayed neutrons precursors), which disable the use of standard dynamics codes. Therefore, the own DYN3D-MSR code was developed. It is based on the light water reactor code DYN3D and it allows transients simulation by 3D neutronics and parallel channel thermal-hydraulics. The neutronics and thermal-hydraulics were modified for the MSR peculiarities, where the experience from DYN1D-MSR development was exploited. The code was validated on experimental results from the MSRE experiment done in Oak Ridge National Laboratory and by the comparison with other codes especially with the 1D version. However, by the 3D code transients can be simulated, where space-dependant efforts are relevant, like local blockage of fuel channels or local temperature perturbations.

Keywords: Molten; Salt; Dynamics; MSR; MSRE; MSBR

  • Annals of Nuclear Energy 34(2007), 449-462

Publ.-Id: 9063

Corrigendum to "Nickel assisted metal induced crystallization of silicon: Effect of native silicon oxide layer"

Pereira, L.; Martins, R. M. S.; Schell, N.; Fortunato, E.; Martins, R.

This work focuses on the role of the native oxide layer (SiO2) on the nickel (Ni)-assisted crystallization of amorphous silicon (a-Si). In some samples, the native oxide was removed using a HF-diluted solution before Ni layers with 0.5 nm be deposited on a-Si. The results show that the presence of a thin SiO2 layer of about 3 nm between the a-Si and the Ni delays the crystallization process. Ellipsometry data show that, after annealing for 5 h at 500 °C, the HF-cleaned sample presents a crystalline fraction of 88%, while the one with the native oxide has only 35%. This difference disappears after 20 h where both samples present similar crystalline fraction. These facts are also reflected on the film's electrical properties, where the activation energy for samples annealed for 5 h rises from 0.42 eV to 0.55 eV, when the oxide layer is removed. After 20 h and 30 h, the activation energy is around 0.55 eV for both kinds of samples, meaning that films with similar electrical properties are now obtained. However, the XRD data suggest the presence of some structural differences attributed to slight differences on the crystallization process.

Keywords: Polycrystalline silicon; Nickel-assisted crystallization; Spectroscopic ellipsometry

  • Thin Solid Films 511-512(2006), 275-279
  • Poster
    E-MRS 2005, 31.05.-03.06.2005, Strasbourg, France

Publ.-Id: 9062

Novel wire-mesh sensor for the investigation of non-conducting fluids

Da Silva, M. J.; Schleicher, E.; Hampel, U.

Conductivity wire-mesh sensors have been successfully employed in the investigation of two-phase flows in the past. Since the measuring principle requires at least one continuous conductive phase, wire-mesh sensors have almost exclusively been used for the investigation of air-water or steam-water systems. Nevertheless, non-conducting fluids such as oil or organic liquids often occur in industrial applications, for instance, in chemical and petrochemical industry. The experimental investigation of multiphase flows involving non-conducting fluids is therefore of large interest. For this reason we developed a novel wire-mesh sensor based on measurements of the electrical permittivity (capacitance) which is suitable for the investigation of non-conducting fluids. The prototype sensor consists of two layers of 16 steel wires each. The system can at the moment produce cross-sectional phase distribution images with 625 frames per second. Sensor and associate electronic were evaluated showing good accuracy and reproducibility in the permittivity measurement. Initial results of an air-oil bubbly flow as well as a slug flow measurement are presented.

Keywords: capcitance measurement; relative permittivity; wire-mesh sensor; two-phase flow; non-conducting fluid

  • Contribution to proceedings
    International Conference on Multiphase Flow, ICMF 2007, 09.-13.07.2007, Leipzig, Germany
    Proceedings of 6th International Conference on Multiphase Flow, paper S7_Thu_B_51, 978-3-86010-913-7
  • Lecture (Conference)
    International Conference on Multiphase Flow, ICMF 2007, 09.-13.07.2007, Leipzig, Germany

Publ.-Id: 9061

Analysis of wafer stresses during millisecond thermal processing

Smith, M.; Seffen, K.; Mc Mahon, R.; Voelskow, M.; Skorupa, W.

A flash lamp has been used to uniformly anneal large wafers with diameters approaching 100 mm. The equipment applies a pulse, with duration of 3-20 ms, resulting in large transient thermal gradients in the wafer. In this paper, we present separate models of the thermal reaction of this process and its effect upon the mechanical behavior, in order to predict stresses and shape changes, and to capture practical phenomenon. We further use the model to follow changes in the expected response consequent on altering process conditions, such as preheating and pulse duration, as well as exploring important issues associated with scaling to large wafer sizes. This work presents an initial description of the thermomechanical response of wafers to flash lamp annealing in the millisecond time regime and is therefore fundamental to the use of this technique in the fabrication of semiconductor devices.

Keywords: flash lamp annealing stress silicon model

  • Journal of Applied Physics 100(2006)6, 63515

Publ.-Id: 9059

Actinide, lanthanide, and fission product speciation and electrochemistry in ionic melts

Bhatt, A. I.; Kinoshita, H.; Koster, A. L.; May, I.; Sharrad, C.; Steele, H. M.; Volkovich, V. A.; Fox, O. D.; Jones, C. J.; Lewin, B. G.; Charnock, J. M.; Hennig, C.

We report the results of recent research that we have undertaken to increase our understanding of key actinide and fission product speciation in a range of ionic melts. These results will be used to develop novel electrochemical methods of separation of uranium and plutonium from irradiated nuclear fuel. Our studies in high temperature alkali metal melts (including LiCl and the eutectics LiCl-KCl and CsCI-NaCl) have focussed on in-situ speciation of U, Tc and Ru using both Electronic Absorption Spectroscopy (EAS) and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). The XAS studies have included Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) and X-Ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) measurements. We report what could be unusual uranium speciation in high temperature melts and evaluate the likelihood of Ru or Tc volatilisation during plant operation. Our studies in lower temperature melts, commonly known as ionic liquids, have focussed on salts containing tertiary alkyl group 15 cations and the bis(trifluoromethylsulphonyl)imide anion, melts which we know to have exceptionally wide electrochemical windows. We report Ln, Th, U and Np speciation (XAS, EAS and vibrational spectroscopy) and electrochemistry in these melts.


  • ACS Symposium Series 933(2006), 219-231

Publ.-Id: 9058

Electrical conductivity surface sensor for two-phase flow imaging in a hydrodynamic coupling

Da Silva, M. J.; Sühnel, T.; Thiele, S.; Schleicher, E.; Hampel, U.; Kernchen, R.

For the measurement of fluid distributions inside a hydrodynamic coupling we have developed a high-speed surface sensor based on the measurement of the electrical conductivity. Two sensors are placed on the pressure-side and the suction-side walls of a blade channel inside the coupling. The sensors are composed by approximately 1000 interdigitated sensing structures. The system is supplied by a battery and has a wireless link to communicate with a PC. Sensor and electronics have been so designed that the whole system can rotate together with the coupling pump wheel. The electronics measures the conductivity of the liquid of each sensing structure in a multiplexed manner which effectively gives images of the instantaneous liquid distribution over the sensor surface. Frame frequencies of up to 10,000 images per second can be reached. We have applied the surface sensor to measure the fluid distribution in a test coupling for different slip conditions. Initial results are presented and discussed.

Keywords: electrical conductivity; surface sensor; fluid distribution; imaging; two-phase flow; hydrodynamic coupling

  • Contribution to proceedings
    International Conference on Multiphase Flow, 09.-13.07.2007, Leipzig, Germany
    Proceedings of 6th International Conference on Multiphase Flow, paper PS7_12, 978-3-86010-913-7
  • Poster
    International Conference on Multiphase Flow, 09.-13.07.2007, Leipzig, Germany

Publ.-Id: 9057

Time-dependent radioactivity distribution in MAFF

Nebel, F.; Zech, E.; Faestermann, T.; Krücken, R.; Maier-Komor, P.; Assmann, W.; Szerypo, J.; Groß, M.; Kester, O.; Thirolf, P. G.; Grötzschel, R.

The Munich Accelerator for Fission Fragments is planned to be installed at the FRM II in Garching. It will operate a uranium-carbide-loaded graphite matrix as a target for neutron-induced fission. The radioactive reaction fragments leave the ion source as both, atoms and ions. For radiation safety it is imperative to have a basic understanding of the fragment distribution within the beam line.

Atoms leaving the graphite matrix will spread like a gas and stick to surfaces depending on their species. A probabilistic Monte-Carlo approach is used to predict the surface coating of internal surfaces of the beam line for all fission nuclides. To decrease calculation time, the problem is reduced to two dimensions with the surface areas being a measure for the probability, that they are hit by a particle. The program is completely time dependent to implement radioactive decay.

Ions leaving the fission ion source are transported by electrostatic means towards the mass pre-separator, a low-resolution dipole magnet with a complex slit system in the focal plane. All unwanted ions are stopped at the slits, resulting in a high level of radioactive contamination. While it is advantageous for shielding purposes to have the majority of the contamination in one point, precautions must be taken to ensure that it stays that way. Material corrosion caused by sputtering will release previously implanted radionuclides. To reduce this effect, different methods are under investigation, one of which is changing the slit geometry. The considered designs will be described and experimental results will be shown.

Keywords: Radiation damage; Radiation safety; Radioactive beam; Reactor experiment; Ion implantation

  • Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 561(2006)1, 83-89

Publ.-Id: 9056

Radioactivity distribution at MAFF

Nebel, F.; Szerypo, J.; Zech, E.; Faestermann, T.; Groetzschel, R.; Gross, M.; Habs, D.; Krucken, R.; Maier-Komor, P.; Thirolf, P.; Yakushev, A.

A detailed account on the distribution of radioactive nuclei in the vacuum system of the planned Munich Accelerator for Fission Fragments (MAFF) located at the FRM-II research reactor is presented. Tools used for the simulation of spacial and temporal distribution of radionuclides are explained. The latter allows for a detailed activity budget as well as estimates for the mass-separated ion yields at MAFF. Additionally, a concept to reduce the activity release from the MAFF slit system due to surface sputtering is presented. It is shown, that the use of low-density carbon foam, as a surface coating, reduces sputtering by orders of magnitude.

Keywords: Theory, design, and computerized simulation; Materials; Safety; Beam handling; beam transport

  • European Physical Journal A 29(2006)3, 369-381

Publ.-Id: 9055

Focused-ion-beam-assisted fabrication of polymer rolled-up microtubes

Luchnikov, V.; Stamm, M.; Akhmadaliev, C.; Bischoff, L.; Schmidt, B.

A focused ion beam (FIB) has been applied to the fabrication of polymer microtubes via the rolling-up technique from poly(4-vinyl pyridine)/polystyrene bilayer films deposited on the top of a sacrificial aluminum layer covering a silicon wafer. The bending forces in the film arise due to different swelling of the bilayer components in acidic water and lead to rolling of the film. The dimensions and position of the rolled-up tubes can be controlled by FIB milling (sputtering) of geometrically well-adjusted openings in the polymer films. This technique can be applied to the structuring of scrolled films formed from different materials without the use of lithographically patterned photoresists. The geometrical patterning of the tube interior can also be done by FIB irradiation.

Keywords: Focused ion beam; polymers; roll-up; nanotubes

  • Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering 16(2006)8, 1602-1605

Publ.-Id: 9054

Molecular characterization of actinide oxocations from protactinium to plutonium

Den Auwer, C.; Guilbaud, P.; Guillaumont, D.; Moisy, P.; Le Naour, C.; Trubert, D.; Simoni, E.; Digiandomenico, V.; Hennig, C.; Scheinost, A.

For industrial, environmental and public health purposes, actinide chemistry has been the subject of considerable efforts since the 50’s. Aqueous redox chemistry, ionic selective recognition, uptake by specific biomolecules or compartments of the geosphere are some of the major fields of investigation. The physical-chemical properties of the actinide elements strongly depend on the 5f/6d electronic configuration. Some of them (U, Np, Pu and Am) can form AnO2n+ (n= 1, 2) oxocations, so-called actinyls, with two strong An-O covalent bonds. In any case, the cation polyhedron is characterized by large, flexible coordination spheres with various stable and metastable metal oxidation states. Protactinium, as the first actinide with 5f-electrons involved in bonding, occupies a key position in the actinide series. At formal oxidation state V (its most stable oxidation state in solution as well as in the solid state) Pa(V) corresponds to the formal 5f0 electronic configuration. U(VI) also corresponds to the formal oxidation state 5f0 and is most often encountered as the stable oxocationic form UO22+. The first stable form of U, Np or Pu at formal oxidation state (V) under atmospheric conditions is NpO2+ with formal 5f2 electronic configuration. U(V) is highly unstable under atmospheric conditions and Pu(V) dismutates into Pu(IV) and Pu(VI). On the other hand, the existence of the PaO2+ form in solution and in solid state is highly improbable and has never been reported. In solution, XAFS at the actinide LIII edge is an ideal structural probe of the cation coordination sphere. Furthermore, coupling the XAFS data with molecular dynamics calculations leads to a better description of the cation-solvent interactions. In addition, disorder can explicitly be taken into account using time spaced snapshots of the molecule. This is particularly important when large polyhedra are composed of ligands of similar types as water molecules. This presentation addresses the structural characterization of actinide cations at oxidation states (V) and (VI) as one walks across the periodic table from Z = 91 (protactinium) to Z = 94 (plutonium). For the fist time to our knowledge, the occurrence of the oxocation form of Pa(V) in H2SO4 solution has been inferred from EXAFS and XANES data at the Pa LIII edge. A structural comparison between Pa, U, Np and Pu oxocations in aqueous solution at formal oxidation states (V) and (VI) is carried out. These results are corroborated by quantum chemical and molecular dynamics calculations.

Keywords: Actinides; EXAFS; XANES

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Actinide-XAS, 18.-20.9.2006, Karlsruhe, Germany

Publ.-Id: 9053

EXAFS and UV-VIS investigation of the first coordination sphere of the uranyl ion in UO2(NO3)2(TBP)2

Servaes, K.; Hennig, C.; van Deun, R.; Görller-Walrand, C.

The coordination behaviour of the uranyl ion UO22+ has regained interest due to the problem of nuclear waste management and environmental issues. At the end of the nuclear fuel cycle, reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel mainly occurs by means of liquid-liquid extraction. During the PUREX process, the spent fuel is dissolved in a nitric acid solution. Uranium is extracted from the aqueous nitric acid fuel solution with an organic phase containing tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP; extracting agent). However, little is known about the structure of the chemical species involved in the liquid-liquid extraction process. The first coordination sphere of the uranyl ion UO22+ in UO2(NO3)2(TBP)2 was studied using UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, EXAFS spectroscopy and 31P-NMR. The characteristic vibrational fine structure in the UV-Vis absorption spectrum points at a high symmetrical complex. The uranium polyhedron is composed of two axial oxygens located at 1.77 ± 0.01 Å, four nitrate (bidentate) oxygens at 2.52 ± 0.01 Å and two phosphate oxygens (TBP) located at 2.38 ± 0.01 Å.

Keywords: UV-vis; EXAFS; uranium

  • Poster
    Actinide-XAS, 18.-20.9.2006, Karlsruhe, Germany

Publ.-Id: 9052

Combined techniques for studying actinide complexes in room temperature ionic liquids

Gaillard, C.; Billard, I.; Mekki, S.; Ouadi, A.; Hennig, C.; Denecke, M.

The first coordination sphere of the uranyl cation in room temperature ionic liquids "IL's" results from the competition between its initially bound counterions, the IL anions, and other anions (e.g. present as impurities, or added to the solution). We present a joined spectroscopic (UV-visible and EXAFS) – simulation study of the coordination of uranyl initially introduced either as its UO2X2 salts (X- = nitrate NO3-, triflate Tf-, perchlorate ClO4-) or as UO2(SO4) in a series of imidazolium – based ILs (A- = PF6-, Tf2N-, BF4-), as well as in the Me3NBuTf2N IL. The solubility and dissociation of the uranyl salts are found to depend on the nature of X- and A-. For instance, in the BumimTf2N liquid, UO2(SO4) is insoluble, the UO2(NO3)2 salt dissolves without dissociation, while the UO2(Tf)2 and UO2(ClO4)2 salts are soluble, likely in their complexed and dissociated form, respectively.

Keywords: room temperature ionic liquids; lanthanides; actinides; EXAFS

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Actinide-XAS, 18.-20.9.2006, Karlsruhe, Germany

Publ.-Id: 9051

Uranium chloro complexes in hydrophobic room temperature ionic liquid: structural investigation and redox properties

Cannes, C.; Nikitenko, S.; Le Naour, C.; Trubert, D.; Hennig, C.; Moisy, P.

U(IV) hexachloro complexes were studied in hydrophobic room temperature ionic liquids [BuMeIm][Tf2N] and [MeBu3N][Tf2N] to determine their structure, speciation and redox properties (BuMeIm+ and MeBu3N+ are 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium and tri-n-butylmethylammonium respectively, and Tf2N- is bis(trifluoromethyl-sulfonyl)imide).
As the Tf2N- anion is known to be a weak ligand exhibiting oxygen coordination as 1-O or 2-O,O to actinides or lanthanides, the U(IV) chloro complex could be under the general chemical form UClx(Tf2N)y(4-x-y).
The diffuse UV-vis solid state reflectance of both U(IV) complexes agree closely with the absorption spectra obtained in ionic liquids. It is well known that U(IV) hexachloro complex has a centrosymmetric octahedral arrangement in the solid state as well as in acetonitrile solution. It can be concluded that octahedral anion UCl62- is the predominant form of U(IV) in Tf2N- based ionic liquids. EXAFS measurements were also performed to investigate the coordination sphere of U(IV) chloro complex in [BuMeIm][Tf2N]. The results confirmed that the octahedral complex UCl62- is the predominant chemical form of U(IV) in Tf2N- based hydrophobic ionic liquids and a competing reaction with Tf2N- can be excluded. The U-Cl distance measured in [BuMeIm][Tf2N] is 2.632(2) Å and is slightly longer than that in solid state. Probably, it can be related to some stronger H-bonding of UCl62- with BuMeIm+ cation in ionic liquid than that of solid.

Keywords: UV-vis; EXAFS; ionic liquid; uranium

  • Lecture (Conference)
    EuChem conference on molten salts and ionic liquids 2006, 16.-22.09.2006, Hammamet, Tunisia

Publ.-Id: 9050

Elemental redistribution and Ge loss during ion-beam synthesis of Ge nanocrystals in SiO2 films

Beyer, V.; von Borany, J.

The elemental redistribution and Ge loss in low-energy Ge+ implanted SiO2 films during wet-chemical cleaning and annealing procedures are investigated. Two effects of major importance for Ge nanocrystal formation have been found. Moisture components (H2O vapor, H+, OH-) penetrate into the damaged oxide during storage, wet chemical cleaning or annealing procedures and lead to a hydrogen and oxygen enrichment in the near-surface oxide. Furthermore, atomic collisions during Ge implantation result in an oxygen excess (with respect to SiO2 stoichiometry) underneath the Ge profile. The local net ratio of Ge and excess oxygen determines, whether the implanted Ge is incorporated into the SiO2 network as spatially fixed GeO2, oxidizes to mobile GeO or remains as elemental Ge forming nanocrystals. Apart from very shallow profiles, where a drastic Ge loss is observed simply by cleaning in chemical solutions containing H2O2, the main Ge loss occurs during annealing. The highly mobile GeO is identified to be responsible for both, Ge redistribution or even loss, if diffusing GeO meets the SiO2 surface and emanates into the annealing ambient. Annealing in Ar/H2 mixtures at < 900°C reduces the Ge loss due to the reduction of Ge oxides. The enhanced Ge mobility (as GeO) is described as an oxygen vacancy assisted mechanism which also explains the influence of the Si/SiO2 interface on the Ge diffusivity. Finally, the consequences of Ge redistribution and loss for Ge nanocrystal memory device fabrication are discussed.

Keywords: ion beam synthesis; germanium; nanocrystal; SiO2; oxygen vacancy; GeODC

Publ.-Id: 9049

Probing six-fold ring clusters in alloyed sp2 dominated carbon thin films by the means of Raman spectroscopy

Abrasonis, G.; Krause, M.; Gago, R.; Kolitsch, A.; Möller, W.

The six-fold ring clustering in sp2-dominated pure carbon (C), nitrogenated carbon (CNx) and nickel alloyed carbon (C:Ni) thin films is investigated by Raman spectroscopy as a function of substrate temperature. Films have been grown by direct and dual ion beam sputtering, ion beam assisted evaporation and magnetron sputtering, resulting in amorphous, graphite-like, fullerene-like, paracyanogenlike, and in the case of C:Ni films – nanocomposite - structures.
Raman spectra in the wave-number region of 900–2000 cm−1 exhibit usually two main peaks positioned at ~1360 and ~1560–1590 cm−1 which are denoted conventionally by D and G, respectively, the G peak corresponding to in-plane bond stretching vibrations (it can be present in aromatic clusters as well as in chain structures) and the D peak corresponding to breathing vibrations of aromatic rings (it can be present only in ring structures). The total intensity of these peaks is proportional to the amount of the sp2 phase, while their relative ratio provides the information on the six-fold ring cluster size.
The results show that each type of atomic arrangement results in a characteristic set of the Raman spectra parameters, which describe the degree of aromatic clustering, bond length and angle distortion and order in sixfold structures1.
In the case of pure C films, the atomic structure evolves with substrate temperature from a disordered network to nanocrystalline planar graphitic configurations, with a progressive promotion in size and ordering of sixfold ring clusters1.
Nitrogen incorporation favors the promotion of sixfold rings in highly disordered networks produced at low temperatures, but precludes the formation of extended graphite-like clusters at elevated substrate temperatures (>400°C). In the latter case, N introduces a high degree of disorder in sixfold ring clusters and enhances the formation of a fullerene-like microstructure1.
The presence of Ni slightly favours the six-fold ring clustering at low temperatures (<300°C), while Raman spectra at higher temperatures have similar features for both C and C:Ni films. For deposition temperatures lower than 300°C, the the absolute intensity of the D-G band decreases by more than one order of magnitude despite the similar total amount of deposited material and one additional Raman line at around 1100 cm-1 appear indicating the presence of new carbon structures in the film. This correlates with the Ni segregation into nickel carbide or nickel nanoparticles occurring at T~300°C, thus segregated Ni and C phases may undergo separate ordering paths at higher temperatures. In contrast, a mixed C-Ni phase is formed at lower temperatures and the precipitation C sp2 phase is hindered.
1. G. Abrasonis, R. Gago, M. Vinnichenko, U. Kreissig, A. Kolitsch, and W. Möller, Phys. Rev. B 73, 125427 (2006).

  • Lecture (Conference)
    4th International Workshop on Nanoscale Spectroscopy and Nanotechnology, 17.-21.09.2006, Rathen, Germany

Publ.-Id: 9046

Low energy ion accelerated diffusion of interstitial nitrogen in austenitic stainless steel

Abrasonis, G.; Möller, W.; Ma, X. X.; Keller, A.; Facsko, S.

N diffusion in austenitic stainless steel (ASS) under low energy Ar ion bombardment is investigated. ASS samples were ion beam nitrided at 400°C with the N ion energy of 1 keV and flux of 3.11015 s-1 cm-2. The nitriding time was adjusted to obtain a thickness of the nitrided layer of ~1m. The samples were subsequently annealed at 400°C under simultaneous 700 eV Ar+ bombardment with different fluxes (1.3-3.8×1015 s-1 cm-2). N depth profiles were obtained using nuclear reaction analysis, and the phase structure was measured using X-ray diffraction (XRD). XRD reveals the modified layer to be composed of only γN phase in both as-nitrided and Ar+ irradiated samples, with no evidence of nitride formation. It is observed that Ar+ bombardment increases the N mobility in the depths far beyond the ion penetration depth, resulting in an increased broadening of the N depth profile as a function of Ar+ flux. This effect cannot be explained by any established mechanism of radiation enhanced diffusion. Another set of samples was annealed at 400°C under low flux (4×1011 s-1 cm-2) 700 eV Ar ion bombardment of variable charge state (from 1+ to 8+). These charge states correspond to the potential energies of 16-578 eV. The latter is dissipated by electronic excitations in metals. It was found that low flux Ar ion bombardment enhances the N mobility; however, the ion potential energy does not play any role on deep N diffusion. The latter indicates that N diffusion enhancement over large distances (~1 m) is due to nuclear collisional processes during ion stopping in the matter. Tentatively, the observed phenomenon is discussed in terms of collisionally induced quasi-particles which propagate large distances from the layers directly affected by ion bombardment enhancing interstitial N diffusion.

Keywords: radiation enhanced diffusion; quasi-particles; ion nitriding; austenitic stainless steel

  • Lecture (Conference)
    Tenth International Conference on Plasma Surface Engineering, 10.-15.09.2006, Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany

Publ.-Id: 9045

Construction of an S-layer protein exhibiting modified self-assembling properties and enhanced metal binding capacities

Pollmann, K.; Matys, S.

The functional S-layer protein gene slfB of the uranium mining waste pile isolate Bacillus sphaericus JG-A12 was cloned as a PCR-product into the expression vector pET Lic/Ek 30 and heterologous expressed in E.
coli Bl21(DE3). The addition of His-tags to the N- and C-termini enabled the purification of the recombinant protein by Ni chelating chromatography. The Ni-binding capacity of the His-tagged recombinant S-layer protein was compared with that of the wild-type S-layer. The ICP-MS analyses demonstrate a significantly enhanced Ni-binding capability of the recombinant protein. In addition, the self-assembling properties of the purified modified S-layer proteins were studied by light microscopy and SEM. Whereas the wild-type S-layer proteins re-assembled into regular cylindric structures, the His-tagged S-layer proteins reassembled into regular sheets that formed globular agglomerating structures. The nanoporous structure of the protein meshwork together with its enhanced Ni-binding capacity makes the recombinant S-layer attractive as a novel self-assembling biological template for the fabrication of metal nanoclusters and construction of nanomaterials that are of technical interest.

Publ.-Id: 9044

XPS depth profiling of oxide scales of stainless steels formed in high-temperature aqueous conditions

Ignatova, V. A.; van Dyck, S.; Groetzschel, R.; Moeller, W.

In this work, we studied the oxide scales of AISI 304 and AISI 316 stainless steels formed under hightemperature aqueous conditions using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) together with sputter depth profiling. Two samples of SS 304 and 316 were prepared by exposing them to water at 300 °C containing 100 ppm boric acid and 7 ppm lithium hydroxide in an autoclave. In the case of sputtering with 3 keV argon ions, the elemental distribution as a function of the sputtering time was obtained. The formation of two oxide layers was observed – one mainly iron-based on top, and a second at a greater depth, consisting mainly of chromium-iron oxides. The depth scale of the profiles was calibrated by measuring the oxygen profile using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS). On the basis of the distribution of the three oxidised alloying constituents (Fe, Cr, Ni) with respect to depth and elemental state, a relative increase of Fe2+ at the surface was found, while the chromium was depleted at the surface and Cr3+ tended to increase at the oxide/substrate interface. In order to estimate possible ion-beam-induced effects due to the ion sputtering, the profiles were compared to the computer-simulated ones obtained by a dynamic TRIM computer code. The simulations included only collisional effects during the sputtering process.

Publ.-Id: 9043

Modelling of the Corium-RPV-Wall Interaction in the Frame of an In-Vessel-Retention Scenario

Altstadt, E.; Willschütz, H.-G.

The improbable scenario of a severe accident with core meltdown and formation of a melt pool in the lower plenum of a Light Water Reactor (LWR) Pressure Vessel (RPV) can result in the failure of the RPV and the discharging of the melt to the con-tainment. One accident management strategy could be to stabilize the in-vessel de-bris or melt pool configuration in the RPV as one major barrier against uncontrolled release of heat and radionuclides into the containment of the plant.
Based on the successful simulation and analysis work of the FOREVER-experiments the models have been developed further to simulate the prototypical scenario of an In-Vessel-Retention in large PWRs. Based on recently observed results of the METCOR-Experiments it is known that the vessel wall ablation in case of melt-wall-contact can take place well below the steel melting point of T = 1493 °C. The FE-model developed at FZD is now improved to consider the time dependent thermo chemical wall ablation process.

Keywords: severe accident; nuclear power station; core melt down; melt steel wall interaction; corrosion/ablation; residual wall thickness

  • Contribution to proceedings
    Jahrestagung Kerntechnik 2007, 22.-24.05.2007, Karlsruhe, Deutschland
    Beiträge zur Jahrestagung Kerntechnik 2007, Proceedings on CD-ROM, Paper 328, Berlin: INFORUM Verlags- und Verwaltungsgesellschaft mbH, 293-299

Publ.-Id: 9042

Experimental modelling using low melting point metallic melts: Relevance for metallurgical engineering

Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.; Räbiger, D.; Willers, B.; Zhang, C.

This paper describes model experiments with low melting point liquid metals as an important tool to investigate the flow structure and related transport processes in melt flows being relevant for metallurgical applications. Three examples have been selected to demonstrate the benefit of such experiments, namely the electromagnetic stirring of a metallic melt in a pool, the directional solidification of Al-Si alloys under the influence of an electromagnetically driven flow and the behaviour of a liquid metal bubble plume if a vertically traveling field is applied. Results of flow measurements will be presented and the relevance for metallurgical processes will be discussed.

Keywords: liquid metal; magnetic field; electromagnetic stirring; solidification; bubble plume

  • Steel Research International 78(2007)5, 419-425

Publ.-Id: 9041

Einfluss von HS auf die U(VI) Sorption an Kaolinit: TRLFS-Untersuchungen

Krepelova, A.; Sachs, S.; Brendler, V.; Baumann, N.

Understanding the migration behavior of actinides is important for the reliable long-term risk assessment of potential nuclear waste repositories. Humic acids (HA) comprise an important part of natural organic materials. HA are soluble in the pH range of natural waters and have the ability for complex and colloid formation. Due to these properties HA can affect the speciation of actinide ions, and therefore, their migration in the environment. In the present study we investigated the influence of HA on the U(VI) sorption onto kaolinite.
We used time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) in order to characterize the species of U(VI) adsorbed onto kaolinite in the absence and presence of HA. Two adsorbed U(VI) surface species on kaolinite were identified in the pH range of pH 5.0 to pH 8.5. Obtained results help to improve the understanding of the geochemical interactions of hexavalent actinides in environment.

Keywords: U(VI); Humic Acid; TRLFS; Adsorption

  • Lecture (others)
    PSI/LES - FZD/IR Meeting, 05.-06.10.2006, Dresden, Germany

Publ.-Id: 9040

Cylindrical anisotropic alpha2 dynamos

Avalos-Zuniga, R.; Xu, M.; Stefani, F.; Gerbeth, G.; Plunian, F.

We explore the influence of geometrical variations on the structure and the time-dependence of the magnetic field that is induced by kinematic alpha2 dynamos in a finite cylinder. The dynamo action is due to an anisotropic alpha tensor which can be derived from an underlying columnar flow. The investigated geometry variations concern, in particular, the aspect ratio of height to radius of the cylinder, and the thickness of the annular space to which the columnar flow is restricted. Motivated by the quest for laboratory dynamos which exhibit Earth-like features, we start with modifications of the Karlsruhe dynamo experiment. Its dynamo action is reasonably described by an alpha2 mechanism with anisotropic alpha tensor. We find a critical aspect ratio below which the dominant magnetic field changes from an equatorial dipole to an axial dipole. Similar results are found for alpha2 dynamos working in an annular space when a radial dependence of alpha is assumed. Finally, we study the effect of varying aspect ratios of dynamos with an alpha tensor depending both on r and z. In this case only dominant equatorial fields are found and most of the solutions are oscillatory, contrary to all previous cases where the resulting
fields are steady.

Publ.-Id: 9039

Defect engineering in the initial stage of SIMOX processing

Kögler, R.; Mücklich, A.; Vines, L.; Krecar, D.; Kuznetsov, A.; Skorupa, W.

Defect engineering for SiO2 precipitation was investigated during ion beam synthesis in the first stage of SIMOX fabrication. Vacancy-type defects were created in Si: (i) a buried nanocavity layer was pre-fabricated by He implantation and subsequent annealing, and (ii) excess vacancies were generated during oxide synthesis by an additional simultaneous high-energy Si irradiation.
A narrow nanocavity layer was found to be an excellent nucleation site that favors effectively the SiO2 formation. Such a cavity layer must be adjusted to the excess vacancy profile of the O implant. The excess vacancy generation by simultaneous dual implantation minimizes the defect production in Si. However, it is inappropriate to form a narrow oxide layer due to the too broad distribution of excess vacancies.

Keywords: SOI; SIMOX; ion implantation; defect engineering; Si

  • Lecture (Conference)
    15th International Conference Ion Beam Modification of Materials (IBMM 2006), 18.-22.09.2006, Taormina, Italy
  • Contribution to proceedings
    15th International Conference Ion Beam Modification of Materials (IBMM 2006), 18.-22.09.2006, Taormina, Italy
    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 257(2007): Elsevier, 161-164

Publ.-Id: 9038

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