Publications Repository - Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf

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Only approved publications

31745 Publications
Numerical Simulation of the Riga Dynamo Experiment
Stefani, F.; Gerbeth, G.; Gailitis, A.;
We present numerical simulations for the Riga dynamo experiment, which is intended
to verify the magnetic field self-excitation in a helical flow of a conducting fluid.
Testing a wide variety of axial and azimuthal velocity profiles we show the importance
of the global helicity for the efficiency of the dynamo. Predictions are made on
the shape of the arising magnetic field and the back-reaction of the
Lorentz force on the flow.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    SIAM Annual Meeting, University of Toronto (Canada), July 13-17, 1998

Publ.-Id: 1993 - Permalink

Numerical Simulation for the Riga Dynamo
Stefani, F.; Gerbeth, G.; Gailitis, A.;
The critical magnetic Reynolds number (Rm) of the Riga dynamo experiment depends
strongly on the shape of its velocity profiles. For given motor power ressources it is
necessary to optimize these profiles in order to achieve self-excitation of the magnetic
field. We present a number of one- and two-dimensional calculations for a variety of
axial and azimuthal velocities. Particularly, we test velocity profiles with maximal
helicity (Bessel function profile). For these velocity profiles the critical Rm can
be reduced by 20 per cent compared to the value for the solid body rotation profile.
The used two-dimensional finite difference solver allows to study the effect of
axially varying profiles, too. In addition, we present some two-dimensional
calculations for further dynamo experiments in cylindrical geometry, including
the flow topologies s1t1, s2t1 and s2t2. The influence of the flow direction and
the effect of a surrounding conducting medium on the critical Rm is investigated
in detail.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Workshop "Laboratory Experiments on Dynamo Action", Jurmala (Latvia), June 13-16, 1998

Publ.-Id: 1992 - Permalink

Bluff body wake control by magnetic fields
Mutschke, G.; Gerbeth, G.; Shatrov, V.;
We present numerical results on the control of 2-D and 3-D instabilities in the wake of a circular cylinder by means of externally applied magnetic fields. 2-D instability (vortex shedding) can clearly be suppressed with increasing field strength. However, 3-D instability is influenced in a nonmonotonic way, triggered by changes to the 2-D flow. 3-D instability can exist below the 2-D stability threshold, which may lead to a reversal of the order of instabilities for fixed field strength. Strong fields seem to amplify 3-D instability.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    SIAM Annual Meeting, University of Toronto (Canada), July 13-17, 1998

Publ.-Id: 1991 - Permalink

Natural circulation experiments at the ISB-VVER Integral Test Facility and Calculations using the Code ATHLET
Krepper, E.;
In 1995 at the integral test facility ISB-VVER in Elektrogorsk near Moscow natural circulation experiments were performed, which were scientifically accompanied by the Forschungszentrum Rossendorf. These experiments were the first of this kind at a test facility, which models VVER-1000 thermalhydraulics. Using the code ATHLET which is being developed by "Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit", pre- and posttest calculations were done to determine the thermalhydraulic events to be expected and to define and tune the boundary conditions of the test. The conditions found for natural circulation instabilities and cold leg loop seal clearing could be confirmed by the tests. Besides the thermalhydraulic standard measuring system, the facility was equipped with needle shaped conductivity probes for measuring the local void fractions.
  • Poster
    Int. Conference "TOPSAFE", Valencia (Spain), 1998
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Int. Conference "TOPSAFE", Valencia (Spain), 1998

Publ.-Id: 1990 - Permalink

OECD PWR MSLB Benchmark - Dependence of the Results from Several Parameters
Kliem, S.;
The OECD has defined a benchmark for coupled Cartesian neutron kinetics/thermohydraulics code systems. In the first phase, a plant simulation with point kinetics was requested. The purpose was to test the model response.
In this presentation, the dependence of the results obtained by means of the ATHLET-code from several important parameters is investigated. It was found, that the nodalization of the steamline in the vicinity of the break has an influence on the pressure behaviour and on the time of the return-to-power.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    2nd PWR MSLB Workshop CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain), June 22-23, 1998

Publ.-Id: 1989 - Permalink

Fifth Dynamic AER Benchmark - A Benchmark for Coupled Thermohydraulic System/3D Hexagonal Neutron Kinetic Core Models - Comparison of Results - Level 1
Kliem, S.;
The fifth dynamic benchmark was defined at the 7th AER-Symposium, held in Hörnitz, Germany in 1997. It is the first benchmark for coupled thermohydraulic system/three-dimensional hexagonal neutron kinetic core models. In this benchmark the interaction between the components of a VVER-440 NPP with the reactor core has been investigated. In this presentation, the first results obtained by means of the codes DYN3D/ATHLET (Forschungszentrum Rossendorf), BIPR8/ATHLET (Kurchatov Institute Moscow) und HEXTRAN/SMABRE (VTT Energy Espoo) were compared. Both thermohydraulics and neutron kinetics parameters show dif-
  • Lecture (Conference)
    AER Working Group D Meeting, Rez (Czech Republic), May 18-20, 1998

Publ.-Id: 1988 - Permalink

Quantifizierung der hydrodynamischen Parameter in kurzlebigen Schäumen
Kern, T.;
  • Lecture (Conference)
    4. Fachtagung "Anlagen-, Arbeits- und Umweltsicherheit", Köthen, 5./6. November 1998

Publ.-Id: 1987 - Permalink

HEXNEM2 - a New Nodal Method for Hexagonal Geometry
Grundmann, U.; Hollstein, F.;
A new nodal method HEXNEM2 for hexagonal geometry is described. The method is based on a two-dimensional expansion of
the intranodal fluxes. Polynomials up to the second order and exponential functions are used in each group. By this method the singular
terms occurring in the transverse integration methods are avoided. Side averaged and corner point values of fluxes and currents are used
for the coupling of nodes. A calculation scheme for the outgoing partial currents at the sides and similar expressions for the corners from
given incoming values are used in the inner iteration which gives a fast running scheme. The method is tested against 2-dimensional
hexagonal benchmark problems for the VVER-type reactors. The results show that the multiplication factor and nodal powers are predicted
accurately. A considerable improvement can be shown of the results for the VVER-1000 benchmarks compared with the method developed
previously for the code DYN3D and the simpler method HEXNEM1.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    presented at the AER Working Group D Meeting, Rez (Czech Republic), May 18-20, 1998

Publ.-Id: 1986 - Permalink

Type and Annealing Behaviour of Irradiation Defects in Surveillance Materials of the VVER-type Weld Metal Sv-10KhMFT
Große, M.;
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Table Ronde LLB, Saclay (Frankreich), Nov.1998

Publ.-Id: 1985 - Permalink

Influence of magnetic fields on surface driven flows
Gerbeth, G.;
A summary of magnetic field effects on surface driven flows will be given. Own work in the fields
- hydrothermal waves controlled by magnetic fields,
- Marangoni flows at liquid metal surfaces,
- thermoelectrically driven flows,
- levitated spheres and drops,
- Marangoni motion of drops
will be summarized. In addition, literature results about magnetic field influence on floating zone crystal growth or the use of magnetic fields in laser or electron beam welding bill be given. The second part of the lecture will concentrate on possible experiments with magnetic fields under microgravity. Proposals will be presented for discussion for crystal growth with magnetic fields, thermoelectricity, electromagnetic gas injectors, or magnetic field control of electrochemical processes. Emphasis will be put on the problem of diagnostics being inherent to all activities.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Workshop "Applications of magnetic fields in materials processing under microgravity conditions", Erlangen, Nov. 11-12, 1998

Publ.-Id: 1984 - Permalink

Fundamentals of technical applications of MHD
Gerbeth, G.;
A summary of MHD effects and technical applications will be given based on a classification of the different actions of external magnetic fields and/or external electrical currents. An overview of the different alternating fields (rotating, pulsating, travelling) and static magnetic fields, and their interaction with liquid metal melts will be given. Special emphasis will be put on applications in crystal growth where a contactless melt flow control is important for the convective motions in many growth technologies. Typically steady magnetic fields are used to damp such flows. Surprisingly, active flow driving forces due to alternating magnetic fields can be of stabilizing character, too. Numerical results for the combined action of DC and AC magnetic fields will be presented for two problems: vertical Bridgeman and silicon Czochralski crystal growth. Recent results on MHD turbulence and some destabilizing actions of steady magnetic fields will shortly be mentioned. Special attention will be given to the problem of measuring techniques in liquid metal melts since this is a crucial question for any experimental activities in the field. For instance, any activity for code validation will require model experiments which, in turn, quickly lead to serious measuring problems. Some new results and ideas will be discussed.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Workshop "The use of Magnetic Fields in Crystal Growth an Metals Casting" , Frankfurt a. M., 1.-2. April 1998

Publ.-Id: 1983 - Permalink

Einsatz von Magnetfeldern bei der Silizium-Czochalski-Kristallzüchtung
Gerbeth, G.; Galindo, V.;
Eine kontaktlose Beeinflussung der konvektiven Strömung in der Schmelze ist in vielen Kristallzüchtungstechnologien von großer Bedeutung. Gewöhnlich werden stationäre magnetische Felder benutzt, um solche Strömungen zu dämpfen. Überraschenderweise können auch aktive Strömungsantriebskräfte, die von instationären magnetischen Feldern erzeugt werden, von stabilisierendem Charakter sein. Wir stellen Resultate der numerischen Simulation der kombinierten Wirkung von homogenen und linearen stationären Magnetfeldern für die Silizium-Czochalski-Kristallzüchtung und von homogenen und rotierenden Magnetfeldern für die Bridgman-Anordnung vor. Es werden bei der Czochalski-Geometrie nicht nur die thermische Konvektion und die Rotation des Kristalls und des Tiegels in Betracht gezogen, sondern auch der Einfluß der antreibenden und/oder dämpfenden elektromagnetischen Kräfte sowie der Einfluß des induzierten elektrischen Stromes und der thermokapillar angetriebenen Strömungen an der freien deformierbaren Schmelzoberfläche. Aufgrund der hohen Reynolds-Zahl der Strömung ist die numerische Simulation laminar nicht mehr möglich. Es werden vergleichende Rechnungen mit einem Null-Gleichungs-Turbulenzmodell, das auf der Prandtl´schen Mischungsweg-Hypothese basiert, und einem anisotropen k-epsilon Turbulenzmodell durchgeführt.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Berg und Hüttenmännischer Tag, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, 18.06.1998

Publ.-Id: 1982 - Permalink

Crystal Growth Melt Flow Control by Means of Magnetic Fields
Galindo, V.; Gerbeth, G.;
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Workshop SOLFIDAP, IKZ Berlin, Berlin-Adlershof , 25.-27. Mai 1998

Publ.-Id: 1981 - Permalink

Numerical studies on crystal growth melt flow control using different magnetic fields
Galindo, V.; Gerbeth, G.;
  • Lecture (Conference)
    SIAM Annual Meeting, University of Toronto (Canada), July 13-17, 1998

Publ.-Id: 1980 - Permalink

Separation Control Using Lorentz Forces: Recent Experimental and Numerical Results
Fey, U.; Weier, T.; Gerbeth, G.; Mutschke, G.; Gad-El-Hak, M.;
The flow around bodies moving in weakly electrically conducting fluids can be controlled by applying electromagnetic forces originating from electrodes and permanent magnets suitably placed on the surface of the body. Here we consider the
possibility of separation control for a two-dimensional bluff body and an inclined flat plate by inducing Lorentz forces parallel to the surface. We present physical and numerical experiments at diameter/chord Reynolds numbers in the range of 300--4,000 for the circular cylinder and 2,000--20,000 for the plate. Both steady and time-periodic forcing are applied. The physical experiments are conducted in an open channel with sodium hydroxide as the working fluid. Dramatic separation delays are observed on both bodies for a modest expenditure of energy. Special attention is drawn to lift enhancement due to separation delay for the inclined plate. Direct numerical simulations at low Reynolds numbers confirm the physical tendencies of the experiments.
  • Lecture at: American Physical Society, 51th Annual Meeting of the Division of Fluid Dynamics, Bulletin of the American Physical Society, Philadelphia, 22.-24.11.98

Publ.-Id: 1979 - Permalink

The effect of a superimposed steady magnetic field on nonstationary flow driven by a high frequency AC magnetic in an open cavity
Bojarevics, A.; Gelfgat, Y.; Gerbeth, G.; Cramer, A.;
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Workshop "The Use of Magnetic Fields in Crystal Growth and Metals Casting" Frankfurt a. M., 1.-2. April 1998

Publ.-Id: 1978 - Permalink

Some results on electromagnetic control of flow around bodies
Weier, T.; Gerbeth, G.; Mutschke, G.; Fey, U.; Posdziech, O.; Lielausis, E.; Platacis, E.;
The flow around bodies (cylinder, plate) can be controlled by applying electromagnetic forces originating from electrodes and permanent magnets suitably placed on the surface of the body. There is a large variety for applying those forces with respect to the geometrical arrangement and the electrical current feeding the electrodes. The goals of this approach are flow stabilization, drag reduction or manoeuvrability of the body in an electrically low-conducting fluid like seawater. We present experimental and numerical results for a low Reynolds-number range of 200 < Re < 4000. Experiments were performed using a copper sulphate electrolytic solution and a sodium hydroxide loop. Flows are considered around a cylinder and over a plate, with
Lorentz forces being parallel to the body surface. Experimental results will be presented for the body drag and the wake flow structures depending on different
regimes of electromagnetic forcing. In particular, we distinguish between the
regimes of direct, frequency-variable sinusoidal or pulsed electric currents. Numerical results confirm the physical tendencies at least for lower Reynolds numbers. Parameter ranges will be given for an optimal electromagnetic flow control in terms of drag reduction and flow laminarization. The energetic balance will be discussed.
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Proc. of the International Symposium on SEAWATER DRAG REDUCTION, pp. 395-400, Newport, Rhode Island (USA), 22.-24. Juli 1998

Publ.-Id: 1976 - Permalink

Specimen Reconstitution Technique and Verification Testing for Charpy Size SENB Specimens
Viehrig, H.-W.; Böhmert, J.;
Specimen reconstitution, i.e. the incorporation of a small piece from a previously tested specimen into a compound specimen, allows to multiply the number of tests. That is especially important if the available material is restricted and new parameters have to be measured. For this purpose a technique was developed to reconstitute Charpy size single-edge notch specimens (SENB) from broken halves of Charpy V-notch specimens. The essential tools for producing reconstituted specimens are a stud arc welding set-up and an electric wire discharge machine. The reconstitution technique applied is in accordance with the ASTM- guideline E-1253. The fraction of the insert that is affected by the reconstitution technique is determined by measurements of temperature and hardness gradients and by metallographic examination. The specimen reconstitution technique has been validated for SENB specimens of Charpy geometry. The test methods comprised instrumented impact testing of Charpy V specimens and elastic- plastic fracture toughness testing with precracked and side grooved SENB specimens.
  • Contribution to external collection
    Small Specimen Test Techniques, ASTM STP 1329, W.R. Corwin, S.T. Rosinski, E. van Walle, Eds., American Society for Testing and Materials, July 1998, pp. 420

Publ.-Id: 1975 - Permalink

Thess, A.; Gerbeth, G.;
Der Traum von magnetohydrodynamischen (MHD)-Generatoren und MHD-Schiffsantrieben hat sich nicht erfüllt. Die magnetisch gesteuerte Kernfusion läßt auf sich warten. Doch die Stille trügt:; MHD-Technologien halten erfolgreich Einzug in Metallurgie und Verfahrenstechnik, MHD-Experimente eröffnen neue Perspektiven für die nichtlineare Physik und Turbulenzforschung, und selbst das klassische Problem der Entstehung des Erdmagnetfeldes scheint seiner experimentellen Verifikation nahe zu sein.
  • Physikalische Blätter 54, S. 125, Februar 1998

Publ.-Id: 1974 - Permalink

Velocity Profile Optimization for the Riga Dynamo Experiment
Stefani, F.; Gerbeth, G.; Galitis, A.;
The Riga dynamo experiment is an attempt to show the
self-excitation of a magnetic field in an electrically conducting fluid.
Due to the absence of any scale separation effects, the precise shape of
the velocity profile has a strong influence on the values
of the critical magnetic Reynolds numbers (Rm).
Several numerical codes have been developed and used for the determination
of these critical Rm for arbitrary velocity profiles.
Helicity maximizing
profiles are shown to provide smaller critical Rm than the
solid body rotation flow. We outline how the velocity profiles
have been optimized in an iterative process including flow measurements,
constructive improvements and numerical calculations.
  • A. Alemany, Ph. Marty, .P. Thibault (ed.), Transfer Phenomena in Magnetohydrodynamic and Electroconducting Flows, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht 1999, pp. 31-44

Publ.-Id: 1973 - Permalink

Results of Experimente at the NOKO Pilot Plant
Schaffrath, A.; Hicken, E. F.; Jaegers, H.; Prasser, H.-M.;
On the NOKO (emergency condenser) test station constructed at Jülich Research Centre, the operating performance and
effectiveness of the emergency condenser of the boiling water reactor 1000 have been determined in well over 200 tests. It has been
possible to check that the tests were in close agreement with a modified version of ATHLET
  • VGB-Power Tech 78 (1998), Nr. 5, S. 79-84

Publ.-Id: 1971 - Permalink

Experimental and numerical study of an anomalous thermocapillary convection in liquid gallium
Priede, J.; Cramer, A.; Gelfgat, Y.; Bar-Yuseph, P. Z.; Yari, A. L.; Gerbeth, G.;
Thermocapillary Marangoni convection of liquid gallium was studied experimentally and numerically. A specially designed experimental setup ensured an oxide-free surface of the liquid gallium for a very long time. The convective flow at the free surface was found to be directed opposite to both buoyancy-driven and ordinary thermocapillary convection. The anomalous direction of the thermocapillary flow was explained by the presence of a small amount of a surface-active contaminant - lead adsorbed at the free surface. Two different approaches were used to describe the observed phenomenon. First, the flow was treated as a pure thermocapillary convection with a modified dependence of the surface tension on temperature so that to reproduce the measured velocity distribution. Second, a novel physical model was devised for the flow driven by the gradient of the surface tension induced by the temperature dependence of the concentration of the adsorbed layer of contaminant. In contrast to the ordinary thermocapillary convection in low-Prandtl-number liquids, there is a strong coupling between the flow and the driving force in the proposed model resulting in velocity profiles very similar to those observed in the experiment.
  • Physics of Fluids, vol.11, 1998, pp. 3331-3339

Publ.-Id: 1969 - Permalink

Thioether ligands as anchor groups for coupling the "Tc(CO)3" moieties with biologically active molecules
Pietzsch, H.-J.; Reisgys, M.; Alberto, R.; Hoepping, A.; Scheunemann, M.; Seifert, S.; Wüst, F.; Spies, H.; Schubiger, P. A.; Johannsen, B.;
Neutral Re(I) carbonyl complexes with multidentate thioethers of the general formula [ReBr(CO)3(R-S(CH2)2S-R')] were obtained by ligand exchange reaction starting from [ReBr3(CO)3]2-. The thioether ligands bear functional groups (R, R'', such as the carboxyl, propargyl and hydroxyl moiety, which can act as anchor groups for biologically active molecules. First representatives of Re(I) and Tc(I) carbonyl thioether complexes, meant to target CNS neuroreceptors and hormone receptor-positive breast tumors, are described.
  • Book (Authorship)
    Technetium, Rhenium and Other Metals in Chemistry and Nuclear Medicine (Edited by Nicolini M., Mazzi U.) SGE Editoriali Padova (1999), pp. 313-316

Publ.-Id: 1968 - Permalink

Oscillatory and rotational instabilities in electromagnetic levitation
Priede, J.; Gerbeth, G.;
Two different instability mechanisms of electromagnetically levitated bodies are analyzed. The first is due to the virtual coupling between the electric current passing through the magnetic system and the variation of position of the body. This mechanism can result in unstable mass center oscillations of a levitated solid body. Another type of instabilities may occur because of the coupling beween the motion and the electric currents induced in the body. This effect can cause a spontaneous rotation of the body setting in as the frequency of the alternating magnetic field exceeds certain critaical threshold depending on the configuration of the field. This instability can be suppressed by an axial steady magnetic field of strength comparable to that of the levitating field.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    accepted at Symposium „Fluid-Flow Phenomena in Metals Processing“ TMS Annual Meeting, San Diego, USA, February 27 - March 5, 1999
  • Fluid Flow Phenomena in Metals Processing, Eds.: N.El-Kaddah, D.G.C.Robertson, S.T.Johansen, V.R.Voller, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, Warrendale (USA), 1999, pp.593-601

Publ.-Id: 1967 - Permalink

Hydrothermal wave instability of thermocapillary-driven convection in a transverse magnetic field
Priede, J.; Gerbeth, G.;
We study the linear stability of a thermocapilary-driven convection in a planar unbounded layer of an electrically conducting low-Prandtl-number liquid heated from the side and subjected to a transverse magnetic field. The thresholds of convective instability for both longitudional and oblique disturbances are calculated numerically and also asymptotically by considering the Hartmann and Prandtl numbers as large and small parameters, respectively. The magnetic field has a stabilizing effect on the flow with the critical temperature gradient for the transition from steady to oscillatory convection increasing as square of the the field strength. So increases also the critical frequency, while the critical wavelength reduces inversely with field strength. These asymptotics develop in a strong enough magnetic field when the instability is entirely due to the jet of the base flow confined in the Hartmann layer at the free surface. In contrast to the base flow, the critical disturbances, having a long wavelength at small Prandtl numbers, extend from the free surface into the bulk of the liquid layer over a distance exceeding the thickness of the Hartmann layer O(Pr-1/2) times. For Ha ? Pr-1/2 the instability is influenced by the actual depth of the layer. For such moderate magnetic fields the instability threshold is sensitive to the thermal properties of the bottom of the layer and the dependences of the critical parameters on the field strength are more complicated. In the latter case, there is a number of various instability modes possible depending on the thermal boundary conditions and the relative magnitudes of Prandtl and Hartmann numbers.
  • Journal of Fluid Mechanics (2000), vol. 404, pp. 211-250

Publ.-Id: 1966 - Permalink

Cylinder wake control by magnetics fields in liquid metal flows
Mutschke, G.; Shatrov, V.; Gerbeth, G.;
In the present paper we are concerned with the control of wake instabilities in the flow of an electrically conducting fluid around a circular cylinder by means of external magnetic fields. Besides the Reynolds number (Re) a second parameter N appears describing the strength of the magnetic body force. This offers, depending on the direction of the magnetic field, a large variety of flow configurations and therefore different transition regimes. We perform a numerical simulation of the unsteady two-dimensional flow and characterize the different flow regimes. Strong magnetic fields are capable to stabilize the 2-D flow and to suppress the shedding of vortices. We present curves of neutral 2-D stability in the (Re,N)-parameter plane separating steady and periodic flow regimes. We further perform a linear 3-D stability analysis of the 2-D flow being either steady or periodic and show how the magnetic field influences the 3-D instabilities. We pay special attention to the case when the magnetic field is aligned with the oncoming flow. Here we find 3-D instability in parameter regions above the 2-D stability curve in the (Re, N)-plane where the flow is 2-D stable (steady). This firstly confirms a general result of Hunt (J.C.R. Hunt, Proc. Roy. Soc. A 293 (1966) 342) obtained from a stability analysis of parallel flows and shows that the magnetic field influences 2-D and 3-D instabilities in a different way.
  • Experimental Thermal and Fluid Science 16 (1998) 92-99

Publ.-Id: 1965 - Permalink

Bouyant Melt Flows Under the Influcence of Steady and Rotating Magnetic Fields
Mößner, R.; Gerbeth, G.;
Rotating magnetic fields are of growing interest for crystal growth technologies from the melt. For a few millitesla they provide a controlled motion within the melt, thus controlling the heat and mass transfer and the temperature fluctuations. This paper gives numerical results for the stability thresholds of rotating magnetic field and buoyancy driven melt convections, also by additionally superimposing a steady magnetic field. Some numerical results are given for a possible explanation of the surprising stabilizing action of the rotating magnetic field on a pre-given buoyant flow.
  • Journal of Crystal Growth, Vol.197, pp.341-354, 1999

Publ.-Id: 1964 - Permalink

ASAXS-Investigations of the Structural Changes in the Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel 15Kh2MFA after Electron Irradiation
Große, M.; Denner, V.; Böhmert, J.; Goerigk, G.;
  • Other report
    Jahresbericht HASYLAB 1997, Hamburg (1998)

Publ.-Id: 1963 - Permalink

SANS Investigations of the Irradiation and Annealing Behaviour of the VVER-type Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel 15Xh2MFA
Große, M.; Hempel, A.; Gilles, R.;
  • BENSC Experimental Reports 1997, Berichte des HMI Berlin, HMI-B552, (1998), S. 244

Publ.-Id: 1962 - Permalink

SAXS Experiments with High Lateral Resolution by Using of an X-ray Micro Beam
Große, M.;
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Proc. International School and Symposium on Small-Angle Scattering, Matrahaza (Hungary), Oct. 1998, Report 02/E, 1999, S. 41
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Proc. International School and Symposium on Small-Angle Scattering, Matrahaza (Hungary), Oct. 1998, Report 02/E, 1999, S. 41

Publ.-Id: 1961 - Permalink

Additional Information about the Chemistry of Precipitates by Variation of the Scattering Contrast in the SANS and SAXS Experiment
Große, M.;
Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments were performed at KWS2 facility of the KFA Jülich for investigating the defect structures, which are produced by neutron irradiation in Russian Cr-Mo-V alloyed reactor pressure vessel steel. Irradiation and post-irradiation annealing considerably change both SANS intensity and its course in the Guinier plot, which was analysed by the Glatter method. As a rule, bimodal size distribution functions were found with a first maximum at a radius of 1-2 nm and a second maximum at 6-8 nm. Irradiation increases the first maximum annealing reduces it.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Proc. International School and Symposium on Small-Angle Scattering, Matrahaza (Hungary), Oct. 1998, Report 02/E, 1999, S. 38
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Proc. International School and Symposium on Small-Angle Scattering, Matrahaza (Hungary), Oct. 1998, Report 02/E, 1999, S. 38

Publ.-Id: 1960 - Permalink

Small Angle Neutron Scattering Investigations of the Microstructure of VVER 440-type Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel after Irradiation at 60 °C
Große, M.; Böhmert, J.; Gilles, R.;
The formation of point defects and precipitates after neutron irradiation of VVER-440-type reactor pressure vessel steel was investigated by small angle neutron scattering experiments. Irradiation at 60 °C increased the number of point defects, decreased the precipitates, which already exist in the unirradiated state, and formed a new typ of fine-scaled precipitates. Post-irradiation annealing near the operational temperature of the nuclear power plants (270 °C) provoked a slight decrease of the content of point defects and of the irradiation-induced precipitates. The content of these precipitates which are also present in the unirradiated state did not change by annealing.
  • Journal of Nuclear Materials, Vol. 254 (1998) 143-150

Publ.-Id: 1959 - Permalink

The behaviour of gas bubbles in a turbulent liquid metal MHD flow - Part I: Dispersion in quasi-two-dimensional MHD turbulence.
Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.; Lielausis, O.;
We investigate the dispersion of gas bubbles injected from a single orifice into a liquid metal flow subjected to transverse and longitudinal magnetic fields. The local void fraction is detected by means of resistivity probes. The results show a damping of velocity fluctuations corresponding to a decrease in the bubble dispersion with increasing magnetic field. An isotropic distribution of the gas phase is preserved if a longitudinal field is applied, while an anisotropic distribution is observed in case the applied magnetic field is transverse to the flow indicating the existence of quasi-two-dimensional vortices as typical of turbulent MHD flows.

Keywords: liquid metal-gas flow, bubble, magnetic field, MHD turbulence, void fraction, resistivity probe
  • International Journal of Multiphase Flow (2000), Vol. 26/1, 45-66

Publ.-Id: 1958 - Permalink

Bubble formation in heavy liquid metals: Evaluation of conventional gas injection methods with respect to a suitability under ESS relevant conditions
Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.; Guttek, B.; Stechenmesser, H.;
The use of a liquid metal target in the concept of a new generation of spallation sources is recommended due to a number of obvious advantages such as a high heat removal capacity, no structural radiation damage of the target material, no water presence in the proton beam interaction zone, etc.. In the regime of a pulsed proton beam at high repetition rates a considerable high instantaneous power is injected into the fluid during very short time periods. This fact gives rise to strong thermal shock waves resulting in substantial stress loads on the container wall. The addition of small Helium bubbles to the flow is considered as a method to diminish this problem by increasing the fluid compressibility. This study reviews some standard methods of gas
injection and checks their suitability for the application in heavy liquid metals with a high value of surface tension. Another important aspect discussed here is the availability of measuring techniques allowing a reliable characterisation of tiny bubbles in opaque liquid metals.
  • Open Access LogoESS 98-72-T, August 1998

Publ.-Id: 1957 - Permalink

Stabilisation of the melt extraction process with a magnetic field
Cramer, A.; Bojarevics, A.; Gerbeth, G.; Gelfgat, Y.;
The production of highly porous metallic substrates requires an effective and well controlled production of metallic fibres with diameters in the range of 50 to 200 microns. The melt extraction, where a quickly rotating wheel extracts fibres directly out of the inductively heated melt, is a promising technology for that purpose. The main limitations of this process are due to turbulence within the melt and a wavy motion on the surface. Both effects give rise to strong and time dependent deformation of the melt surface which, in turn, causes non-stationary conditions of the contact zone between the extraction wheel and the melt. In the patent literature many xamples can be found which try to overcome these problems by submersing mechanical parts directly into, or placing them at least in close vicinity to the melt, aiming at a stabilisation of that contact region. Even made of heat resistant ceramics they suffer from corrosion or cracks and do not work reliable at all. The present work describes a non invasive control mechanism by means of a magnetic field. Model experiments were carried out to study the calm down of the turbulent surface of a inductively stirred melt. The stabilisation of the melt surface has been demonstrated in practise by the installation of a solenoid at a working extraction facility under rough industrial conditions like a powerful induction heating and vacuum.
  • Contribution to external collection
    accepted at: El-Kaddah (Ed.): Fluid Flow Phenomena in Metals Processing, TMS, San Diego (USA), (March 1999), pp. 237-244

Publ.-Id: 1956 - Permalink

Nanoscale Precipitates in Russian Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel After Irradiation and Annealing
Böhmert, J.; Große, M.;
The microstructural evolution of Russian VVER 440-type RPV steele due to neutron irradiation was investigated by small angle neutron scattering. Irradiation produces nanoscaled precipitates. Their volume fraction and their thermal stability depends on the copper content.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Jahrestagung Kerntechnik 1998, Tagungsbericht S. 631, München, 26.-28. Mai 1998
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Jahrestagung Kerntechnik 1998, Tagungsbericht S. 631, München, 26.-28. Mai 1998

Publ.-Id: 1955 - Permalink

Epitaxial aluminum carbide formation in 6H-SiC by high-dose Al+ implantation
Stoemenos, J.; Pécz, B.; Heera, V.;
Aluminum precipitates are formed after Al implantation with dose 3x1017 cm-2 at 500°C into single crystalline 6H-SiC. The aluminum carbide (Al4C3)precipitates are in epitaxial relation with 6H-SiC matrix, having the following orientation relation, [0001]6H-SiC//[0001]Al4C3 and [11-20]6H-SiC//[11-20]Al4C3, as transmission electron microscopy reveals. The aluminum carbide appears around the maximum of the Al depth distribution. Silicon precipitates were also detected in the same zone.
Keywords: High dose implantation, 6H-SiC, Al₄C₃
  • Appl.Phys.Lett. 74 (1999) 2602

Publ.-Id: 1954 - Permalink

Analyse von Rißschließvorgängen mit Ultraschallverfahren
Bergner, F.; Schaper, M.; Bergmann, U.;
  • Poster
    30. Tagung des DVM-Arbeitskreises Bruchvorgänge, DVM-Bericht 230, S. 151-160, Dresden, 17.-18.02.1998
  • Contribution to proceedings
    30. Tagung des DVM-Arbeitskreises Bruchvorgänge, DVM-Bericht 230, S. 151-160, Dresden, 17.-18.02.1998

Publ.-Id: 1953 - Permalink

High-Precision Monte Carlo Calculations, Experimental Verification and Adjustment of Fluences in the Pressure Vessel Cavity of a VVER-1000
Barz, H.-U.; Böhmer, B.; Konheiser, J.; Stephan, I.;
Monte Carlo calculations based on a three-dimensional pinwise representation of the sources and considering all known geometrical and composition details were used for the determination not only of fluence integrals but also of fluence spectra. This was possible by the application of the specially developed code system TRAMO for Monte Carlo calculations and data preparation. A good statistical accuracy was achieved by successfully modifying variance reduction on the basis of the weight window method. Multigroup data sets based on ENDF/B-VI, JEF-2 and the Russian ABBN library were applied. The influence of different data libraries and numbers of groups was investigated. For the realistic representation of fission sources the burnup and the power history for each fuel pin and height layer was considered.
The calculations were verified and adjusted by activation measurements. 54Fe(n,p)54Mn, 58Ni(n,p)58Co, 46Ti(n,p)46Sc, 63Cu(n, )60Co and 93Nb(n,n')Nb93m detectors were irradiated during fuel cycle 5 in the ex-vessel cavity of the Russian VVER-1000 type reactor Balakovo-3 and analysed afterwards by advanced gamma spectrometric methods. For the detectors with the shortest half-lifes "detector fluences" were calculated considering the change of the fission source distribution during the cycle. The calculated end-of-irradiation activities were compared with those measured. The agreement was found better than expected according to uncertainty considerations. Furthermore, the calculated fluence spectra were adjusted to the experimental activities taking into account the variances and correlations of calculated input spectra, detector sensitivities and measurements. Using the adjustment code COSA2 based on the generalized least squares method best estimate fluence spectra and fluence integrals were obtained.
The investigations reported on were accomplished using reactor data and irradiation facilities provided in connection with the Balakovo-3 Interlaboratory Pressure Vessel Dosimetry Experiment conducted by the Scientific and Engineering Centre of Russian GOSATOMNADZOR.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Proc. of the ANS Radiation Protection and Shielding Division Topical Conference, Vol. 1, p. 447-454, Nashville, Tennesse (USA), April 19-23, 1998
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Proc. of the ANS Radiation Protection and Shielding Division Topical Conference, Vol. 1, p. 447-454, Nashville, Tennesse (USA), April 19-23, 1998

Publ.-Id: 1952 - Permalink

Stress Analysis of BWR Components Under Accident Loads Using Finite Elements
Altstadt, E.; Weiß, F.-P.; Werner, M.; Willschütz, H.-G.;
During a hypothetical accident the reactor pressure vessel internals of boiling water
reactors can be exposed to considerable loads resulting from temperature gradients and pressure waves. The finite element (FE) analysis is an efficient tool to evaluate the consequences of those loads by computing the maximum mechanical stresses in the components. 3 dimensional FE models were developed for the core shroud, the upper and the lower core supporting structure, the steam separator pipes and the feed water distributor. The models of core shroud, upper core support structure and lower core support structure were coupled by means of the substructure technique. All FE models can be used for thermal and for structural mechanical analyses. As an example the FE analysis for the case of a station black-out scenario (loss of power supply for the main circulating pumps) with subsequent emergency core cooling is demonstrated. The transient temperature distributions within the core shroud and within the steam separator pipes as well were calculated based on the fluid temperatures and the heat transfer coefficients provided by thermo-hydraulic codes. At the maximum temperature gradients in the core shroud, the mechanical stress
distribution was computed in a static analysis with the actual temperature field being
the load. It could be shown that the maximum resulting material stresses do not exceed the permissible thresholds fixed in the appropriate regulations. Another scenario which was investigated is the break of a feed water line leading to a non-symmetric subpressure wave within the reactor pressure vessel. The dynamic structural response of the core shroud was assessed in a tranisient analysis. Even for this load case the maximum resulting stresses remain within the allowed limits at any time.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Proceedings of TOPSAFE´98, Valencia (Spain), April 15-17, 1998
  • Contribution to external collection
    Proceedings of TOPSAFE´98, Valencia (Spain), April 15-17, 1998

Publ.-Id: 1951 - Permalink

Equation of State of Deconfined Matter at Finite Chemical Potential in a Quasiparticle Description
Peshier, A.; Kämpfer, B.; Soff, G.;
An effective quasiparticle description of the thermodynamics of deconfined matter, compatible with both finite-temperature lattice data and the perturbative limit, is generalized to finite chemical potential.
Within this approach, the available 4-flavor lattice equation of state is extended to finite baryon density, and implications for cold, charge-neutral deconfined matter in β-equilibrium in compact stars are considered.
Keywords: deconfined matter, equation of state, QCD
  • Physical Review C, Volume 61 (2000) 045203

Publ.-Id: 1950 - Permalink

The Ter-Mikaelian and Landau-Pomeranchuk effects for induced soft gluon radiation in a QCD medium
Kämpfer, B.; Pavlenko, O. P.;
The polarization of a surrounding QCD medium
modifies the induced gluon radiation spectrum
of a high-energy parton at small transverse momenta
for a single interaction and for multiple scatterings as well.
This effect is an analogue of the Ter-Mikaelian effect in QED,
superimposed to the Landau--Pomeranchuk effect,
however it appears in QCD in a different phase space region.
Keywords: Landau-Pomeranchuk effect, gluon radiation, Ter-Mikaelian effect
  • Physics Letters B 477 (2000) 171-177 web: hep-ph

Publ.-Id: 1949 - Permalink

Stability studies on "3+1" mixed-ligand technetium and rhenium complexes
Seifert, S.; Syhre, R.; Gupta, A.; Spies, H.; Johannsen, B.;
The stability and reactivity of "3+1" 99mTc mixed-ligand complexes were investigated in vitro and in vivo in the blood of rats. Surprisingly, in whole blood the complexes, which proved to be stable in saline, PBS of pH 7.4 and mostly in plasma, were converted into more hydrophilic metabolites. Small structural differences in the complex molecule have a profound influence on the rate of metabolism of the complexes. Transchelation reactions with glutathione (GSH) were hypothesized and this hypothesis substantiated by challenge experiments. Structural parameters influencing the stability of the complexes and consequences for the radiopharmaceutical design are discussed.
  • Book (Authorship)
    Technetium, Rhenium and Other Metals in Chemistry and Nuclear Medicine (Edited by Nicolini M., Mazzi U.) SGE Editoriali Padova (1999) pp 687-690

Publ.-Id: 1948 - Permalink

Assessment of the in vitro and in vivo properties of a 99mTc-labeled inhibitor of the multidrug resistant gene product P-glycoprotein.
Bergmann, R.; Brust, P.; Scheunemann, M.; Pietzsch, H.-J.; Seifert, S.; Roux, F.; Johannsen, B.;
Overexpression of the P-glycoprotein (Pgp), present in the plasma membrane of various tumour cells and in several normal cell types contributes to the multiple drug resistance (MDR) phenotype of many human cancers. As an prerequisite for the therapy it is required to study the expression of Pgp. The available clinical radiopharmaceuticals to study the expression of Pgp include the lipophilic 99mTc cations (sestamibi, tetrofosmin) as well as [99mTc]Q57, [99mTc]Q58, and [99mTc]Q63. Here we describe the in vitro and in vivo properties of the structurally different complex (3-thiapentane-1,5-dithiolato){[N-(3-phenylpropyl)-N-2(3-quinazoline-2,4-dionyl)-ethyl]amino-ethylthiolato}oxotechnetium(V) (99/99mTc1) as a potential inhibitor of the Pgp. 99Tc1 enhances the net cell accumulation of the Pgp substrates [3H]vinblastine, [3H]vincristine, [3H]colchicine, [99mTc]sestamibi, [99mTc]tetrofosmin in RBE4 cells, an immortalised endothelial cell line which expresses Pgp. Also, the cell accumulation of 99mTc1 could be increased by verapamil and reserpine as known Pgp inhibitors. A multitracer approach was used to study the side effects of 99Tc1 on cell metabolism. The cells were simultaneously incubated with [99mTc]sestamibi, [18F]FDG and various 3H-labelled tracers. Two-dimensional scatter plots of [99mTc]sestamibi uptake / [18F]FDG uptake show typical changes of known Pgp inhibitors including 99Tc1. Also the effects of the 99Tc1 on the in vivo distribution of [99mTc]sestamibi and [18F]FDG in rats are comparable with the effects of verapamil, an established Pgp inhibitor and Ca-channel blocker.
We conclude that 99/99mTc1 is a transport substrate and a potential inhibitor of the Pgp. Our approach may be useful in the design of further radiotracers with specificity to the Pgp.

Keywords: blood-brain barrier, multidrug resistance, [18F]FDG, [99mTc]sestamibi, [99mTc]tetrofosmin, tumor
  • Nucl. Med. Biol. 27 (2000) 135-141

Publ.-Id: 1947 - Permalink

Präzipitation von SiO2 in Silizium nach einer Sauerstoff-Hochdosisimplantation
Weber, R.;
During ion beam synthesis of compounds in Si a specific redistribution process is responsible for the modification of the implant profile towards a uniform buried compound layer. This process is referred to as Ostwald ripening. Implantation of substoichiometric doses of reactive species leads to structures consisting of two precipitate bands. Investigations done by taking SEM-micrographs on beveled samples reveal that the structuring depends on the implantation conditions. Furthermore splitting of the precipitate band located deeper in the substrate was observed and is seen as an effect of self-organisation. The development of the structures with time depends on the strength of the ripening process taking place parallel and perpendicular to the surface of the substrate. Using methods of spatial statistics the changes in the precipitate configuration according to the different ripening directions become obivous. Unfortunately, there exists no analytical model to describe the precipitation process in systems with inhomogeneous material distribution. Therefore, all the information retained from the experiments serve as an input for simulations to be done and will help to understand the contributions of different physical mechanisms. The results obtained in the course of the present study are described in terms of the formation of a buried oxide layer as a typical example of this kind.
(Unfortunately, the thesis itself is written in german.)
  • Open Access LogoWissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-262 Juni 1999


Publ.-Id: 1946 - Permalink

Quasiparticle description of deconfined matter at finite mu and T
Peshier, A.; Kämpfer, B.;
An effective quasiparticle description of deconfined QCD thermodynamics compatible with both finite temperature nonperturbative lattice data and the asymptotic limit is generalized to finite chemical potential.
Implications for the N f = 4 flavor lattice data extended to mu > 0 as well as for deconfined matter with realistic quark masses are considered.
Keywords: QCD, thermodynamics, quasiparticle
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Proceedings of the ECT* workshop "Understanding Deconfinement in QCD", Trento, March 1-13, 1999

Publ.-Id: 1945 - Permalink

Co/Cu solid solution prepared by ion implantation
Noetzel, J.; Handstein, A.; Mücklich, A.; Prokert, F.; Reuther, H.; Thomas, J.; Wieser, E.; Möller, W.;
A Co/Cu solid solution is prepared by direct implantation of 200 keV Co ions into Cu targets. The maximum concentration at this ion energy is limited to 25 at.% Co due to sputtering. Magnetic measurements show a spin-glass behaviour, as expected for a
solid solution of Co in Cu. At about 630 K the solid solution starts to decompose into
clusters. After heat treatment, the sample shows ferro- and superparamagnetic behaviour, indicating that the size of the clusters is broadly distributed.
Keywords: Co/Cu, impantation, spin-glass, spinodal decomposition
  • Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials, 205 (1999) 177-185

Publ.-Id: 1944 - Permalink

Plume and finger regimes driven by an exothermic interfacial reaction
Eckert, K.; Grahn, A.;
We study the pattern formation in a chemical two-layer system, placed in a Hele-Shaw cell. The upper layer is an organic solvent in which a carboxylic acid is dissolved. The lower layer consists of water containing an inorganic base. We report on a novel instability type which is driven by an exothermic neutralisation reaction in vicinity to the interface. This instability combines plume and finger regimes and gives rise to a self-sustained dynamics.
Keywords: hydrodynamic instability plume regime finger regime interfacial reaction interfacial instability pattern formation
  • Physical Review Letters 82, 31 May 1999, Number22, 4436-4439

Publ.-Id: 1943 - Permalink

Dendrimere: Anwendungsmöglichkeiten in der medizinischen Diagnostik und Therapie
Stephan, H.;
Dendrimere sind aufgrund ihrer Hohlraumfähigkeit und Oberflächenfunktionalität von großem Interesse im Hinblick auf Anwendungen in der Chemie und Medizin. Nutzungen zeichnen sich insbesondere auf den Gebieten medizinische Diagnostik und Therapie ab. Es werden neue Entwicklungen aus diesen Bereichen vorgestellt. Außerdem werden Möglichkeiten der selektiven Bindung und des Phasentransfers am Beispiel von lipophilen Harnstoff-Dendrimeren für Oxoanionen wie Pertechnetat und Nukleotide diskutiert.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Universität Bonn, Institut für Organische Chemie und Biochemie, 14. Juni 1999

Publ.-Id: 1942 - Permalink

Einfluß von Huminsäure auf die Uranyl(VI)-Sorption an Phyllit und seinen mineralischen Bestandteilen
Schmeide, K.; Pompe, S.; Bubner, M.; Heise, K.-H.; Bernhard, G.;
Humin- und Fulvinsäuren, die als organische Materialien in natürlichen Systemen in unterschiedlichen Konzentrationen vorkommen, treten über Komplexbildungsreaktionen mit gelösten radioaktiven und toxischen Schadstoffen, z.B. Uran, in Wechselwirkung. Sie beeinflussen somit deren Sorptionsverhalten an geologischen Materialien und folglich deren Migrationsverhalten in wäßrigen Systemen. Demzufolge ist eine Quantifizierung des Einflusses von Huminstoffen auf die Sorption von radioaktiven Schwermetallen für Risikobetrachtungen notwendig.
Der Einfluß von Huminsäure auf die Uranyl(VI)-Sorption wurde an Phyllit untersucht, das im Westerzgebirge in Sachsen (Deutschland) relativ häufig und zusammen mit Uranablagerungen in den ehemaligen Uran-Bergbaugebieten vorkommt. Als organische Materialien wurden sowohl eine aus dem Hochmoor 'Kleiner Kranichsee' isolierte [1], ortsspezifische Huminsäure (Kranichsee-HS) sowie eine 14C-markierte synthetische Huminsäure (Typ M1) angewandt.

Die Sorption wurde sowohl an Phyllit als auch an seinen mineralischen Bestandteilen Muskovit, Albit und Quarz mittels Batch-Experimenten unter aeroben Bedingungen bei konstanter Ionenstärke (0.1 M, NaClO4) im pH-Bereich 3.5 bis 9.5 untersucht. Die Konzentrationen für Uran und Huminsäure betrugen 1o10-6 mol/L bzw. 5 mg/L. Die Ergebnisse der Uran-Sorption werden mit Uran-Sorptionsdaten [2] verglichen, die in Abwesenheit von Huminsäure erhalten wurden.

Verglichen mit seinen mineralogischen Bestandteilen zeigt Phyllit die höchste Huminsäure-Sorption über den gesamten pH-Bereich. Die Huminsäure-Sorption an Muskovit und Albit ist nur im sauren pH-Bereich hoch, sinkt dann jedoch stark mit steigendem pH-Wert. Die Sorption von Uran an Phyllit wird durch Huminsäure im sauren pH-Bereich vergrößert, jedoch im neutralen pH-Bereich nicht beeinflußt. Dagegen wird die Uran-Sorption an den mineralischen Bestandteilen des Phyllits im neutralen pH-Bereich durch Huminsäure stark verringert. D.h., die Uran- und Hum ...
  • Poster
    Workshop "Radiochemische Analytik beim Betrieb und Rückbau kerntechnischer Anlagen, der Deklaration von Abfällen und im Strahlenschutz" 6.-7.9.99 in Dresden

Publ.-Id: 1941 - Permalink

Kopplung von ATHLET mit dem 3-dimensionalen Coremodell DYN3D
Lucas, D.;
Die Kopplung fortgeschrittener Thermohydraulikprogramme mit dreidimensionalen Neutronenkinetikcodes ordnet sich in das Bestreben ein, konservative Abschätzungen durch "best estimate Rechnungen" zu ersetzen. Der DYN3D-Code wurde im Forschungszentrum Rossendorf für die Analyse von reaktivitätsinduzierten Störfällen in Reaktoren mit hexagonalen Brennelementen entwickelt und beinhaltet neben der 3D-Neutronenkinetik auch Modelle für die Thermohydraulik im Corebereich und für den Wärmeübergang vom Brennstoff zum Kühlmittel. Daher gibt es zwei grundlegende Möglichkeiten für die Realisierung der Kopplung mit dem Thermohydraulikcode ATHLET der Gesellschaft für Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit.
Bei der einen Kopplungsart wird nur der Neutronenkinetikteil von DYN3D an ATHLET angekoppelt (interne Kopplung). Diese Kopplung längs des Cores ist sehr eng und auf Grund der vielen zu übergebenden Parameter mit hohem Programmieraufwand verbunden.
Bei der hier vorgestellten Kopplungsart wird der Corebereich ganz aus dem ATHLET-Anlagenmodell herausgeschnitten und vollständig von DYN3D modelliert (externe Kopplung). Die Schnittstellen sind in diesem Fall der Coreeintritt und -austritt. An diesen Schnittstellen sind nur die Drücke, Massenströme, Enthalpien und Borsäurekonzentrationen zu übergeben. Diese Kopplungsart kann sehr einfach durch Zwischenschaltung einer Interfaceroutine realisiert werden. Sie wird durch das "General Control and Simulation Modul" (GCSM) von ATHLET wirkungsvoll unterstützt. Es sind kaum Veränderungen der einzelnen Programme notwendig. Weiterhin hat sie den Vorteil, daß die aufeinander abgestimmten DYN3D-Modelle auch in dem gekoppelten Programm genutzt werden können.
Die Kopplung wurde explizit realisiert, da eine geschlossene implizite Zeitintegration der thermohydraulischen Gleichungen wie in ATHLET entweder rechenzeitintensive Iterationen zwischen den Programmteilen oder umfangreiche Änderungen der Codes erfordern würde. Die explizite Kopplung beider Progr ...
  • Lecture (Conference)
    3. ATHLET-Anwendertreffen, Garching, Oktober 1994

Publ.-Id: 1939 - Permalink

ATHLET-Rechnungen zum IAEA-Standardproblem SPE-4
Krepper, E.;
The experiment to the IAEA standard problem exercise No. 4 was a 3.2 mm break on the downcomer head. The high pressure injection cooling was assumed to be not available. As an accident management measure, bleed and feed on the secondary side of the steam generator was applied. Research Center Rossendorf contributed to the experiment of SPE-4 by supplying needle shaped conductivity probes for the measurement of local void fractions in the primary circuit of the PMK-II test facility. In the course of the standard problem exercise No. 4 RCR contributed with post-test calculations using the thermalhydraulic code ATHLET.

The calculations showed, that the code was suitable to reproduce the main events of the test. Reasons for some deviations and modelling problems were discussed.
  • Lecture (Conference)
    3. ATHLET-Anwendertreffen, Garching, Oktober 1994

Publ.-Id: 1938 - Permalink

Rhenium and Technetium Complexes with Diphenyl(2-pyridyl)phosphine
Abram, U.; Alberto, R.; Dilworth, J. R.; Zheng, Y.; Ortner, K.;
The potentially bidentate ligand diphenyl(2-pyridyl)phosphine (PPh2py) reacted with (NEt4)2[MI(CO)3X3] complexes (M = Re, Tc) to give (NEt4)[MI(CO)3X2(PPh2py-P)] or [MI(CO)3X(PPh2py-P)2] depending on the amount of the ligand used. The reaction with (NBu4)[TcVINCl4] yielded [TcVNCl2(PPh2py-P)2] whereas from the reaction with (NBu4)[ReOCl4] the complexes [ReVOCl3(PPh2py-P,N)], [ReVOCl3(OPPh2py-O,N)], [ReIVCl4(OPPh2py-O,N) and [ReIVCl3(OH)(OPPh2py-O,N)] have been isolated. Reduction of the metal center occurs using an excess of PPh2py and heating of the reaction mixtures under reflux.
The products have been characterised spectroscopically and by X-ray structure analysis. Monodentate co-ordination via phosphorus has been found for the rhenium(I) carbonyl complexes and [TcVNCl2(PPh2py-P)2]. In the latter compound a trigonal-bipyramidal coordination sphere is formed with the phosphines as axial ligands (bond angle P-Re-P: 161.69(3)°). The chelated complexes show small N-Re-P and N-Re-O bite angles of 63.6° and 77.7 - 82.2° due to the 4-membered or 5-membered chelate rings. The pyridine nitrogen occupies the axial position (trans to "O2-") in [ReOCl3(PPh2py-P,N)] whereas equatorial co-ordination is found in [ReOCl3(OPPh2py-O,N)].
Keywords: Rhenium, Technetium, Diphenylpyridylphosphine, Diphenylpyridylphosphine oxide, X-ray structures
  • Polyhedron 18 (1999) 2995-3005

Publ.-Id: 1937 - Permalink

Unexpected polymeric string formation between Ag(I) and a homoleptic cage: Synthesis and crystal structure of [R,R'-S6tricosane] and {[Ag(R,R'-S6hexacosane)(tos)]}
Alberto, R.; Angst, D.; Abram, U.; Ortner, K.; Kaden, A. T.; Schubiger, P. A.;
The large cavity homoleptic thioether cages [R,R'-S6tricosane] (1-hydroxymethyl-9-methyl-3,7,11,15,18,22-hexathiabicyclo[7.7.7]tricosane) (1) and [R,R'S6hexacosane] (1-hydroxymethyl-10-methyl-3,8,12,17,20,25-hexathiabicyclo[8.8.8]hexacosane) (2) have been synthesized and the structure of 1 and the complex [Ag(2)](tos)¥ been elucitated, the latter one showing a polymeric string with Ag+ coordinating by three different cages.

  • Communication in J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Communications

Publ.-Id: 1936 - Permalink

Nachrechnung eines Abblaseexperimentes mit den thermohydraulischen Störfallprogrammen ATHLET und RELAP
Krepper, E.;
Der Bericht beschreibt Nachrechnungen eines Abblaseexperiments, das vor etwa 10 Jahren am Moskauer Energetischen Institut durchgef|hrt wurde und für das experimentelle Daten des zeitlichen Verlaufes der Druckentlastung im Abblasebehälter und des Dampfgehaltes in verschiedenen Gefäßhöhen vorliegen.
Es wurden die Programme RELAP5/mod2 und ATHLET 1.0 Version E eingesetzt. Wie es sich zeigt, hat die richtige Beschreibung der Zweiphasenströmung an der Ausströmöffnung den größten Einfluß auf die Genauigkeit der Nachrechnung. Hierfür bietet das stationdre 1D-FD-Modell für kritisches Ausströmen des Programms ATHLET die bessere Anpassungsfähigkeit an die gegebenen Versuchsbedingungen.
  • Other report
    FSS 08/92, Mai 1992

Publ.-Id: 1934 - Permalink

Implementierung des thermohydraulischen Störfallcodes ATHLET auf dem Großrechner IBM 3090
Krepper, E.;
  • Other report
    FSS 1/92, Januar 1992

Publ.-Id: 1933 - Permalink

Solarthermie in Sachsen - PC-Datei SOSA
Kaun, K.-H.; Maletti, R.;
  • Open Access LogoHrsg. U. Rindelhardt und R. Maletti, Mitteilungen ERNEUERBARE ENERGIEN; Nr.1, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR 92-12 July 1992


Publ.-Id: 1932 - Permalink

The Code DYN3D/M2 for the Calculation of Rectivity Initiated Transients in Light Water Reactors with Hexagonal Fuel Elements - Code Manual and Input Data Description
Grundmann, U.; Rohde, U.;
  • Open Access LogoForschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR 93-02 FSS - 2/92, March 1992


Publ.-Id: 1931 - Permalink

Vorbeuge gegen nukleare Störfälle durch Fernüberwachung mittel- und osteuropäischer Kernkraftwerke (Nuclear Accident Prevention by Remote Monitoring NAPREM)
Carl, H.; Schumann, P.; Weiß, F.-P.;
  • Book (Authorship)
    Machbarkeitsstudie in 2 Bänden, Hrsg. Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e. V. und E-Systems Inc., Texas, USA, October 1992

Publ.-Id: 1930 - Permalink

Nachbestrahlungsuntersuchungen zum WTZ-Bestrahlungsprogramm Rheinsberg
Böhmert, J.; Viehrig, H.-W.;
  • Open Access LogoArbeitsbericht der WTZ-Projektgruppe "Komponentensicherheit" FZR-Bericht FSN 1/92, Oct. 1992

Publ.-Id: 1929 - Permalink

Zähigkeitsprüfung intermetallischer Phasen - Studie
Bergner, F.;
In der vorliegenden Studie werden Ergebnisse zur Bruchzähigkeit intermetallischer Phasen sowie Erfahrungen bei deren experimentellen Bestimmung aus der Literatur zusammengetragen und diskutiert, ohne dabei Anspruch auf Vollständigkeit zu erheben. Da es für diese Kombination von Prüfaufgabe und Werkstoff bisher kaum gesicherte Erkenntnisse gibt, liegt der Schwerpunkt darauf, bevorzugt angewendete Verfahren herauszuarbeiten und die Gründe für diese Bevorzugung zu machen.
  • Open Access LogoForschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-92-07 May 1992


Publ.-Id: 1928 - Permalink

Nachweis von Kernbehälterbewegungen an WWER-Reaktoren
Weiß, F.-P.;
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Öffentlicher Vortrag im Rahmen des Berufungsverfahrens auf die Direktorenstelle des Institutes für Sicherheitsforschung, Rossendorf, November 1992

Publ.-Id: 1927 - Permalink

Contibution of the Research Center Rossendorf Inc. to the IAEA Coordinated Research Programme "Optimizing of Reactor Pressure Vessel Surveillance Programmes and Their Analysis-Phase 3"
Viehrig, H.-W.; Böhmert, J.; Bergmann, U.; Leonhardt, W.-D.;
  • Lecture (Conference)
    5th Meeting of CRP-Phase III, Balatonfüred / Hungary, September 1992

Publ.-Id: 1926 - Permalink

Monitoring TaSchumann, P.sks and Selection of Operational and Diagnostic Signals for the NAPREM-System
Schumann, P.;
  • Lecture (Conference)
    NAPREM-Meeting (Nuclear Accident Prevention by Remote Monitoring), Greenville / USA, May 1992

Publ.-Id: 1925 - Permalink

Spezielle Signalanalyseverfahren zur Schadensfrüherkennung und Diagnostik an WWER-Druckwasser-Reaktoren
Schumann, P.;
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Oberseminar im Kurt-Risch-Institut für Dynamik, Schall- und Meßtechnik der Technischen Universität Hannover, Hannover / Germany, Februar 1992

Publ.-Id: 1924 - Permalink

Linear Stability of Marangoni-Hartmann Convection
Nitschke, K.; Thess, A.; Gerbeth, G.;
  • Lecture (Conference)
    IUTAM-Symposium on Microgravity Fluid Dynamics, Bremen, September 1992

Publ.-Id: 1923 - Permalink

Investigation of Cross-Flow Induced Tube Bundle Vibration in Heat Exchangers - Interpretation as Synergetic System
Liewers, P.; Schmitt, W.; Weiß, F.-P.;
  • Lecture (Conference)
    IMORN-23 (Informal Meeting on Reactor Noise), Nyköping / Sweden, June 1992

Publ.-Id: 1922 - Permalink

Wirkungsweise und Anwendungsmöglichkeiten einer Plasmaneutronenquelle
Kumpf, H.;
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Technische Universität Dresden, September 1992

Publ.-Id: 1920 - Permalink

Elektromagnetische Umströmungskontrolle in schwach-leitfähigen Flüssigkeiten
Mutschke, G.; Fey, U.; Weier, T.; Avilov, V.; Gerbeth, G.;
Der Bericht gibt einen Überblick über die Arbeiten der Abteilung Magnetohydrodynamik auf dem Gebiet der elektromagnetischen Umströmungskontrolle in schwach-leitfähigen Flüssigkeiten.
Keywords: Magnetohydrodynamik, Fluidmechanik, Strömungskontrolle
  • Contribution to HZDR-Annual report
    Wissenschaftlich-Technische Berichte / Forschungszentrum Rossendorf; FZR-266 1999 Seite 21-28

Publ.-Id: 1919 - Permalink

Nachrechnung eines Abblase-Experimentes mit den thermohydraulischen Störfallprogrammen ATHLET und RELAP
Krepper, E.;
Der Bericht beschreibt Nachrechnungen eines Abblaseexperiments, das vor etwa 10 Jahren am Moskauer Energetischen Institut durchgef|hrt wurde und für das experimentelle Daten des zeitlichen Verlaufes der Druckentlastung im
Abblasebehälter und des Dampfgehaltes in verschiedenen Gefäßhöhen vorliegen.
Es wurden die Programme RELAP5/mod2 und ATHLET 1.0 Version E eingesetzt. Wie es sich zeigt, hat die richtige Beschreibung der Zweiphasenströmung an der
Ausströmöffnung den größten Einfluß auf die Genauigkeit der Nachrechnung.
Hierfür bietet das stationdre 1D-FD-Modell für kritisches Ausströmen des
Programms ATHLET die bessere Anpassungsfähigkeit an die gegebenen
  • Lecture (Conference)
    1. ATHLET-Anwenderseminar, GRS Garching, Mai 1992

Publ.-Id: 1918 - Permalink

Magnetohydrodynamic Flow Around a Circular Cylinder
Gerbeth, G.; Alemany, A.;
  • Lecture (Conference)
    IUTAM Symposium, Göttingen, September 1992

Publ.-Id: 1917 - Permalink

NAPREM-Architecture and Tasks of its Elements
Carl, H.;
  • Lecture (Conference)
    NAPREM-Meeting (Nuclear Accident Prevention by Remote Monitoring), Greenville / USA, May 1992

Publ.-Id: 1916 - Permalink

Overview of VVER-Reactor Design
Carl, H.; Schumann, P.; Weiß, F.-P.;
  • Lecture (Conference)
    NAPREM-Meeting (Nuclear Accident Prevention by Remote Monitoring), Greenville / USA, May 1992

Publ.-Id: 1915 - Permalink

Bubble detection in liquid metals
Block, F. R.; Dittmer, R.; Gerbeth, G.;
  • Lecture (Conference)
    International Conference on "MHD Processes to Protection of Environment", Kiev / Ukraine, June 1992

Publ.-Id: 1914 - Permalink

Experimental Investigationand Numerical Simulation of Control Element Behaviour During Abnormal Core Barrel Motion at VVER-440 Type Reactors
Altstadt, E.; Weiß, F.-P.;
  • Lecture (Conference)
    IMORN-23 (Informal Meeting on Reactor Noise), Nyköping / Sweden, June 1992

Publ.-Id: 1913 - Permalink

Safety Research at Eastern Germany's Rossendorf Center.
Weiß, F.-P.;
  • Nuclear Europe Worldscan, Journal of ENS, Topform'92 Czechoslovakia (1992) 9/10, p. 87

Publ.-Id: 1912 - Permalink

Investigation on the Installation and the Installation and the Bonding Behaviour of Oxygen Atoms in the Yba2 Cu30 O(X-7) Lattice
Schuster, G.; Große, M.; Teske, K.; Anwand, W.; Henkel, K.; Nicht, E.-M.;
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Proc. 4th European Conference on Solid State Chemistry, Dresden, September 1992

Publ.-Id: 1911 - Permalink

Neutronographische Untersuchungen zur Temperaturabhängigkeit der Besetzung der Sauerstoffpositionen in der YBa2 Cu30 O(x-7) - Elemtarzelle
Schuster, G.; Große, M.;
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Proc. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Kristallwachstum und Kristallzüchtung, Dresden, March 1992

Publ.-Id: 1910 - Permalink

Modelling of Fuel Rod Behavior and Heat Transfer in the Code FLOCAL for Reactivity Accident Analysis of Reactor Cores
Rohde, U.;
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Proceedings of the First Baltic Heat Transfer Conference (Gothenburg, Sweden, August 1991)
  • Transport Processes in Engineering 2: Recent Advances in Heat Transfer, Elsevier Publ., Amsterdam, 1992, p. 1214 - 1228

Publ.-Id: 1909 - Permalink

Linear Stability of Marangoni-Hartmann Convection
Nitschke, K.; Thess, A.; Gerbeth, G.;
  • Book (Authorship)
    Ed. H. J. Rath: Microgravity Fluid Dynamics, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, Springer 1992, p. 285 - 296

Publ.-Id: 1907 - Permalink

Systematic Analysis of Noisy Signals in the Nuclear Reactor Noise Diagnosis of Abnormal Core Barrel Motion
Liewers, P.; Schmitt, W.; Schumann, P.; Weiß, F.-P.;
  • Lecture (Conference)
    Proc. of the 5th Symposium IMECO TC-10, Dresden, September 1992
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Proc. of the 5th Symposium IMECO TC-10, Dresden, September 1992

Publ.-Id: 1906 - Permalink

The Dynamic Calibration Problems in Instrumented Impact Testing
Lenkey, G. B.; Major, Z.; Viehrig, H.-W.;
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Proc. 9th Biennial European Conference on Fracture (EFC 9), Varna / Bulgaria, September 1992

Publ.-Id: 1905 - Permalink

Improved Techniques of Analog and Digital Dynamic Compensation for Delayed Self-Powered Neutron Detectors
Hoppe, D.; Maletti, R.;
Practical application of dynamic perturbation measurements for on-power determination of important parameters of nuclear reactors by means of delayed reacting neutron detectors is only possible, if a correction method is given to measure the time-dependent neutron flux behaviour without delay and with high accuracy. An improved model of dynamic signal compensation is presented and illustrated by examples of analog and digital correction methods.
Knowing the transfer function of the neutron detector, it is possible to invert a dynamic (prompt jump response) system by transforming the output equation of the state equation system to the input. An analog circuit corresponding this inverse detector kinetics was developed. On the other hand a recursive digital algorithm of high computational speed and accuracy with regard to real-time processing was found.
The improved analog and digital dynamic compensation methods were developed and used in German and Hungarian nuclear power plants with pressurized water reactors of VVER type. By means of the named correction methods the time- and space-dependent neutron flux behaviour during power changes or reactivity perturbations was followed to estimate reactivity coefficients like differential control rod worths or power coefficient.
  • Nuclear Science and Engineering 111 (1992), p. 433

Publ.-Id: 1904 - Permalink

Temperaturtransiente Kriech-Berst-Versuche an ZrNb1-Hüllrohren - Vergleich zu Zircaloy-4-Hüllrohren
Häusler, R.; Böhmert, J.; Erbacher, F. J.; Lübke, L.; Schmidt, H.; Wetzel, L.;
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Proc. Jahrestagung Kerntechnik 1992, Karlsruhe, Mai 1992

Publ.-Id: 1903 - Permalink

Integral Test of FPND by Reactivity Measurements in Reactor Configurations with Specially Designed Adjoint Spectra
Dietze, K.;
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Proc. Specialists Meeting on FPND, in Report JAERI, Tokai-Mura / Japan, May 1992

Publ.-Id: 1902 - Permalink

Neutron Data Check by Sample Reactivity Measurements in Reactor Configurations with Specially Designed Neutronic Properties
Dietze, K.; Hüttel, G.; Lehmann, E.;
  • Progress Report on Nuclear Data Research in the F.R. of Germany, NEANDC-Report, 1992

Publ.-Id: 1901 - Permalink

Embrittlement of ZrNb1 at Room Temperature after High-Temperature Oxidation in Steam Atmosphere
Böhmert, J.;
The ductility of ZrNb1 claddings after exposure to steam between 700 and 1000 °C was determined by ring compression tests at room temperature and compared with the ductility behaviour of Zircaloy. The ductility of ZrNb1 is quickly reduced by steam exposure. Complete embrittlement of ZrNb1 is reached at a relative equivalent oxide-layer thickness of 5 %, in contrast to Zircaloy, where a relative thickness of 17 % is necessary to produce complete embrittlement. The different behaviour of the two alloys is caused by higher oxygen uptake and a more homogeneous oxygen distribution in ZrNb1 after cooling. Between 950 and 1000 °C, there is an additional effect of high hydrogen absorption. Validity of the 17 % criterion for ZrNb1 can no longer be taken for granted in view of these experimental findings.
  • Kerntechnik 57 (1992), No. 1, 55-58

Publ.-Id: 1899 - Permalink

Bubble Detection in Liquid Metals
Block, F. R.; Dittmer, R.; Gerbeth, G.;
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Proc. International Conference on "MHD Processes to Protection of Environment", Kiev / Ukraine, June 1992

Publ.-Id: 1898 - Permalink

Calculation of Neutron Fluence in the Region of the Pressure Vessel for the History of Different Reactors by Using the Monte-Carlo-Method
Barz, U.; Bertram, W.;
  • Nuclear Engineering and Design 137 (1992), 71

Publ.-Id: 1897 - Permalink

Konzeption zur Ausgestaltung des technischen Systems für das BMU-Projekt "Spezifikation Fernübertragung Saporoshje"
Zschau, J.;
In the report the boundary conditions and the resulting technical possibilities are described for the construction of a technical system for remote monitoring of the nuclear power plant Zaporosh`ye, unit 5, available for the supervision by the state regulatory body. The general structure of the system and especially different technical solutions for the remote data transfer are discussed in more detail.
  • Other report
    Fachbericht FWSF-20/93, Juni 1993

Publ.-Id: 1895 - Permalink

Untersuchungen zum Zylindernachlauf im MHD-Fall
Weier, T.;
In der Arbeit wird experimentell und theoretisch die Frage behandelt, wie ein externes longitudinales Magnetfeld die Stabilität des Zylinder-Nachlaufs (Karmansche Wirbelstraße) beeinflußt. Die Messungen wurden am Quecksilber-Versuchsstand des IMG Grenoble durchgeführt. Die Unterdrückung der Wirbel-straße wurde vom theoretischen Modell vorhergesagt und im Experiment verifiziert. Überraschend wurde sowohl vom Modell als auch im Experiment die Tendenz zu langwelligen Störungen gefunden, die bei wachsendem Magnetfeld immer ausgeprägter werden.
  • Other report
    Diplomarbeit Universität Halle-Wittenberg, November 1993 (Betreuer: G. Gerbeth)

Publ.-Id: 1894 - Permalink

Vorläufige Meßstellenliste technologischer Parameter für das behördliche Überwachungssystem des GosAtomNadsor am KKW Saporoshje, Block 5
Beyer, M.; Carl, H.; Langer, L.; Schumann, P.; Seidel, A.; Zschau, J.;
In order to improve operational surveillance of a WWER-1000 unit of the Ukrainian nuclear power plant Zaporozh`ye a technical monitoring system has been specified. The system shall enable the state regulatory and supervisory bodies to survey the unit operation independently of operators, to assess its safety status, and to impose appopriate conditions. Based on the definition of safety functions and control tasks 49 different technological parameters are investigated and selected for monitoring. Technical specifications of these parameters at NPP Zaporozh`ye and derived alerts by crossing operational threshold values of single parameters and/or parameter combinations are described in the report.
  • Other report
    Fachbericht FWSF-19/93, September 1993

Publ.-Id: 1893 - Permalink

Aufbau eines technischen Systems zur Verbesserung der betrieblichen Überwachung der KKW durch die staatlichen Aufsichtsbehörden (Saporoshje)
Beyer, M.; Carl, H.; Langer, L.; Schumann, P.; Seidel, A.; Zschau, J.; Nowak, K.; Tolksdorf, P.;
In order to improve operational surveillance of a WWER-1000 unit of the Ukrainian nuclear power plant Saporoshje a technical monitoring system has been specified. The system shall enable the state regulatory and supervisory bodies to survey the unit operation independently of operators, to assess its safety status, and to impose appropriate conditions. By its up-to-date configuration the system provides early indication of any operational incident and emission of radioactive materials connected. Based on the system an immediate warning in emergency situations is possible as well as an effective emergency management. For this purpose 49 operational parameters of the unit, 18 radiological parameters of the unit and the plant site and 6 meteorological parameters are monitored. The costs of establishing the technical system in its minimal size are estimated to about 1.3 Million DM (without expenses for installation of the system and of the data networks). Additionally about 650 000 DM are required for most necessary backfitting of measuring channels. Including another unit into the monitoring system implies further costs of about 200 000 DM.
  • Other report
    Abschlußbericht im Rahmen eines BMU-Projektes in 3 Teilen: Kurzfassung, Anlage A: Textteil, Anlage B: Materialsammlung, Rossendorf; Köln, Dezember 1993

Publ.-Id: 1892 - Permalink

Measurement of Dynamic Elastic-Plastic Fracture Toughness Parameters Using Various Methods
Viehrig, H.-W.; Popp, K.; Rintamaa, R.;
Two improved impact testing facilities are used for the dynamic fracture toughness evaluation of precracked Charpy V-notch specimens. The methods of single specimen acoustic emission and crack mouth opening displacement testing are assumed to indicate the initiation points of stable crack growth. Thus, the dynamic ductile initiation J integral JId can be derived. It was shown that the toughness JId of the heat-resistant steel 10CrMo9.10 cannot be approximated by the J value at the maximum of the load deflection curve.
  • Int. J. Pres. Ves. and Piping 5 (1993), p. 233 - 241

Publ.-Id: 1891 - Permalink

Electromgnetically Induced Flow Around a Cylinder
Thess, A.; Gerbeth, G.; Marty, P.;
The unidirectional flow of an electrically conducting fluid around a cylinder of arbitrary electrical conductivity, which is driven by the interaction of a homogeneous electric current with a homogeneous magnetic field and the resulting force on the cylinder are calculated numerically without any approximation in a large range of parameters. Asymptotic solutions are derived for the case of very strong and very weak magnetic fields respectively. A comparison with experimental results on insulating and highly conducting cylinders leads to a partial agreement although inertial forces are not taken into account in the model. Finally, confinement effects are considered leading to a better agreement between theory and experiment.
  • Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, Ed. H. Branover, Y. Unger, Washington 148 (1993), S. 535 - 550

Publ.-Id: 1890 - Permalink

Conductivity Probes for Two-Phase Flow Pattern Determination During Emergency Core Cooling (EEC) Injection Experiments at the COCO Facility (PHDR)
Prasser, H.-M.; Küppers, L.; Mai, M.;
Within the frame of the PHDR reactor safety research programme a large series of emergency core cooling injection tests was performed. The tests aimed at the study of the flow structure in the main circulation pipe and the heat exchange between the injected subcooled water and the saturated steam originating from the reactor, a KONVOI type PWR. They were carried out at the COCO facility (COntact COndensation). The paper deals with the results from hot leg injection tests obtained by the needle shaped conductivity probes developed in Rossendorf. Eight probes were placed at different positions around the injection nozzle. In KONVOI PWRs a special feature is used for the injection, the so called "Hutze", which is a cylindrical half-shell welded to the bottom of the circulation pipe and directing the water towards the reactor vessel against the steam flow. The probes provided very clearly readable data about the flow structure in a high time resolution. The flow regime was characterized in the cases of stratified flow (counter-current and co-current), complete flow revers and intermittent flow revers with plug formation. Additionally, in several cases the flow velocity was measured by means of cross correlation techniques.
  • Contribution to proceedings
    Held on: OECD (NEA) CSNI SPECIALIST MEETING ON INSTRUMENTATION TO MANAGE SERVERE ACCIDENTS GRS, Cologne, Germany, 16th - 17th March 1992, Proceedings of the 1. OECD (NEA) CSNI-Specialist Meeting o ...

Publ.-Id: 1888 - Permalink

Irradiation and Annealing Behaviour of 15Kh2MFA Reactor Pressure Vessel Steel
Popp, K.; Bergmann, U.; Bergner, F.; Hampe, E.; Leonhardt, W.-D.; Schützler, H.-P.; Viehrig, H.-W.;
Usually the assessment of the irradiation sensitivity and annealing behavior of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels is performed by means of destructive test methods, mainly impact and tension tests. In this paper a new kind of search for an efficient temperature-time regime for postirradiation thermal heat treatment is presented using nondestructive test methods like positron annihilation (Doppler broadening parameter S) and hardness (Vickers hardness HV 10).
Samples of Cr-Mo-V RPV steels (Soviet type 15Kh2MFA) were irradiated to different fluence levels of fast neutrons at temperatures T < 156 °C in a test reactor (base metal) and T = 265 °C in a pressurized water reactor (base as well as weld metal). From isochronal and isothermal annealing curves of HV 10 and S, favorable temperature-time regimes for each type of irradiated material were estimated. The data obtained from tension and impact tests indicate that sufficiently large recoveries took place by application of these regimes.
The new approach presented is especially useful in such cases where only the smallest amounts of irradiated materials are available-a case often met for RPV surveillance specimens.
  • Other report
    in L.E. Steele (ed.): Radiation Embrittlement of Nuclear Reactor Pressure Vessel Steels: An International Review, ASTM-STP 1170, Philadelphia, 1993, pp. 344 - 368, Vol. 4

Publ.-Id: 1887 - Permalink

Remarks About the Thermal Use of Solar Energy in Saxonia
Maletti, R.;
By the installation of more than 400 modern solar thermal collector plants with a summarized collector area of about 3000 m2 a remarkable entry in the thermal use of solar energy was reached in Saxonia in 1992. Simultaneously a network of little enterprises came into existence, which now work actively in the field of energy and environmental techniques. This development was essentially supported by the Saxonian promotion programme of rational use and application of renewable sources of energy.
  • Energieanwendung/Energie- und Umwelttechnik 42 (1993), S. 578

Publ.-Id: 1886 - Permalink

MHD Flow Around a Cylinder in a Aligned Magnetic Field
Josserand, J.; Marty, P.; Alemany, A.; Gerbeth, G.;
Recent results on the study of a liquid metal flow around an insulating cylinder with constant aligned magnetic field are presented. From the experimental point of view, a special type of differential pressure transducer using strain gauges is described. The results obtained with mercury as liquid metal are presented for an interaction parameter N ranging from O to approximately 8. The stabilizing effect of the magnetic field on the boundary layer separation is shown. Pressure distribution around the cylinder as well as the overall pressure drag coefficient CD are given for different values of N. The last section presents analytical calculations of the flow distribution of an inviscid fluid when N << 1. The theoretical results are in good agreement with these experimental results.
  • Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, Ed. H. Branover, Y. Unger, Washington 148 (1993), S. 519 - 534

Publ.-Id: 1885 - Permalink

Recent Developments of Liquid Metal MHD Thermoacoustic Engines
Hamann, D.; Gerbeth, G.;
A literature review on thermoacoustic engines (TAEs), with particular emphasis on liquid metal MHD TAEs is presented. The main aim of this paper is to draw the attention and the interest of the international MHD community to these new developments since it has only been discussed in the literature on acoustics.
TAEs provide a new way to convert heat to mechanical energy, or more strictly speaking, to acoustic power. They have an efficiency comparable to existing techniques but with the possibility of increasing reliability because there are no moving parts. TAEs utilize heat flow from a high-temperature source to a low-temperature sink to generate acoustic power in the form of high-amplitude sound waves in liquid sodium. Since acoustic power is inconvenient in most situations, a power transducer is required to convert acoustic power into an electric one. Though there are a number of converter mechanisms, the magnetohydrodynamic one is particularly suited for sound waves in liquid metals. A magnetic field perpendicular to the direction of sound propagation is applied to the center of the resonator, in which the sound has been generated. There are electrodes in the sodium that form an electric current path perpendicular to both magnetic field and sound velocity.
  • Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, Ed. H. Branover, Y. Unger, Washington 148 (1993), S. 441 - 455

Publ.-Id: 1884 - Permalink

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